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Database Systems

Introduction to Databases
Lecture1

By Mr. Haftom D.,


Department of ECE(Computer Engineering)
Adigrat University
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Outline
 Introduction
 Data, Information, and Metadata
 File-Based Approach
 Database Approach
 Database Development Process
 Summary

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Introduction

 The desire to collect, organize, and easily access


information predates computer technology
– Oral records ,Written records (books)
 Computers have altered the way we collect, store, and
retrieve information
 A database can be defined accurately using its basic implicit
properties:
– It represents some aspects of the Mini-world
– Any assortment of data is not a data base. It is a
collection logically coherent data
– It has intended users and applications
 The database is an important assets for many organizations

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Introduction(Continued…)

 The database is an integrated collection of facts about an


organization.
 Organization can be a University or a department in a
University , Insurance companies, Manufacturing companies,
Banks, Airlines, Telecommunications, Governmental and Non-
governmental Organizations, Research institutions ,etc.
 The database is used as a central data source for other
applications
 What happens to the data if the functions of the
application programs change?
 What will happen to the data if the facts about the Mini-
world(UoD) change? What about changes in hardware and
software?

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Data

 The term data refers to known raw facts about things like
people places, events and concepts
– Sources of data: careful observation, experiment and research
– Data can exist in the form of text, graphics, images,
audio and/or video
ID Name Address City State

1 Andrew S W 16t h Av e Orlando FL

2 Robert 2 3 r d Te r r a c e Boston MA

3 Bob 52nd Avenue Bronx NY

4 Lee Hung 52nd Avenue Albany NY

5 Richard 999 Palm Bay Detroit MI

6 To n y 15th Avenue Austin TX

Data in Context

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Flow of Data
Summarizing ,Averaging
Graphing the data and adding
Adding context

Data Information Knowledge  Action

Identifying patterns in the information


Identifying the relevant information
to the problem.
Identifying the best way to use the
information .

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Information

 Information is the processed data presented in a form suitable


for human interpretation
– The same data can be processed in a variety of ways to
generate different kinds of information
– Information is important for ‘informed decision making’

Information – Pie Chart

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Metadata

 Metadata is data about data


– For further understanding of large collection of data
an
additional description of the data is very
important
– It increases the usability of the data
Name D a t a Ty p e Size Description

ID Number 4 Unique Student ID


– Self-describing nature of databases
Name Te x t 50 Student n a m e

Address Te x t 200 Mailing Ad dres s

City Te x t 50 Residential City

State Te x t 2 Residential State

ZIP Number 5 ZIP Code

Metadata

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What is DBMS?

Database management system (DBMS) is a collection of


usually complex general-purpose or specific-purpose software
systems that enable you to create and maintain databases.
Examples
Oracle
DB2 (IBM)
MS SQL Server
MS Access
PostgreSQL
MySQL
Database system is a system that contains both the database
and the database management system (DBMS).
Historical Perspectives of Database
 Two approaches to convert data to information:
– File-based
 Developed starting from 1960’s
 Stores, manipulates, retrieves data from large flat files
– Database (relational systems)
 Developed by E. F. Codd of IBM the early 1980's
 Widely used today

Evolution of
Database
Systems

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File-Based Approach

 A file is a collection of related information


 A system of files and collection of application programs
manipulating them is a file-based system

University
File-Based System

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Limitations of File-Based Approach

 Much efforts for ad hoc query answering:


– What is the average grade for Mr.Negacy’s students?
– List the activities for all students enrolled in
ECEg4172.
– Which personnel are students as well as staff?

 Other limitations:
– Duplication of data
– Data dependency
– Slow development, high maintenance and fixed queries

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The Database System
 Limitations of file-based approach tell us that:
– Parameters defining data should be separately stored
– There should be a way to control and manipulate data in isolation of the
application program

 A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of usually


complex pieces of software that allows a user to define, create, manipulate
and protect and manage access to a database
– Decouples application programs from data
– The database stores all its data in one centralized location, thereby limiting data
duplication

 A database system can be defined as the combination of a database and


a DBMS.

 Because of the advantages offered by a DBMS, businesses and


organizations prefer the database approach to the file-based approach
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Why the Database Approach?
 User requirements are constantly changing

 Ad hoc questions need rapid answers

 Need to reduce long lead times and high cost in new application
development. Lead time is the latency between the initiation
and execution of a process.

 Data sharing throughout the organization

 Need to improve data consistency and access control

 Ease of application development and reduced development time

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University’s Database System

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Example University Database

 Mini-world for a University Database example: Part


of a UNIVERSITY environment.
 Some mini-world entities:

– STUDENTs
– PRE-REQUISITE COURSEs
– COURSEs
– DEPARTMENTs
– INSTRUCTORs

Note: The above could be expressed in the ENTITY-


RELATIONSHIP data model.

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Example University Database(Continued…)
 Some mini-world relationships:
– STUDENTs take COURSEs
– COURSEs have PRE-REQUISITE
COURSEs
– INSTRUCTORs teach COURSEs
– COURSEs are offered by
DEPARTMENTs
– STUDENTs major in DEPARTMENTs

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Example Relational Database Snapshot

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Components of a Database System

 There are four components in any database


system:
– Data(the database)

– Software
(DBMS)

– Hardware
Components of a
Database System
– Users

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Functions of Database Systems
Database systems allow users to
 Store
 Update
 Retrieve
 Organize and
 Protect their data
People involved in Database Systems

 They are divided into two:


– Actors on the Scene
– Workers behind the Scene
 Actors on the Scene
– Those who actually use and control the content of the data
in the database
– They include the DBA,DB Designers, End Users, Software
Engineers
 Workers behind the Scene
 Those who design and develop the DBMS and System
Environment
 They don’t use the database for their own purpose

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Advantages of Using the Database Approach
 A DBMS is primarily responsible for providing a logical view of
underlying data
– Allows its user to store, retrieve, and update data in the database
– Provides a clear and logical view of the process that manipulates the
data
 Data independence
– Maintain segregation between the program and the data
– Every time when some change needs to be made to the data structure ,
the programs that access the data should not change
– Improved flexibility: changes can be made very easily
 Concurrency control
 Providing multiple user interfaces for different classes of users
– Users who know little about programming can easily interact with the
DB

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Advantages of Using the Database Approach

 Minimal data duplication


– Controlled redundancy: known ,controlled and purpose full
redundancy
– Minimum inconsistency & Reduced development time
and maintenance needs
 More information from given data
– We can obtain new and /or combined information quickly
that
would otherwise be impossible to obtain
 Ad hoc(Specific) queries can be performed
 Security restriction can be applied
 Integrity can be enforced
– Since there are multiple users in DBSs integrity
constraints must be enforced25 to control the validity of any
Advantages of Using the Database Approach

 Sharing of data among multiple users

 Providing backup and recovery services

 Representing complex relationships among data

 Providing storage structures for efficient query processing

 Availability of up-to-date information: very important for on-line


transaction systems such as airline, hotel, car reservations.

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Disadvantages of Using the Database Approach
 Expensive
– High initial investment in hardware, software,
personnel, etc.
 Overhead
– Overhead for providing generality ,security, recovery ,
concurrency control, ect.

 Recovery is more complex

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When NOT to use a DBMS

 When a DBMS may be unnecessary:

 If the database applications are simple, well defined, and not


expected to change.

 If there are stringent real-time requirements that may not be


met because of DBMS overhead.

 If access to data by multiple users is not required.

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Database Development Process

1. Enterprise modeling
– Describes the data needed for database system
– The real world is so complex and modeling an
enterprise
,or even a part of it is not an easy task
– Background knowledge of the organization is
very important
2. Conceptual database modeling:
– Entity-relationship (E-R) modeling
3. Logical database design:
– Relational data modeling is used to transform the E-
R diagram into a relational schema
4. Physical database design and creation:
– Detailed specification of data elements, data types,
indexing
options ,etc.
– Selection of software (DBMS) and
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End of Slides
 Thank You!

 Any Questions?

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