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Texas Utility Innovations

A discussion on
HVAC’s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)
Technology & IEER Efficiency Metrics

Steve Jones - Southwest Business Unit Commercial


Manager – Mitsubishi Electric

Nick Conklin LEED AP, PE, CEM – Application Engineering


Manager – Mitsubishi Electric
EEIP Guidelines to Address
• Why is Ductless Heat Pump (DHP) / Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) a
Commercially-ready new technology or existing underutilized technology?

• Overview of the DHP/VRF for EECM(s) – A description of the technology, target


market with market potential, and estimated installed/implementation costs

• Why Verifiable peak demand savings (kW) and/or energy savings (kWh) is
achievable?
▫ Energy Modeling using IEER metrics

• Energy Saving Case Studies – Sacramento Drill Tower


• Measurement and Verification (M&V) – SMUD and PG&E utility savings

• Applicability in Texas Utility Market


• SOP
• MTP

• What are Texas PUC needs for Energy Efficiency Conservation Measures
and/or the Energy Efficiency Goal 25.181? How do we get VRF and IEER
metrics in place for utility programs?
US HVAC Industry Overview
Commercial/Industrial HVAC
Choices:
• Package Systems
• Split Systems
• VRF Systems

Light Commercial/Residential
HVAC Types:
• PTACs
• Unitary
• Window units
• Wall-mounted units
• Radiant
• Ductless (DHP)

*Room AC not included in analysis


Source: AHRI and BRSI, September 2012
US Vertical Market Opportunities
31% HVAC Unit Growth

Vertical Market Year Market Size (Units)

2007 190,000
Education
2012 300,000

2007 84,000
Government/ Military
2012 97,000

2007 79,000
Health Care
2012 145,000

2007 40,000
Lodging
2012 54,000

2007 270,000
Multi-Family
2012 317,000

2007 74,000
Office Building
2012 104,000

Source: FMI 2008 U.S. Market Construction Overview


Ductless Heat Pumps for Single Zones
(30+ Years HVAC Market Success)
•Highly Efficient
26 SEER
10.6 HSPF
No ductwork = No duct
losses

•Individual Room Control

•Extremely Quiet
19 – 38 dB

•Cold Climate Capable


100% capacity at 5 F.
82% capacity at -13 F.

5
VRF for Commercial Buildings

•Up to 50 indoor units per


outdoor

•72,000 – 360,000 BTUH

•Simultaneous heating and


cooling

•Energy reclaim

•IEER up to 23.9

•COP up to 4.87
What is VRF Technology?
INVERTER-driven Compressor

SETPOINT VRF VRF


Room Temperature

CONVENTIONAL

• Enables capacity operation as low as 4%


• Sizing flexibility with variable capacity
• Enables long runtimes
• Reduces compressor cycling
• Improves temperature control

Time
High Starting Current
Traditional HVAC System without
Inverter Technology
Diversity

Solar Load Occupant Load Building Use


VRF Heat Recovery Technology

Simultaneous cooling and heating


VRF Integrated Controls

• Easy to install and operate


• 2-wire DDC (Direct Control) system
▫ 16ga stranded and shielded, non-polar
▫ Daisy-chain connection
• Customizable control scheme with web
access
• Individual room controls
• Color touch screen centralized control
• Integration into building management
system via BACnet® and Lonworks®
• Third-party equipment control
• Tenant billing capability
VRF Energy-Efficiency and
Environmental Impact
Demand Response Tool

VRF Integrated Control Systems can allow:

• Load shedding by automatically reducing


compressor frequency/hertz (speed).

• On/Off Sequencing between zones to


minimize temperature discomfort

• Turn off indoor units in several zones and


allow temperature/humidity drift

• Sequential starting of outdoor units to minimize


demand power spikes
Utilizing VRF with LEED

• Energy and Atmosphere: VRF LEED NC 3.0


Can achieve up to 21 points
• Certified: 40-49 points
• Environmental Quality: VRF can • Silver: 50-59 points
achieve up to seven points
• Gold: 60-79 points
• Platinum: 80 + points
Energy and Atmosphere Credits

• Eac1 – Optimize Energy Usage


▫ Total energy usage of building
▫ Verified by modeling versus base building

• EAc5 – Measurement and Verification


▫ Verify actual building operation
▫ Monitor equipment operation through integrated software
VRF Systems and Energy Modeling
• Energy usage and cost for VRF
systems can be modeled using
EnergyPro
▫ EnergyPro uses DOE2.1e to
model and compare VRF to
other HVAC system

• EnergyPro is approved use with


LEED EAc1
EAC1 - Energy Cost Savings

VRF Total Energy Cost Savings


Overview of System Standards
• AHRI 1230
 Covers multi-split air conditioners and multi-split heat pumps
with distributed refrigerant technology

• ASHRAE 90.1
 Minimum requirements for energy efficient building design
 Higher standard for VRF system Integration Energy Efficiency
Ratio (IEER) in ASHRAE standard 90.1 (July 2012)

• DOE
 DOE to reference AHRI 1230 Standard and ASHRAE 90.1
minimum efficiency standards in Code of Federal Regulations
part 10, section 431
How IEER Weighting Factors Developed

• To Develop the four weighting factors for the IEER equation as well as
the ambient temperature schedule, a comprehensive model was
developed :
– Weather Data Model For Cities From 15 US Climate Zones
• Percentage of Time In The Four Load Bins 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%
• Average Ambient For Each Load Bin
– 3 Buildings types – Office (40%), Retail (30%), School (30%)
• Each building type with its load profile vs. ambient schedule
– Sales Volumes Percentage By Each Climate Zones

Helena MT
Duluth, MN
Houston Drybulb Temperature Profile - Retail
Burlington, VT
Boise, ID
Chicago, IL 700 660

600 557 563


497
500
Salem, OR
Annual Hours

402
400
Baltimore MD 324
300 253 264
203
San Francisco CA 200
138
Phoenix, AZ
100 69
El Paso, TX 29
51
Miami FL 5
Memphis TN 0
100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35
Albuquerque, NM
Houston, TX
Temperature
Sacramento Drill Tower
VRF Case Study

• Owned by the City of Sacramento, CA


• Concrete Building with Upper 1/3 being a water
tank
• Approximately 2/3 of the first floor area are
offices and a training room, arranged like a
donut
• Original HVAC was 4 pipe ducted fan coils,
with a natural draft gas boiler and 30 ton air
cooled chiller.
• Equipment replaced with (2) 16 ton VRF heat
recovery type systems in 2008, with 4 ducted
fan coils each, and an ERV
Sacramento Drill Tower – VRF Case Study
Significant reduction in Energy Consumption (kWh)
Total Energy Used (kWh)

60000

50000

40000
Energy (kWh)

Total Gas Used (kWh)

30000 Total Energy Electricity


(kWh)

20000

10000

0
Mar-01

Mar-02

Mar-03

Mar-04

Mar-05

Mar-06

Mar-07

Mar-08

Mar-09

Mar-10
Sep-00

Sep-01

Sep-02

Sep-03

Sep-04

Sep-05

Sep-06

Sep-07

Sep-08

Sep-09

BEFORE AFTER Sep-10


Month/Year
Metered Data From Drill Tower
$3,000.00

$2,500.00

$2,000.00

$1,500.00
Electric Cost 2007
Electric Cost 2009
$1,000.00

$500.00

$0.00

MODULE 1: Designing with VRF


Metered Data From Drill Tower
$1,600.00

$1,400.00

$1,200.00

$1,000.00

$800.00
Gas Cost 2007
Gas Cost 2009
$600.00

$400.00

$200.00

$0.00

MODULE 1: Designing with VRF


Metered Data From Drill Tower

Total Electrical
Total Gas Cost Total Cost
Cost
Before CITY
MULTI - VRF $5,987.44 $19,456.78 $25,444.22
(2007)
After CITY MULTI
$455.03 $18,607.36 $19,062.39
- VRF (2009)

Percent Savings 92.4% 4.4% 25.1%

*Based on Data Provided from SMUD and PGE Building is located in Sacramento

MODULE 1: Designing with VRF


Re-Cap: Benefits of VRF Systems

 Space Utilization
 Installation flexibility to meet building space requirements
 Minimal impact to existing building architecture and structure

 Occupant Comfort
 Individual comfort control
 Indoor unit flexibility to meet the needs of any space
 Meets occupant ventilation air requirements
 Quiet operation

 Energy Savings
 Inverter driven compressor
 No waste heat
 Meets requirements for LEED points
Texas Utility SOP / MTP Programs
In closing, I would like to ask the board to please support the development of
programs in the state that appropriately incentivize VRF systems. By adding a
VRF category to the Texas Energy Efficiency Goal 25.181 utilizing the appropriate
energy efficiency metric IEER, utilities will accurately capture the associated
energy savings and properly incentivize the technology.
Additional Information
Support Slides
Successful Utility Programs - West

Prescriptive VRF Incentive

• $1,500/ton upstream rebate on up to 80 tons


for commercial applications
Calculating IEER

Stage Ambient Actual % Net Cap Cmpr Cond Indoor Control EER
Load (PC) (PCF) (PIF) (PCT)
(F) (Net Cap) Btu/h W W W W Btu/W
4 95.0 100 114,730 8,707 650 1,050 100 10.92
3 81.5 75 86,047 5,928 650 1,050 100 11.13
2 68.0 50 57,365 3,740 650 1,050 100 10.35
1 65.0 25 28,682 2,080 650 1,050 100 7.39

IEER  (0.020 10.92)  (0.617 11.13)  (0.238 10.35)  (0.125  7.39) 10.48
IEER Factors - Modeling Results
• Weighting Factors
Zone City volume % Econo
Weighting Factors
Office School Retail Weighted Average
40% 30% 30%
A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D total
1a Miami 1.181 no 0.008 0.914 0.072 0.007 0.009 0.798 0.182 0.011 0.007 0.806 0.179 0.008 0.008 0.847 0.137 0.008 1.000
2a Houston 8.838 no 0.016 0.739 0.193 0.051 0.020 0.687 0.180 0.113 0.013 0.668 0.258 0.062 0.016 0.702 0.209 0.073 1.000
2b Phoenix 3.876 yes 0.007 0.750 0.187 0.056 0.007 0.646 0.224 0.123 0.005 0.693 0.268 0.033 0.006 0.702 0.222 0.069 1.000
3a Memphis 8.738 no 0.080 0.590 0.216 0.114 0.090 0.585 0.245 0.079 0.087 0.569 0.248 0.097 0.085 0.582 0.234 0.099 1.000
3b El Paso 8.321 yes 0.021 0.724 0.157 0.097 0.021 0.758 0.158 0.064 0.028 0.796 0.126 0.051 0.023 0.756 0.148 0.073 1.000
3c San Francisco 8.678 yes 0.005 0.196 0.272 0.527 0.008 0.279 0.352 0.362 0.005 0.232 0.318 0.445 0.006 0.232 0.310 0.453 1.000
4a Baltimore 13.671 no 0.003 0.596 0.223 0.177 0.005 0.543 0.273 0.179 0.003 0.522 0.342 0.134 0.004 0.558 0.274 0.165 1.000
4b Albuquerque 1.442 yes 0.008 0.703 0.171 0.118 0.010 0.563 0.353 0.074 0.006 0.574 0.351 0.070 0.008 0.622 0.280 0.091 1.000
4c Salem 2.153 yes 0.013 0.495 0.279 0.213 0.018 0.557 0.297 0.127 0.011 0.547 0.283 0.159 0.014 0.529 0.286 0.171 1.000
5a Chicago 21.081 yes 0.008 0.790 0.117 0.085 0.051 0.588 0.314 0.047 0.007 0.647 0.299 0.047 0.021 0.686 0.231 0.062 1.000
5b Boise 5.294 yes 0.009 0.685 0.256 0.050 0.011 0.703 0.199 0.088 0.008 0.729 0.175 0.087 0.009 0.703 0.215 0.072 1.000
6a Burlington 10.434 yes 0.018 0.747 0.151 0.083 0.023 0.624 0.179 0.174 0.025 0.640 0.296 0.039 0.022 0.678 0.203 0.097 1.000
6b Helena 2.541 yes 0.007 0.587 0.337 0.069 0.007 0.444 0.400 0.149 0.006 0.498 0.368 0.128 0.007 0.517 0.365 0.111 1.000
7 Duluth 2.334 yes 0.013 0.714 0.186 0.086 0.016 0.559 0.221 0.204 0.011 0.496 0.444 0.049 0.013 0.602 0.274 0.110 1.000
8 Fairbanks 1.420 yes 0.007 0.531 0.286 0.177 0.010 0.293 0.600 0.097 0.007 0.637 0.269 0.087 0.008 0.491 0.375 0.126 1.000
USA weighted average 0.0202 0.6166 0.2381 0.1250 1.0000

• Bin-Average Ambient Values .02 .617 .238 .125


Zone City volume % Econo
Mean Ambient Temperatures
Office School Retail Weighted Average
40% 30% 30%
A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D
1a Miami 1.181 no 92.55 80.25 64.56 49.72 92.55 81.98 70.18 54.41 92.55 81.67 70.66 54.99 92.550 81.194 68.075 52.709
2a Houston 8.838 no 97.55 81.84 63.02 46.67 97.55 83.84 70.21 56.74 97.55 83.78 68.26 52.46 97.550 83.024 66.748 51.428
2b Phoenix 3.876 yes 112.55 92.34 74.84 67.09 112.55 94.69 80.38 71.05 112.55 95.35 77.77 67.55 112.550 93.947 77.380 68.417
3a Memphis 8.738 no 92.55 80.13 62.42 44.16 92.55 82.84 67.79 52.72 92.55 82.84 67.79 50.18 92.550 81.754 65.642 48.533
3b El Paso 8.321 yes 97.55 83.77 72.55 66.47 97.55 83.57 72.55 67.55 97.55 84.02 72.55 67.35 97.550 83.783 72.550 67.056
3c San Francisco 8.678 yes 92.55 80.59 72.55 65.28 92.55 80.59 72.55 54.49 92.55 80.30 72.55 66.31 92.550 80.505 72.550 62.355
4a Baltimore 13.671 no 97.55 79.75 62.95 42.88 97.55 82.83 70.44 54.49 97.55 82.62 68.35 49.50 97.550 81.533 66.814 48.348
4b Albuquerque 1.442 yes 102.55 83.94 72.55 66.62 102.55 86.48 74.98 67.55 102.55 86.44 75.24 67.55 102.550 85.453 74.085 67.178
4c Salem 2.153 yes 97.55 81.69 72.55 65.96 97.55 81.63 72.55 67.55 97.55 81.48 72.55 67.28 97.550 81.611 72.550 66.831
5a Chicago 21.081 yes 97.55 79.55 67.55 61.93 93.36 81.79 70.61 62.55 97.55 82.62 70.34 62.55 96.292 81.144 69.305 62.302
5b Boise 5.294 yes 97.55 80.13 65.08 57.55 97.55 83.11 72.55 67.55 97.55 82.62 72.55 67.31 97.550 81.771 69.562 63.479
6a Burlington 10.434 yes 87.55 73.53 62.55 57.29 87.55 75.62 67.55 61.21 87.55 75.97 65.29 57.55 87.550 74.889 64.873 58.543
6b Helena 2.541 yes 97.55 78.55 65.26 57.55 97.55 81.98 69.79 61.69 97.55 82.02 69.91 61.27 97.550 80.618 68.013 59.908
7 Duluth 2.334 yes 87.55 73.01 62.55 57.05 87.55 75.94 67.55 61.46 87.55 75.82 65.26 57.55 87.550 74.731 64.864 58.521
8 Fairbanks 1.420 yes 82.55 70.38 62.55 56.92 82.55 73.72 64.79 57.55 82.55 70.55 62.55 57.55 82.550 71.434 63.223 57.298
USA weighted average 95.519 81.229 68.736 58.372
Performance Incentives for Electric
Efficiency - Texas
Mitsubishi Stocking Distributors

139 distributor organizations


D
1,114 distributor branches
Mitsubishi Contractor Network

6,981 Contractors
1,030 “Diamond Dealers”
Mitsubishi Engineering Firms

6,495 architects and engineers


1,230 trained architects and engineers