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HOW THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER RELATE

TO THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURE


THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
HOW THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER RELATE TO THEIR
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
Learning Competencies 15 to 22

The Structure and Properties of Matter


1. The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure
2. The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity
3. Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
4. The Properties of a Substance as Effect of Intermolecular Forces of
Attraction
5. The Uses of Different Materials According to Their Properties and
Structures: Medical Implants
6. The Uses of Different Materials According to Their Properties and
Structures: Sports Equipment
7. The Uses of Different Materials According to Their Properties and
Structures: Electronic Devices
8. The Uses of Different Materials According to Their Properties and
Structures: Construction Supplies
9. The Uses of Different Materials According to Their Properties and
Structures: Household Gadgets
10. The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Polarity
Polarity means having dipoles, a positive and a negative end. Based
on polarity, molecules can be polar or nonpolar.
Polar molecules have dipoles. Their dipole moments do not add
up to zero (or do not cancel out). Water and carbon monoxide
are examples of polar molecules.
Nonpolar molecules do not have positive or negative ends.
Their dipole moments add up to zero (they cancel out). Carbon
tetrachloride and methane are examples of nonpolar molecules.
Generally, you can tell if a molecule is polar or nonpolar based on:
a) its structure or shape, and b) the polarity of the individual
bonds present in the molecule
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Steps in Determining the Polarity of a Molecule


1. Draw the correct Lewis structure and molecular geometry of the
molecule.
2. Identify the polarity of each bond present in the molecule. A bond is
polar when the atoms in the bond have different electronegativities.
Recall that electronegativity is the measure of the tendency of an
atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. (You may use the periodic
table to determine the electronegativity values of the atoms.)
3. Draw the dipole moment vectors for polar bonds. The dipole moment
vector points to the more electronegative atom.
4. Determine the sum of the dipole moment vectors. If the dipole
moments cancel out each other, the molecule is nonpolar; otherwise,
it is polar.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Steps in Determining the Polarity of a Molecule


Example: Carbon dioxide (CO2)
1. Correct Lewis structure and geometry:

2. Oxygen is more electronegative than carbon.


Therefore, the C—O bonds are polar.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Steps in Determining the Polarity of a Molecule


Example: Carbon dioxide (CO2)
3. Since CO2 has a linear symmetrical structure, the dipole
moments of the C—O bonds cancel out. CO2 is a nonpolar
molecule.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Steps in Determining the Polarity of a Molecule


Example: Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
1. Correct Lewis structure and geometry:

2. Oxygen is more electronegative than sulfur.


Therefore, the S—O bonds are polar.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Steps in Determining the Polarity of a Molecule


Example: Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
3. Since the molecule is bent-shaped, the dipole moments do not
cancel out. SO2 is a polar molecule.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Polarity of a Molecule Based on Its Structure

Try it!
Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless gas. A solution of ammonia in water
is used as a cleaning agent. Determine if ammonia is polar or
nonpolar.

Note that the shape or structure does not directly determine


whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar. However, you need to
know the shape of the molecule to know if the dipole moments
cancel out.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

The properties of the molecules are related to their polarity. To


understand the relationship, you must be able to describe the force
of attraction between the molecules.
Polar molecules have partially positive and negative ends. When
two polar molecules are near each other, the negative end of one
molecule is attracted to the positive end of the other. The
separation of charges result in a strong force of attraction between
the molecules.
On the other hand, nonpolar molecules do not have positive or
negative ends. Between two neighboring nonpolar molecules, the
attraction is very minimal.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Solubility (“like dissolves like”)


Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. For example, sucrose is
soluble in water because both of them are polar molecules. On the
other hand, nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. For
example, hexane (C6H14) and benzene (C6H6) are nonpolar
molecules because they only contain nonpolar C-H bonds. The
combination of these molecules form a solution.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Melting point
Melting point is the temperature at which a solid turns into liquid.
Heat is needed to break the forces of attraction between the
molecules. Because the polar molecules have relatively stronger
forces of attraction compared to nonpolar ones, greater amount of
heat must be applied to break these forces.
In general, polar molecules have higher melting points than nonpolar
molecules. For example, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is polar while
fluorine (F2) is nonpolar. HF has higher melting point than F2.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Boiling point
Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid turns into gas.
Similar to melting point, greater amount of heat is needed to break
the forces of attraction of polar molecules compared to nonpolar
ones. Generally, polar molecules have higher boiling points than
nonpolar molecules.
For example, methanol (CH3OH) is a polar molecule while methane
(CH4) is nonpolar.The boiling of CH3OH is higher than that of CH4.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Comparing a polar and a nonpolar molecule


Water molecules are polar. The partially negative end of one
molecule is attracted to the partially positive end of another
molecule.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Comparing a polar and a nonpolar molecule


Carbon dioxide molecules are nonpolar. There is a minimal force of
attraction between the molecules.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Molecule Based on Its Polarity

Comparing a polar and a nonpolar molecule


Based on the interaction of molecules, water is expected to have
higher melting and boiling points than carbon dioxide.

Which has higher boiling point, water or corn oil?


THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces present between
molecules. Generally, they are called van der Waals forces, named
after the Dutch scientist Johannes van der Waals.

The different types of intermolecular forces of attraction


(IMFA) are:
1. London dispersion forces (LDF)
2. Dipole-dipole forces
3. Hydrogen bonding
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

London dispersion forces


 present in all molecules
 caused by fluctuations in the electron distribution within atoms
or molecules
 weak type of IMFA
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

London dispersion forces


In a nonpolar molecule, such as O2, there are no positive or negative
ends. However, the electrons of this molecule are constantly moving.
There are times when electrons move to one end, making such end
partially negative while the other end becomes partially positive.
Hence, the molecule can have an instantaneous dipole.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

London dispersion forces


The temporary dipole of a molecule induces instantaneous dipoles
on neighboring molecules.

In assessing the relative strengths of London dispersion forces


between two different substances, compare their molecular weight
and size. Larger and more massive molecules are more polarizable.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Dipole-dipole forces
 attractive forces between polar molecules
 result of the electrical interactions among dipoles on neighboring
molecules
 moderately strong type of IMFA

HCl is a polar molecule. It has


partially positive and partially
negative ends.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Dipole-dipole forces
The partially positive end of the molecule is attracted to the
partially negative side of another molecule.
In assessing the relative
strengths of dipole-dipole
forces between two
different substances,
compare their polarities. A
more polar substance will
have stronger dipole–dipole
forces compared to a less
polar one.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Hydrogen bonding
 a special kind of dipole-dipole force
 an attractive force between a hydrogen atom of one molecule
and a highly electronegative atom (O, N, or F) of another
molecule
 strongest type of IMFA
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Hydrogen bonding
The water molecule, H2O.

The hydrogen of one


molecule is attracted to the
oxygen atom of another
molecule.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Phase at room temperature

When molecules have strong intermolecular forces of


attraction, they are packed close together. They often exist as
condensed phase (solid or liquid) at room temperature.

When molecules have weak intermolecular forces of


attraction, they are far apart from each other. They often exist
as gas at room temperature.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Solubility

Solubility refers to the ability of a substance to dissolve in a


given amount of solvent at a specified temperature. When the
solute and the solvent both exhibit the same intermolecular
forces of attraction, they form a solution.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Solubility
Water and ethanol are polar substances. They both exhibit LDF, dipole - dipole
forces, and hydrogen bonding.When mixed together, they form a solution.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


On the other hand, hexane and water do not have similar intermolecular forces of
attraction. The only attractive forces present in hexane are the relatively weak
London dispersion forces. These forces cannot significantly disrupt the strong
hydrogen bonding among water molecules. Therefore, hexane and water form a
heterogeneous mixture.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Melting point

Melting point is the temperature at which the substance


changes from solid to liquid. Stronger intermolecular forces
means greater amount of energy is needed to break the
attractive forces between molecules. Substances with
stronger IMFA have higher melting points compared to
those with weaker IMFA.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Boiling point

Boiling point is the temperature at which the substance


changes from liquid to gas. Similar to melting point, stronger
intermolecular forces means greater amount of energy is
needed to break the attractive forces between molecules.
Substances with stronger IMFA have higher boiling
points compared to those with weaker IMFA.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Surface Tension

Surface Tension is the tendency of a fluid to acquire the least


possible surface area. Molecules with stronger
intermolecular forces will exert greater cohesive forces
and acquire less surface area (higher surface tension) than
those with weaker IMFA.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Viscosity

Viscosity is the measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow.


Molecules with stronger intermolecular forces have
greater resistance to flow, and thus, higher viscosity
compared to those with weaker IMFA.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Properties Dependent on IMFA


Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor in


equilibrium with its liquid phase in a closed system. Molecules
with stronger intermolecular forces have less tendency to
escape as gas, and thus lower vapor pressure compared to
those with weaker IMFA.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Strengths of Intermolecular Forces


When comparing the strengths of intermolecular forces, check
the difference in molecular weight. If the difference is too large
(>1000), then generally, the molecule with greater molecular
weight has stronger intermolecular forces. Otherwise, you may
use the following strategy:
1. Check which molecule exhibits hydrogen bonding. This
molecule will have stronger intermolecular forces.
2. Check which molecule is polar. Polar molecules have
stronger intermolecular forces.
3. Compare London dispersion forces. More massive
molecules have stronger intermolecular forces.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Properties of a Substance as Effect of
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

Strengths of Intermolecular Forces


Which has higher boiling point, H2O or H2S?
H2O exhibits hydrogen bonding. It has stronger intermolecular
forces.Therefore, it has higher boiling point than H2S.

Which is most likely solid, F2 or I2?


Both fluorine and iodine are nonpolar molecules. They exhibit
London dispersion forces only. Because iodine has higher
molecular mass, it has stronger London dispersion forces. It is
most likely to be solid. (Indeed, I2 is solid while F2 is gas at
room temperature.)
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

How are the basic structures of implants related to


their properties and uses?
Atoms and molecules combine to form hundreds of thousands
of different materials people use every day. The properties of
these materials are influenced by their chemical structures. In
turn, their properties determine their uses.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


A medical implant is a chemical substance or a device used to
replace, support, or improve a part of the human body. It should
be stable, inert, heat-resistant, biocompatible, and long-lasting.
Metals have particles
that are held together by
strong metallic bonds.
They are strong and
durable. They are also
good conductors of
electricity because of the
free flowing electrons.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Alloys are combinations of one or more metals held together by
metallic bonds. They contain atoms that have different sizes, which
distort the regular arrangement of atoms.
This distortion makes it
more difficult for the
layers of atoms to slide
over each other, so alloys
are harder and stronger
than most pure metals.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Alloys are often used for load-bearing implants because of their
high strength, durability, and inertness. For example, stainless steel
is one of the most common alloys used in orthopaedic implants,
which are medical devices that can replace a missing joint or
support a damaged bone.
Pure metals can also be used as implants. Pure titanium is best
used as a pacemaker case. A pacemaker is a device which uses
electrical impulses to regulate heart beats. Titanium is used
because of its high resistance to corrosion and superior
biocompatibility.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Ceramics are nonmetallic, inorganic solids with ionic or covalent
bonds. They are commonly used in dental implants, such as crowns,
cement, and dentures.They are hard, inert, and durable materials.
Zirconia ceramic (ZrO2) is
a crystalline solid held
together by covalent bonds.
The strong bonds and the
regularity of the crystalline
structure give rise to the
high strength and toughness
of the material.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Zirconia is often used in restorative crowns because of its
biocompatibility and smooth surface finish.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Polymers are molecules with a large number of repeating units of
covalently bonded chain of atoms. They are versatile biomaterials
with applications on facial, orthopaedic, and dental prosthesis.
A common polymer used in implants is silicone. Silicone is
polymerized siloxanes. It contains silicone-oxygen backbone chain
with organic side groups bonded to the silicon atoms.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Medical Implants

Materials Used for Medical Implants


Silicone has a long polymer chain. The
intermolecular forces of attraction
between the chains are very strong.
Therefore, silicone has high strength
and durability. Also, its long chains can
uncoil and slide past each other, making
the material flexible.
Because of its strength and flexibility,
silicone is often used to replace
original joint surfaces.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Sports equipment is any necessary item that is used to play
sports, can be a game equipment (ball, racket, net) or a player's
equipment (shoes, pads, clothes).

In the field of sports, material selection is very important for


the success and performance of any athlete. The
characteristics of the materials should include strength and
durability for each sports equipment to perform its purpose
well.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


In general, the materials used in making sports equipment are
also the same with the materials in making medical implants. It
can also be categorized into three types: metals, ceramics,
and polymers. However, some of the materials also are made
of natural materials like wood.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Metals are composed of particles held together by strong
metallic bonds, making them strong and durable.
Alloys are usually used in sports equipment that requires
strength or stiffness in weight performance. They are made of
two or more metals and other substances which improve the
strength, hardness, durability, formability, and tensile strength of
the metal. For example, aluminum alloy is one of the most
common alloys used in the frameset of a bicycle. This
material does not only support the weight of the person
but also provide a lightweight feel without sacrificing its
durability.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Stainless steel is
commonly used in
making golf clubs.
Titanium alloys
are used in making
baseball bats over
wood because
some players tend
to break the bats
after hitting the
baseball.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Ceramics are nonmetallic, inorganic solids with ionic or
covalent bonds. They are commonly used in sports equipment
parts that receive impact. They are lightweight, durable, and
has wear resistance than many plastic materials.
Ceramic fibers are not traditionally used in sports
equipment. However, with the advancement and innovation of
manufacturers, they have developed sports equipment and
parts which contain ceramics. For example, carbon-ceramic
rotors are used in race car brakes. The ceramics used
together with carbon makes the car breaks lightweight as well
as durable.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Ceramic fibers are also used in several head tennis racquets
which add power whenever hitting the ball.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Polymers have molecules with a large number of repeating
units of covalently bonded chain of atoms. They are used to
make protective sports equipment. They are known for
durability and flexibility.

Polycarbonate is a strong, shatter-free polymer that is


usually found in protective sports equipment such as in biking
and equestrian competitions. They can be also seen in
protective visors and sunglasses as well as swimming goggles.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Sports Equipment

Materials Used for Sports Equipment


Polyurethane is commonly used in soccer balls. It is a
synthetic material that coats the leather material in the ball
and protects it from damages like tears, scuffs, and scratches.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices
Electronic devices are components for controlling the flow
of electrons or electricity. Common examples include
capacitors, inductors, and resistors. They are often small and
combined into packages called integrated circuits.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Capacitors


A capacitor stores electrical energy temporarily in an electric
field. It has two electrical plates separated by a dielectric. The
dielectric is an insulator that stores energy when polarized.
The electrical plates are
made of conductive
materials, such as metals
and electrolytes. On the
other hand, the
nonconducting dielectrics
are often made of ceramic,
plastic film, and glass.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Capacitors


Film capacitors are the most
common type of capacitors. Their
dielectrics are made of plastic
films, such as polystyrene.
Polystyrene, a synthetic polymer
made from the monomer styrene,
has no free flowing electrons, so it
has superior insulating properties.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Capacitors


On the other hand, metals like aluminum are used as electrical
plates in film capacitors. Metals have free flowing electrons, so
they are good conductors of electricity. Long thin strips of the
metal foil with the dielectric material are sandwiched together
and then wound into a tight roll.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Inductors


An inductor resists changes in electric current passing through it. It is often
comprised of conductors wound into a magnetic core. When an electric
current passes through its coil, it produces a magnetic field, which in turn
produces electric current. In other words, an inductor stores energy on the
basis of reactive magnetic flux.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Inductors


A typical inductor has copper
wires, which are good
electrical conductors, wound
around a magnetic iron or
ferrite core. Ferrites are
ceramic materials comprised
of iron oxides combined with
nickel, zinc, or manganese
compounds. They have high
magnetic permeability and
high electrical resistivity.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Resistors


A resistor reduces the amount of current and lowers the voltage
levels within circuits. The reduction in current or voltage results
in the transformation of electrical energy into heat. A resistor is
necessary in devices that need circuit adjustments, such as those
that need control of volume or dimming of light.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices – Resistors


The most common type of
resistor is the carbon
resistors, which are cheap
general purpose resistors. They
are mainly composed of a
mixture of conducting graphite
or carbon powder and a
nonconducting ceramic powder.

The resistive value of the resistor depends on the ratio of graphite to ceramic
(conductor to insulator). If the amount of carbon is higher, then the overall
resistance is lower. The mixture is then placed in an insulating material with
metal wires connected to each end.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Metals


Metals are strong and durable construction materials because of
the strong metallic bonding between metal atoms. They have a
wide range of applications in construction, including roofing,
drainage components, and handrails.
As the structural framework of buildings, metals should be
durable and corrosion resistant. Corrosion, the process by
which something deteriorates because of oxidation, is a major
factor in assessing the longevity of the metallic material.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Metals


Steel is one of the oldest known construction material. It is an
alloy composed primarily of iron and carbon. It is widely used in
construction because of its high tensile strength and low cost.
When chromium is added to steel, the alloy is referred to as
stainless steel. The addition of about 10.5 to 30% chromium
gives rise to superior corrosion- and stain-resistant properties.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Metals


Steel forms iron oxide
(rust) in the presence of
oxygen. In comparison,
stainless steel does not
form rust. Instead, it
spontaneously forms a
chromium oxide layer on
its surface on contact with
oxygen. This passive layer is
impermeable and has the
ability to repair itself.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Ceramics


Ceramics are inorganic, nonmetallic materials comprised of
metal, nonmetal, or semimetal atoms held together by ionic or
covalent bonds. These materials are often used in the
construction industry. They are used as abrasive, flooring, roofing
and wall tiles, and countertops.
Silicon carbide (SC) is a compound of silicon and carbon. It is a
nonmetallic ceramic material that behaves almost like a diamond.
It is the lightest and the hardest ceramic material. It has high tear
resistance. It is also highly resistant to strong acids and bases.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Ceramics


SC is a construction
supply and is often used
as an abrasive because of
its high tear resistance
and durability. An abrasive
is a material that finishes a
workpiece through
rubbing. For instance, SC
is used in stripping and
finishing flooring materials,
such as wood.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Polymers


Polymers are large molecules with repeating units called
monomers. They have a wide range of applications in
construction including flooring, windows pipes, insulation, and
signage. For instance, plastics, which are synthetic polymers that
can be molded or extruded into different shapes, are used as the
replacement for glass and metal pipes.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Polymers

Polymethylmethacrylate or acrylic is a
synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate.

Acrylic has high molecular weight and strong


London dispersion forces. It is a shatterproof and
transparent plastic. Hence, it is used as a
replacement for glass.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Construction Supplies

Materials Used for Construction Supplies – Polymers


Like glass, acrylic can be molded into different shapes. Granules of acrylic are
poured into a machine that heats them up. As the temperature of the polymer
is increased, intermolecular forces are disrupted turning the polymer into a
viscous liquid. At high temperatures, it can be placed in molds and upon
cooling, it solidifies having the shape of its container.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Household appliances or Gadgets


Household appliances or gadgets are electrical and/or
mechanical machines which can (1) accomplish some household
functions such as cooking; (2) make the living space more
comfortable by cooling the surroundings; or (3) provide
entertainment.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Cooking Appliances
Cooking appliances are used to heat food ingredients during the
cooking process. Examples include toaster, oven, boiler, coffee
maker, hot plate, and rice cooker. Most of the cooking appliances
are powered by electricity. Hence, they are mostly made of
electrical conductors such as steel, aluminum, and copper. To
protect the users from electric shock, their handles are often
made of polymers for electrical insulation.
An oven toaster is an appliance that uses electricity to heat and
toast bread. An important part of the toaster is the heating
element.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Cooking Appliances
The heating element is often made of
nichrome wire, which is an alloy of nickel
and chromium. It converts electricity into
heat through a process called resistive
heating. Electric current passes through
the element and encounters resistance.
Because of the resistance, the electrical
energy is converted into heat. Nichrome
is an ideal material for heating element
because of its high resistance. It also
forms a thin layer of chromium oxide
when it is heated for the first time. This
layer protects the nichrome from
breaking or burning out.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Cooling Appliances
Cooling appliances are used to lower the temperature and
circulate the air in a room. They are often used during hot
weather to make the living space more comfortable. Electric fans
and air conditioners are examples of cooling appliances. They are
powered by electricity so many of their components are made of
metals.Their covers are often made of polymers or plastics.
An electric fan is an appliance that uses rotating blades (or
paddles) to circulate air. Unlike an air conditioner, a fan does not
cool air. However, it produces a cooling effect by moving the air
around the room. The moving air or breeze allows your skin to
evaporate sweat faster, cooling your skin.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Cooling Appliances
An important part of an electric fan is the motor, which converts electric
energy into mechanical energy, often through an interaction of magnetic fields
and current-carrying conductors. Copper is a metal commonly used in coil
windings, bearings, and connectors of motors because of its high electrical
conductivity (due to its free flowing electrons), high electrical efficiency, and
low cost.
The motor is then attached to
the fan blades through a shaft.
The blades are often made of
wood, iron, aluminum, or plastic.
It is important for the blades to
be light, durable, tough, and
easily molded or cut into shapes.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Home Electronics
Consumer electronics or home electronics are equipment
intended for everyday use. They are often used for entertainment.
They include television, DVD players, video recorders, and video
game consoles. They have software embedded within the
hardware of electronic components.
Most home electronics have electronic panel displays. A typical
example of material used in display is the liquid-crystal display
(LCD). LCD is made up of liquid crystal, a state of matter
between solid and liquid. A liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but
its molecules are oriented in a crystal-like manner.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Uses of Different Materials According to
Their Properties and Structures: Household Gadgets

Home Electronics
If you look closely on an LCD TV screen, you will notice that the
images are made of millions of tiny blocks called pixels (picture
elements). Each pixel can be switched on or off very rapidly to
make the images move. These pixels are controlled electronically
using liquid crystals.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Biomolecules
Biomolecules are large organic compounds that are important to
life’s processes, such as respiration and metabolism. There are
numerous biomolecules with different structures and functions.
They are generally classified into four major groups – proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
Proteins are biomolecules composed of amino acid units. Amino acids are
organic molecules that have a central carbon atom bonded to four different
groups — an amino group (−NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (−COOH), a
hydrogen atom, and a variable side chain, R. The side chain can range from a
single hydrogen atom to complex ring structures.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
In a protein, the amino acids are linked via a peptide bond. This
peptide bond is formed between an amino group of one amino
acid and an acid carboxyl group of another amino acid. A chain of
two or more amino acids linked together by peptide bonds is
called a peptide.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
The smallest protein has about 50 amino acids. However, large
proteins can have as many as 1000 amino acids, arranged in any
possible sequence. It is estimated that human cells can create
between 80 000 to 100 000 different proteins.
The shape of a protein is important so that it can carry out its
function. Long chains of amino acids fold into a unique three-
dimensional shape. Some areas of the protein may twirl into
helices, like the coils of a telephone cord. Other areas may be
repeatedly bent into a pleated sheet, like the folds of an accordion.
An important intermolecular force of attraction that dictate and
maintain the shape of a protein is the hydrogen bonding.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
Properties
Proteins can participate in neutral, acidic, or basic reactions
because their amino acids have an acidic carboxyl end and a basic
amino end. The amino acids are amphoteric which means they
can function either as an acid or a base. Also, proteins have high
molecular weights because they are comprised of many amino
acids.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
Functions
The sequence of amino acids determines the protein’s shape and
function. Proteins play many important roles in living cells. They
can hasten chemical reactions, transport substances, and provide
structural support.
Many proteins function as enzymes, which are molecules that
catalyze or speed up chemical reactions in the body. The reactant
molecules bind to the active site of the enzymes, where they
react to form products. Enzymes have shapes that are highly
specific for their functions. A slight change to their structures will
inhibit them to do their function.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Proteins
Functions
Transport proteins carry small particles throughout the body.
For example, the protein haemoglobin carries oxygen in the
blood from the lungs to the rest of the body. An important part
of hemoglobin is its iron group (called heme), the part to which
oxygen binds.

Structural proteins are fibrous proteins which have long, thin


structures. A typical example of a structural protein is keratin,
which is a component of the protective covering of most animals
– hair, nails, skin or feathers.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are molecules that are composed of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen. They have a general formula of CnH2nOn.
They can be grouped depending on the number of their
monomer units called saccharides.

Carbohydrates can be divided into three major groups:


monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides are
the simplest form of
carbohydrates. They
contain either five or six
carbon atoms. They have
open-chain and cyclic
forms. A typical example
of monosaccharide is
glucose, C6H12O6, one of
the products of
photosynthesis in plants.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded to each other.
The monosaccharides are linked through an ether (C−O−C)
group. A common example of a disaccharide is the sweetener
sucrose, or table sugar. Sucrose is formed by glucose and
fructose.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharide units. They
are also called complex carbohydrates. Similar to disaccharides,
the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are linked through an
ether bond. An example of a polysaccharide is starch, which is
used to store energy in plants. It is comprised solely of glucose
subunits.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Properties
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are small molecules with
multiple polar groups so they are water soluble. Because they
exhibit hydrogen bonding in their structures, they have high
melting points.
In comparison, polysaccharides are less soluble due to their large
sizes and complex shapes. For example, starch and glycogen are
both insoluble in water. On the other hand, cellulose, also water-
insoluble, cannot be digested by humans because the appropriate
enzyme to breakdown cellulose into simpler monosaccharides is
lacking. Hence, nutritionists call cellulose as dietary fiber because
it just passes through the digestive system unchanged.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates
Functions
The main function of carbohydrates is to store and provide
energy. They are broken down into smaller glucose units that can
be easily absorbed by the cells. When glucose is further broken
down, the energy released by breaking its chemical bonds are
used or stored by the body in the form of glycogen.
Some carbohydrates also serve as the framework of cellular
structures. For example, cellulose makes up the cell wall of plant
cells. Chitin, another carbohydrate, forms the exoskeleton of
arthropods and the cell wall of fungal cells.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids
Lipids are large, nonpolar biomolecules. They are mainly
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Unlike proteins and
carbohydrates, lipids are not polymers with repeating monomer
subunits. They have many kinds including triglycerides, waxes, and
steroids.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids – Triglycerides
Triglycerides are lipids composed of glycerol and fatty acids.
Glycerol is a molecule with three carbons, each containing a
hydroxyl (−OH) group while fatty acid is a long chain of
carboxylic acid.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids – Triglycerides
When three fatty acids bond to glycerol, they form ester bonds.
Triglycerides can be solid or
liquid at room temperature.
If solid at room temperature,
they are called fats. Fats, such
as lard and butter, are
produced by animals. If liquid
at room temperature, they
are called oils. Oils, such as
coconut and olive oils, are
produced by plants.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids – Waxes
Waxes are lipids that are composed of a fatty acid with a long
chain of alcohol. They are produced by both plants and animals.
Plants often produce wax that coats their leaves which prevents
them from drying out. Animals such as bees also produce wax. Bees
create their honeycomb structures from beeswax.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids – Steroids
Steroids are lipids without fatty acid chains. Instead, they have
multiple rings in their structures. They are built from the basic four-
ring steroid structure.
An example of a steroid is
dietary lipid cholesterol.
Cholesterol is the precursor
of hormones such as estrogen
and progesterone. Recall that
hormones are molecules that
communicate between organs
to regulate physiology and
behavior.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids
Properties
Lipids such as triglycerides and waxes are mostly made of
nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, making them generally insoluble in
water. The hydrocarbon chains are the “hydrophobic (water-
fearing) tails” of lipids. On the other hand, their hydroxyl, ester,
and ether groups can interact with water. These groups are
called “hydrophilic (water-loving) heads.” When lipids are mixed
with water, they arrange themselves in a spherical form called a
micelle.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Lipids
Functions
Lipids are the reserved sources of energy. The energy stored
in their bonds is used by the body for fuel. When the energy is
abundant, cells store the excess energy in the fatty acids of
triglycerides.
Lipids like waxes are used as a protective coating of
organisms. Because they are hydrophobic, lipids protect plants
and animals from drying out by controlling evaporation.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids, discovered
by Friedrich Miescher in
1869, are biomolecules that
are made up of repeating
units of nucleotides.
Nucleotides are
monomers with three
components, a 5-carbon
sugar, a phosphate group,
and a nitrogenous base. The
nucleotides are linked
through phosphodiester
bonds.
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids
If the sugar is ribose, then the
nucleotides make up the
ribonucleic acid (RNA). On
the other hand, if the sugar is
deoxyribose, then the
nucleotides make up the
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA). Both DNA and RNA
have nitrogenous bases. The
five common nitrogenous
bases are adenine (A), guanine
(G), cytosine (C), thymine (T),
and uracil (U).
THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The Structures, Properties, and Functions of Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids
Functions

DNA contains the genetic instructions for the development and


functioning of organisms. This genetic information is converted by
the RNA into amino acid sequences of proteins. RNA has three
types, messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and
transfer RNA (tRNA). The mRNA carries the genetic sequence
information between the DNA and ribosomes. In ribosomes,
proteins are synthesized. The rRNA catalyzes the peptide bond
formation while the tRNA serve as the carrier molecules of the
amino acids that make up the protein.