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Connecting and Communication Online

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Objectives Overview

Describe the purpose


Briefly describe
Discuss the evolution of an IP address and
various broadband
of the Internet its relationship to a
Internet connections
domain name

Describe features of
Describe ways to
browsers and identify
compose effective
the components of a
search text
web address

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for Detailed Objectives or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Objectives Overview

Explain how the web


Explain benefits and Describe uses of uses graphics,
risks of using online various types of animation, audio,
social networks websites video, and virtual
reality

Explain how email,


email lists, instant
Identify the rules of
messaging, chat rooms,
netiquette
online discussions, VoIP,
and FTP work

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for Detailed Objectives or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
The Internet

• The Internet is a
worldwide collection of
networks that connects
millions of businesses,
government agencies,
educational institutions,
and individuals

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Pages 56 - 57 4
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-1
The Internet

• The Internet originated as ARPANET in September


1969 and had two main goals:
Allow scientists at
Function even if part of
different physical
the network were
locations to share
disabled or destroyed
information and work
by a disaster
together

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
The Internet

1969 ARPANET Today Millions of


becomes hosts connect to
functional the Internet

1984 ARPANET
has more than
1,000 individual
computers
linked as hosts
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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Connecting to the Internet

• With wired connections, a computer or device


physically attaches via a cable or wire to a
communications device
• Computers without a communications device can
use a wireless modem or other communications
device that enables wireless connectivity

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Connecting to the Internet

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-2
Connecting to the Internet

Wired Wireless

• Cable Internet • Wi-Fi (wireless


service fidelity)
• DSL (digital • Mobile broadband
subscriber line) • Fixed wireless
• Fiber to the • Satellite Internet
Premises (FTTP) Service
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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Connecting to the Internet

• A hot spot is a wireless network that provides Internet


connections to mobile computers and devices

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-3
Connecting to the Internet

• An Internet service provider (ISP) is a business


that provides individuals and organizations access
to the Internet free or for a fee
• Bandwidth represents the amount of data that
travels over a network
– Megabyte (MB)
– Gigabyte (GB)

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Connecting to the Internet

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-4
Connecting to the Internet

• An IP address is a sequence of numbers that uniquely


identifies each computer or device connected to the
Internet
• A domain name is a text-based name that corresponds to
the IP address
• A DNS server translates the domain name into its
associated IP address

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-5
Connecting to the Internet

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Table 2-3
Connecting to the Internet

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Figure 2-6
The World Wide Web

• The World Wide Web (WWW), or web, consists of a


worldwide collection of electronic documents
(webpages)
• A website is a collection of related webpages and
associated items
• A web server is a computer that delivers requested
webpages to your computer
• Web 2.0 refers to websites that provide a means for
users to share personal information, allow users to
modify website content, and provide applications
through a browser
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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
The World Wide Web

• A browser is an application
that enables users with an
Internet connection to
access and view webpages
on a computer or mobile
device
• A home page is the first
page that a website
displays
• Current browsers typically
support tabbed browsing

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Figure 2-7 or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The World Wide Web

• A webpage has a unique address, called a web


address or URL

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-8
The World Wide Web

• A web app is an application stored on a web


server that you access through a browser
– Web app hosts usually provide storage for users’ data
and information on their servers, known as cloud
storage

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-9
Types of Websites

• A web search engine is software that finds


websites, webpages, images, videos, news, maps,
and other information related to a specific topic
• A subject directory classifies webpages in an
organized set of categories, such as sports or
shopping, and related subcategories

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Types of Websites

• Search operators can help to refine your search

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Table 2-4
Types of Websites

• There are several types of websites

Online social Informational


Search engine
network and research

News, weather,
Media sharing Bookmarking sports, and other
mass media

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Types of Websites

Business,
Educational governmental, and Blogs
organizational

Wiki and
Health and fitness Science
collaboration

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Types of Websites

Banking and Travel and


Entertainment
finance tourism

Retail and
Mapping
auctions

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Types of Websites

Careers and
E-commerce Portals
employment

Website
Content
creation and
aggregation
management

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Types of Websites

• Web publishing is the creation and maintenance


of websites

Design Create Maintain


Plan the Host the
the the the
website website
website website website

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Digital Media on the Web

• Multimedia refers to any application that


combines text with media

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Digital Media on the Web

• A graphic is a visual
representation of
nontext information
• Graphic formats include
BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG,
and TIFF

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Figure 2-22 or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Digital Media on the Web

• An infographic is a
visual representation of
data and information,
designed to
communicate quickly,
simplify complex
concepts, or present
patterns or trends

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-23
Digital Media on the Web

• Animation is the appearance of motion created by


displaying a series of still images in sequence

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Digital Media on the Web

• Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound


– Compressed to reduce file size
• You listen to audio on your computer using a media
player

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-24
Digital Media on the Web

• Video consists of images displayed in motion


• Virtual reality (VR) is the use of computers to simulate a
real or imagined environment that appears as a three-
dimensional space

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-25
Digital Media on the Web

A plug-in, or add-on, is a
program that extends
the capability of a
browser
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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Other Internet Services

• Email is the
transmission of
messages and files via a
computer network
• An email program
allows you to create,
send, receive, forward,
store, print, and delete
email messages

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Other Internet Services

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Figure 2-26
Other Internet Services

• An email list is a group of email addresses used for mass


distribution of a message

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Figure 2-27
Other Internet Services

• Instant messaging services notify you when one


or more of your established contacts are online
and then allows you to exchange messages or files
or join a private chat room with them

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Figure 2-28
Other Internet Services

• A chat is a real-time
typed conversation that
takes place on a
computer or mobile
device with many other
online users
• A chat room is a website
or application that
permits users to chat with
others who are online at
the same time

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-29
Other Internet Services

• An online discussion is an online area in which


users have written discussions about a particular
subject

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 2-30
Other Internet Services

• VoIP (Voice over IP) enables users to speak to other


users via their Internet connection

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Other Internet Services

• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet standard


that permits file uploading and downloading to
and from other computers on the Internet
• Many operating systems include FTP capabilities
• An FTP server is a computer that allows users to
upload and/or download files using FTP

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Netiquette

• Netiquette is the code of acceptable Internet


behavior

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Figure 2-31
Chapter Summary

Various types
Evolution of
The web of websites
the Internet
and media

Other services
available on Netiquette
the Internet

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website,
Communicating Digital Content

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Objectives Overview

Discuss the purpose of the


components required for Differentiate between
Differentiate among LANs,
successful communications client/server and peer-to-
MANs, WANs, and PANs
and identify various sending peer networks
and receiving devices

Describe the various


Explain the purpose of
network communications
communications software
standards and protocols

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for Detailed Objectives in whole or in part.
Objectives Overview

Describe various Describe Discuss different


types of commonly used ways to set up and
communications communications configure a home
lines devices network

Differentiate Differentiate
among physical among wireless
transmission transmission
media media

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for Detailed Objectives in whole or in part.
Communications

• Digital communications describes a process in


which two or more computers or devices transfer
data, instructions, and information

Sending Transmission Receiving


device media device

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in whole or in part.
Communications

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Figure 10-1 in whole or in part.
Networks

• A network is a collection of computers and


devices connected together via communications
devices and transmission media
• Advantages of a network include:
Facilitating Sharing Sharing data and
communications hardware information

Transferring
Sharing software
funds

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in whole or in part.
Networks

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Figure 10-2 in whole or in part.
Networks

• A local area network


(LAN) is a network that
connects computers
and devices in a limited
geographical area
• A wireless LAN (WLAN)
is a LAN that uses no
physical wires

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Figures 10-3 – 10-4 or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Networks

• A metropolitan area network (MAN) connects LANs in


a metropolitan area
• A wide area network (WAN)
is a network that covers a
large geographic area
• A personal area network
(PAN) is a network that
connects computers and
devices in an individual’s
workspace with wired and
wireless technology
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Figure 10-5 in whole or in part.
Networks

• The configuration of computers, devices, and media on a


network is sometimes called the network architecture
Client/server network Peer-to-peer network

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Figures 10-6 – 10-7 in whole or in part.
Communications Software

• Communications software consists of programs


and apps that:
Help users establish a Manage the
connection to another transmission of data,
computer, mobile instructions, and
device, or network information

Provide an interface
for users to
communicate with one
another

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in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols

Token
Ethernet TCP/IP Wi-Fi
ring

Bluetooth UWB IrDA RFID

NFC LTE

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in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols

Ethernet is a network standard that specifies no central


computer or device on the network (nodes) should control
when data can be transmitted

The token ring standard specifies that computers and devices


on the network share or pass a special signal (token)

TCP/IP is a network protocol that defines how messages (data)


are routed from one end of a network to another

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in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols

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Figure 10-8 in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols
• Wi-Fi identifies any network based on the 802.11 standard that specifies
how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other
• LTE is a network standard that defines how high-speed cellular
transmissions use broadcast radio to transmit data for mobile
communications
• Bluetooth is a network protocol that defines how two Bluetooth devices
use short-range radio waves to transmit data
• UWB (ultra-wideband) is a network standard that specifies how two
UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high
speeds with each other
• IrDA transmits data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves
• RFID is a protocol that defines how a network uses radio signals to
communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or
a person

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in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols

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Figure 10-9 in whole or in part.
Network Communications Standards
and Protocols
• NFC (near field communication) is a protocol, based on RFID, that
defines how a network uses close-range radio signals to
communicate between two devices or objects equipped with NFC
technology

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Figure 10-10 in whole or in part.
Communications Lines

Dedicated
Cable DSL
line

ISDN FTTP T-Carrier

ATM
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in whole or in part.
Communications Lines

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Table 10-2 in whole or in part.
Communications Lines

• ADSL is a type of DSL that supports faster


downstream rates than upstream rates

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Figure 10-11 in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A communications device is any type of hardware


capable of transmitting data, instructions, and
information between a sending device and a
receiving device

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in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A broadband modem sends and receives data and


information to and from a digital line

Cable DSL
modem modem

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in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

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Figure 10-12 in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A wireless modem uses a mobile phone provider’s


network to connect to the Internet wirelessly
from a computer or mobile device

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Figure 10-13 in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A wireless access point (WAP) is a central communications device


that allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly
among themselves or to a wired network

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Figure 10-14 in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A router connects
multiple computers or
other routers together
and transmits data to its
correct destination on a
network

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10-15
Communications Devices

• Some routers provide additional functionality:


– Wireless router
– Broadband router
– Broadband wireless
router
– Mobile broadband
wireless router

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Figure 10-16 in whole or in part.
Communications Devices

• A network card enables a computer or device that


does not have built-in networking capability to
access a network
• Available in a variety of styles

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10-17
Communications Devices

• A hub or switch is a device that provides a central


point for cables in a network

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Figure 10-18 in whole or in part.
Home Networks

• Many home users connect multiple computers


and devices together in a home network

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in whole or in part.
Transmission Media
• Transmission media carries one
or more communications signals
• Broadband media transmit
multiple signals simultaneously
• The amount of data,
instructions, and information
that can travel over
transmission media sometimes
is called the bandwidth
• Latency is the time it takes a
signal to travel from one
location to another on a
network

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10-19
Physical Transmission Media

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Table 10-3 in whole or in part.
Physical Transmission Media
Twisted-pair cable

Fiber-optic cable

Coaxial cable

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Figures 10-20 – 10-22 in whole or in part.
Wireless Transmission Media

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Table 10-4 in whole or in part.
Wireless Transmission Media

• Broadcast radio is a
wireless transmission
medium that distributes
radio signals through
the air over long
distances
• Cellular radio is a form
of broadcast radio that
is in wide use for mobile
communications
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Figure 10-23 78
or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Wireless Transmission Media

• Microwaves are radio waves that provide a high-


speed signal transmission

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Figure 10-24 in whole or in part.
Wireless Transmission Media

• A communications
satellite is a space
station that receives
microwave signals from
an earth-based station,
amplifies it, and
broadcasts the signal
over a wide area to any
number of earth-based
stations

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or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10-25
Wireless Transmission Media

• A GPS (global positioning system) is a navigation


system that consists of one or more earth-based
receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by
satellites in order to determine the receiver’s
geographical location

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in whole or in part.
Wireless Transmission Media

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Figure 10-26 in whole or in part.
Summary

Various types of
Networks and
network architectures Communications
communications
and standards and software
technologies
protocols

Several types of Variety of physical


communications lines How to create a home transmission media
and communications network and wireless
devices transmission media

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in whole or in part.