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# AM Modulation

## Civil Aviation Training Center

Jimmy(Jimyung Ko) 1
Introduction
Objectives
Given a formula sheet, without references you will:

## A. Identify the process of modulation by which two or more

voltages are combined across a non-linear device.

## B. Identify the resultant three voltages that come about

from distorting two original waves.

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Introduction
Objectives
C. Identify the various parts of the modulated waveform.

1. Ecm
2. Esm
3. Emax
4. Emin
5. A
6. B

## D. Calculate the modulation factor of various modulated

waveforms when certain parameters are given.

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Theory of Modulation
1. Definition of Modulation
- Technology that efficiently converts the information to be
transmitted according to the characteristics of the
transmission medium.

2. Reason of Modulation
- Transmit the signal with short antenna

𝑐
 λ= , λ(Wavelength), c(Speed of Light), f(frequency)
𝑓

## - Transmit the signal far away

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Theory of Modulation
2. Reason of Modulation
- Transmit the signal far away

## In the ILS System,

We use 90Hz, 150Hz as the signal source.
 This signal can not transmit far away
Gimhae International Airport ILS System RMMS 5
Theory of Modulation
2. Reason of Modulation
- Transmit the signal far away

## 90Hz : 20.7%, 150Hz : 20.8%(Present Value) Carrier Frequency : 109.5MHz

+ =
[ Audio Signal (CSB) ] [ Carrier Signal ] [ Modulated CSB ] 6
Procedure of Modulating the ILS Signal
General Considerations
Complex Wave Analysis

## FIGURE 7 - 1. Waveform of the RF Carrier Superimposed on the Audio Waveform

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General Considerations
Complex Wave Analysis
Example 7 -1
+VC
C
1 kHz
Modulating Frequencies in an amplitude
Signal
modulated wave.
For a 1 MHz carrier and a 1 KHz
modulating voltage combining in
a Class C amplifier, what are the
frequencies appearing across
1 MHz
the output of the resonant tank
Carrier circuit?
Vb Class “C”
- Carrier frequency : 1MHz
- Upper Sideband Frequency : 1MHz + 1KHz
- Lower Sideband Frequency : 1MHz - 1KHz
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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Definition
The depth of modulation (m) or the modulation factor of an
amplitude modulated (AM) wave is defined as the ratio of the
total sideband magnitude (Esm) to the carrier component
magnitude (Ecm) and is determined by the basic relationship:

𝐸𝑠𝑚
𝑚= (𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 7 − 1)
𝐸𝑐𝑚

where:
Esm = is the peak value of the total sideband voltage and
Ecm = is the peak value of the carrier voltage.

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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Definition
Example 7 -2
Using peak-to-peak values for the waveform shown in Figure
7 -4, find the depth of modulation (m).

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FIGURE 7 - 4. AM Waveform for Example 7-2.
Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Definition

- 2Esm = 100V PP, 2Ecm = 200V PP
2𝐸𝑠𝑚 100 1
- M = 2𝐸𝑐𝑚 = 200 = 2 = 0.5 or 50%
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FIGURE 7 - 4. AM Waveform for Example 7-2.
Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Peak and Peak-to-Peak Calculations
In the preceding example the peak-to-peak values of the
envelope were used. Typical sine wave measurements utilize
peak, peak-to-peak, or rms measurements. A voltage of 100
volts would normally indicate an rms voltage which would
also possess a peak value of 141.4 volts and a peak-to-peak
value of 282.8 volts. When a sideband voltage is expressed in
the form Esm, it indicates the maximum or peak value.

## For most Amplitude Modulation problems, it is more

convenient to use only ½ of the total envelope. Generally
the top half is selected, although the bottom half will produce
the same results.
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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Peak and Peak-to-Peak Calculation

Example 7 -3

## For the waveform shown in Figure 7-5, find the depth of

modulation (m) using peak values.

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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Peak and Peak-to-Peak Calculation

## FIGURE 7 - 5. AM Waveform for Example 7 -3.

𝐸𝑠𝑚 50 1
- M = 𝐸𝑐𝑚 = = = 0.5 or 50%
100 2
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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Relative Value Calculation

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FIGURE 7 - 6. Oscilloscope Presentation of AM Wave.
Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Relative Value Calculation

Example 7 -4

## For the modulation envelope shown in Figure 7 -7, calculate

the depth of modulation using Equation.

- 2Emax = 30 Scale divisions
 Emax = 15
- 2Emin = 20 Scale divisions
 Emin = 10

## 𝐸𝑚𝑎𝑥 −𝐸𝑚𝑖𝑛 15−10 5

- M = 𝐸𝑚𝑎𝑥+𝐸𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 15+10 = 25
= 0.2 or 20%

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FIGURE 7 - 7. AM Waveform for Example 7 -4.
Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Relative Value Calculation
Another method of using the oscilloscope presentation to determine
the depth of modulation involves the use of A and B as shown in
Figure 7 -8.

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FIGURE 7 - 8. AM Waveform Presentation
Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Relative Value Calculation

• 𝐴 = 2𝐸sm , B = 𝐸𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝐸𝑠𝑚
• 𝑚=
𝐸𝑐𝑚

1/2𝐴
• 𝑚=
1/2𝐴+𝐵

1/2𝐴 𝐴
• 𝑚= 𝐴+2𝐵 = (Equation 7 -3)
𝐴+2𝐵
2

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Depth of Modulation or Modulation Factor
Relative Value Calculation
Example 7 -5

Application of Equation 7 -3

Using the values of Esm and Ecm shown in Figure 7 -8, calculate
the depth of modulation by application of Equation 7 -3.

𝐴 2𝐸𝑠𝑚 20 20
- M = 𝐴+2𝐵 = 2𝐸𝑠𝑚+2 𝐸𝑐𝑚−𝐸𝑠𝑚
= 20+2(20−10)
= 40
= 0.5 or 50%
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Modulation Principles
Amplitude Modulation Process

## FIGURE 7 - 9. Combining of Two Frequencies Across a Nonlinear Device.

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Modulation Principles
Amplitude Modulation Process

## FIGURE 7 - 10. AM Waveform Produced by the Addition of Resonate Tank Circuit.

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave

## FIGURE 7 - 11. AM Envelope representation.

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave
By the addition of the modulating component to the constant
amplitude component, the envelope can be expressed as :

## envelope = 100 + 75sin2fat

For the general case
envelope = Ecm + Esmsin2fat

## Substituting mEcm for Esm

envelope = Ecm + mEcmsin2fat

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave
By the addition of the modulating component to the constant
amplitude component, the envelope can be expressed as :
Equation 7 -4 describes the envelope; however, the envelope shows
only the effect of the modulating component and does not allow for
the RF variations of the total wave. The RF variations of the resultant
wave must be considered when finding the instantaneous value of the
total waveshape. Applying an RF factor (sin 2fct) to Equation 7 -4
yields an equation for the instantaneous variation of the amplitude-
modulated wave.

## e = (Ecm + mEcmsin 2fat)sin2fct

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave
Expanding the equation

## e = Ecmsin2fct + mEcmsin2fatsin2fct (7 -5)

CARRIER + TOTAL SIDEBAND

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave

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FIGURE 7 - 12. (a), (b), & (c: Development of an Amplitude Modulated Wave.
Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave
The sideband term contains the product of two angles:
[(sin2fat) (sin2fct)]
Substituting the identity: sinA sinB = -1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A - B)

## e = Ecmsin2fct + mEcm[-1/2cos(2fct+2fat) + 1/2cos(2fct-2fat)] (7 -7)

CARRIER UPPER SIDEBAND LOWER SIDEBAND

mEcm mEcm
e = Ecmsin2fct - cos2 t(fc +fa) + cos 2t(fc − fa) (7 -8)
2 2
CARRIER UPPER SIDEBAND LOWER SIDEBAND

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Modulation Principles
Development of the AM Wave

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FIGURE 7 - 13. : Components of an Amplitude Modulated Wave.
Modulation Principles
Sideband Phase

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FIGURE 7 - 15. : Reversal of RF Phase of Sidebands with Respect to Carrier.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors

## Figure 7 -16 illustrates the following three voltages as phasors on

a polar graph at t=0:

## 𝑒1 = 𝐸1𝑚 sin(ωt + 30°)

𝑒2 = 𝐸2𝑚 sin(ωt + 60°)
𝑒3 = 𝐸3𝑚 sin(ωt − 30°)

## Figure 7 -16. : Use of X-Axis as Reference for Plotting Three Phasors 30

Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors

## Figure 7 -17 shows 𝐸1 referenced to 0° with the other phasors

redrawn to maintain their original phase.

𝑒1 = 𝐸1𝑚 sin(ωt)
𝑒2 = 𝐸2𝑚 sin(ωt + 30°)
𝑒3 = 𝐸3𝑚 sin(ωt − 60°)

## Figure 7 -17 : Use of E1 as Reference. 31

Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors

## Consider these five voltages in Figure 7 -18:

𝑒1 = 𝐸1𝑚 sinωt
𝑒2 = 𝐸2𝑚 sin(ωt + 60°)
𝑒3 = 𝐸3𝑚 cosωt
𝑒4 = 𝐸4𝑚 cos(ωt + 30°)
𝑒5 = 𝐸5𝑚 (−cosωt)

## Figure 7 -18. : Phasor Plot of Five Voltages. 32

Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors

[ Sine ]

[ Cosine ]

## Figure 7 -19. : Sine-Cosine Coordinate Axes. 33

Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors
Example 7 -6

## Use of sine-cosine coordinate axes. Plot the phasors

representing the following voltages when t = 0.
e1 = E1msin(2t + 20)
e2 = -E2msin(2t + 20)
e3 = E3mcos(2t - 45)
e4 = -E4mcos(2t - 45)
e5 = -E5mcos(2t + 30)
e6 = E6mcos(2t + 30)

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Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Plotting of Phasors

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Figure 7 -20. Sine-Cosine Phasor Plot.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

Figure 7 -21. : Components of the AM Wave; Starting Phase and Angular Velocities ()
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for
each.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

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Figure 7 -22. : Carrier Reference Phasor at 0.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

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Figure 7 -23. : Waveform for Eight (8) RF Cycles During One (1) Audio Cycle.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

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Figure 7 -24. : Phasor Diagrams for AM Waveform of Figure 7 -23.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

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Figure 7 -25. : Waveform for 1000 KHz Modulated Wave at One (1) KC.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors
Example 7 -7
For the waveform of Figure 7 -25, plot the carrier, upper
sideband, and lower sideband phasors corresponding to the 0
point (a) of the audio cycle.

mEcm mEcm
e = Ecmsin2fct - cos (2fc t+2fat) + cos (2fc t−2fat)
2 2
In the (a) point
Audio Signal, (2fat) = 0
Carrier Signal, (2fct) = 0
mEcm mEcm
USB = - cos (0+0) = - cos (0)
2 2
mEcm mEcm
LSB = + cos (0−0) = + cos (0)
2 2
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Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

Example 7 -8
Plot the carrier, upper sideband and lower sideband phasors
corresponding to the 45 point (b) of the audio cycle.

mEcm mEcm
e = Ecmsin2fct - cos (2fc t+2fat) + cos (2fc t−2fat)
2 2
In the (b) point
Audio Signal, (2fat) = 45(1/8 cycle)
Carrier Signal, (2fct) = 45,000(125 cycle)
mE mE
USB = - 2 cm cos (45000+45) = - 2 cm cos (0 + 45)
mEcm mEcm
LSB = + cos (45000−45) = + cos (0 - 45 )
2 2

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Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

Example 7 -9
Plot the carrier, upper sideband and lower sideband phasors
corresponding to 90 point (c of the audio cycle

mEcm mEcm
e = Ecmsin2fct - cos (2fc t+2fat) + cos (2fc t−2fat)
2 2
In the (c) point
Audio Signal, (2fat) = 90(1/4 cycle)
Carrier Signal, (2fct) = 90,000(250 cycle)
mE mE
USB = - 2 cm cos (90000+90) = - 2 cm cos (0 + 90)
mEcm mEcm
LSB = + cos (90000−90) = + cos (0 - 90 )
2 2

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Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

Example 7 -10
Plot the carrier, upper sideband and lower sideband phasors
corresponding to 360 point (i) of the audio cycle.

mEcm mEcm
e = Ecmsin2fct - cos (2fc t+2fat) + cos (2fc t−2fat)
2 2
In the (i) point
Audio Signal, (2fat) = 360(1 cycle)
Carrier Signal, (2fct) = 360,000(1,000 cycle)
mE mE
USB = - 2 cm cos (360,000+360) = - 2 cm cos (0 + 360)
mEcm mEcm
LSB = + cos (360,000−360) = + cos (0 - 360 )
2 2

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Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Carrier and Sideband Phasors

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Figure 7 -26. : Phasor Diagrams for each 45 of an Audio Cycle.
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Total Sideband Envelope

## Figure 7 -27. : Total Sideband Envelope for a Single Modulating 46

Frequency with Phasors (each 45 of audio cycle).
Phasor Representation of The AM Wave
Total Sideband Envelope

## Figure 7 -28. : Carrier Reference Plot. 47

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -29. : Diode Detector Circuit. 48

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -30. : Diode Transfer Characteristics. 49

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -31. : Diode Detector Output Voltage. 50

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal
Example 7 -11
Find the resultant frequencies produced on detection of an
amplitude modulated wave (1000 KHz carrier, 1 KHz
modulating frequency).
- Carrier Signal = 1,000,000Hz,
- USB Signal = 1,001,000HZ
- LSB Signal = 999,000Hz
 Detecting Signal
- fc = 1,000,000Hz , USB = 1,001,000Hz, LSB = 999,000Hz
- fc + USB = 2,001,000HZ, fc + LSB = 1,999,000Hz
- USB + LSB = 2,000,000Hz
- USB – LSB = 2,000Hz
- USB – fc = 1,000Hz, fc – USB = 1,000Hz
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Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -32. : Diode Detector and RC Filter. 52

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -33 (a) & (b): Charge and Discharge. 53

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -34 : Output Waveform 54

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

## Figure 7 -35 : Waveform for Measuring Modulation at Output of a Detector. 55

Detection of an AM Wave
Recovering Original Modulating Signal

Example 7 -12

## Determine the depth of modulation at the output of a

detector using the values given in Figure 7 -35.

## DC Level = 20V, A=20Vpp, B=10V

𝐴 20 20
M= = =
𝐴+2𝐵 20+2(10) 40

= 0.5 or 50%
56
Summary
Key Points
The following points have been prepared as a summary to Chapter 2
and should be studied until the concepts presented are thoroughly
understood.

## A non-sinusoidal waveform is composed of frequencies other than

that associated with the fundamental repetition rate.
A non-linear device is necessary to obtain amplitude distortion and
is, therefore, essential in the process of modulation.
The composite amplitude modulated wave is composed of at least
three frequencies:
The carrier (fc)
Upper sideband (fc + fa)
Lower Sideband (fc - fa)
57
Summary
Key Points
In the case of simultaneous modulation by more than one audio
frequency, a pair of sidebands or a total sideband component will be
developed for each audio frequency.
The period of one cycle of the total sideband waveform is the same
as that of the carrier.
The composite amplitude modulated wave is so described because it
is composed of at least three different frequencies.
One-half the total sideband voltage is in the upper sideband and
one-half is in the lower sideband.

58
Summary
Key Points
The carrier phasor is used as a reference phasor with proper
amplitude and angular velocity considered when plotting at various
points. The lower sideband phasor may appear to rotate clockwise
due to its lower angular velocity, while the upper sideband phasor
may appear to rotate counterclockwise due to its higher angular
velocity.
A non-linear device is used for demodulation since the beat
frequency principle is employed to derive the fundamental
modulating frequency.
Harmonics within the audio frequency range are present at the
output of the second detector but will not affect receiver operation
due to filters.

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Thank You
^.^

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