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TWI

CSWIP 3.1
WIS 5
WELDING INSPECTION

INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
MEASURING IN WELDING.
The purposes
of measuring

Demonstration of Welding
conformance to process
specified requirements control
Amperage
Equipment calibration
Voltage
Travel speed
Dimensional accuracy
Pre-heat/ inter-pass temp
Shielding gas flow rate
Humidity
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INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.
• Steel rule
• Flexible tape measure
• Bevel angle gauge
• Root gap gauge
• Misalignment gauge
• Fillet gauge
• Height / depth gauge
• Voltmeter
• Ammeter
• Polarity indicator
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INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.
• Temp indicating crayons / pyrometer
• Contour gauge
• Torch or other light source
• Mirror
• Magnifying glass - 5x magnification
• Paint stick / marking crayon
• Pea shooter type flow meter
• Hard stamp/ soft stamp
• Stop watch
• Modelling clay / resin
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INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.

Other equipment the Welding Inspector may


be required to use;

Computers

Digital cameras

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INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.

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TWI CAMBRIDGE MULTI-PURPOSE
WELDING GAUGE:
Visual Inspection of Welds Using the
Cambridge
Multi-Purpose Welding Gauge:

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HI-LO GAUGE.
1

Internal Root gap


HI-LO Single Purpose Welding Gauge

alignment dimension

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THE MULTI-METER.
This piece of equipment can be
used to measure;

AMPERAGE

ARC VOLTAGE

RESISTANCE

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THE TONGUE TEST AMMETER.
Ammeter.
An instrument that measures
and indicates in amperes the
flow of electricity through a
circuit.
Can be clipped around either the
welding lead or return lead.
Usually measured as close to
the welding arc as practicable.

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
THE VOLT METER.
Arc Voltage.
The voltage required to
maintain the arc during welding
Two leads are attached and
connected across the arc.
Usually measured as close to
the welding arc as practicable.

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
TRAVEL SPEED MEASUREMENT.
Definition: the rate of weld progression
measured in case of mechanised and
automatic welding processes.
Two methods most commonly used;

Stop watch - measures time taken to


complete a single weld pass over a set
distance.

Run Out Length (ROL)- the length of a single


electrode used for depositing a single weld pass
with manual metal arc welding.

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
TRAVEL SPEED MEASUREMENT.

Travel speed =
60 seconds over 300mm
Travel speed =
30 seconds over 300mm

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TRAVEL SPEED MEASUREMENT.

Run Out Length (ROL)= 200mm

Run Out Length (ROL) = 100mm

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
PAMS (Portable Arc Monitor System)

The purposes
of a PAMS
For measuring For calibrating
and recording and validating
the welding the welding
parameters equipment

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
PAMS (Portable Arc Monitor System)
What does a PAMS measure?
Welding
current Print out

Gas flow
rate

Arc voltage Wire feed


speed
Temperature

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT.
Definition:
the rate at which gas
is caused to flow

set with a gas


regulator
can be checked with a
flow-meter

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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT
Temperature sensitive
materials:
•crayons, paints and pills
•cheap
•convenient, easy to use
•doesn’t measure the
actual temperature!

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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT.

HOW MANY TEMPERATURE INDICATING


CRAYONS WOULD BE REQUIRED TO
CHECK THAT THE MINIMUM &
MAXIMUM PREHEAT TEMPERATURES
HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED?

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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT.

PRE-HEAT RANGE IDEAL TEMPERATURE


INDICATING CRAYON
MIN / MAX

Minimum 50°C 50°C MUST melt

Maximum 100°C 101°C MUST NOT melt

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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT
Contact thermometer

•use bimetallic strips -


steel + INVAR (36% Ni -
64% Fe alloy)
•accurate
•easy to use
•gives the actual
temperature
•need calibration
•suitable for moderate
temperatures
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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT
Thermistors
are temperature-sensitive
resistors whose resistance
varies inversely with
temperature
used when high sensitivity is
required
gives the actual temperature
need calibration
can be used up to 320°C

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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT
Thermocouple

based on measuring the thermoelectric potential


difference between a hot junction (on weld) and a
cold junction

accurate method

measures over a wide range of temperatures

gives the actual temperature

need calibration
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TEMPERATURE TEST EQUIPMENT
Devices for contactless measurement

IR radiation and optical


pyrometer
measure the radiant
energy emitted by the
hot body
contactless method, can
be used for remote
measurements
very complex
for measuring high
temperatures
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QUESTIONS ?

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INSPECTION EQUIPMENT.

QUESTIONS ?

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Welding current measurement
Definition: the current delivered by a
welding power source during welding
• measured with an ammeter
• measured in Amperes
• the ammeter may be connected at any point in
the circuit
• in case of AC, either the root mean square
value (=0.707 peak value) or the mean value
of the rectified waveform is measured
• indirect measurement: tachogenerator and
tongue tester

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Arc voltage measurement
Definition: the potential difference across
the welding arc
• varies with the arc length
• measured with a voltmeter
• measured in Volts
• the voltmeter may be connected only across
the circuit (to the workpiece and as close as
possible to the electrode!)
• if the voltmeter is connected at the welding
power source, a higher voltage will be
recorded (due to potential drops across cables)

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
PAMS (Portable Arc Monitor System)
What does a PAMS measure?
Welding Gas flow
current rate
(Hall effect (heating
device) element
sensor)

Arc voltage Wire feed


(connection speed
leads) Temperature (tachometer)
(thermocouple)
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Use of PMAS
•Welding current monitoring - the Hall effect

Magnetic field
(produced by
Electron welding current)
deviation due to
magnetic field

e-

Electric Voltmeter
current

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Use of PMAS
Shielding gas flow
rate monitoring

Heating
element
sensor

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Use of PMAS
Shielding gas flow rate sensor
Increased gas flow rate
Metallic
tube

Increased cooling

Drop in temperature

Thermocouple

Heating Thermocouple
resistance Potential difference
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Use of PMAS
Wire feed speed
monitoring

Incorporated pair
of rolls connected
to a tachogenerator

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The tachogenerator
directly coupled to the feed
motor spindle

the output is an analogue DC


voltage which is a precise
function of rotation speed

this voltage is used to provide


a speed feedback signal for
the DC Power Drive powering
the main motor

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology
Gas flow rate measurement
Definition: the rate at which gas is caused to flow
set with a gas
regulator
can be checked with a
flow-meter

Copyright © 2005, TWI Ltd World Centre for Materials Joining Technology