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Chapter 1

Basic Properties of Fluids

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Mechanics
(It is the oldest physical science that deals with
both stationary and moving bodies under the
influence of forces)

Static Dynamics
(The branch of (The branch of
mechanics that deals mechanics that deals with
with bodies at rest) bodies in motion)

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Fluid Mechanics
It is the science deals with the behavior of fluids at rest
[fluid statics] or in motion [fluid dynamics]

Hydrodynamics Gas Dynamics


(Study of the motion of (Study of the motion of
incompressible fluids) compressible fluids)

Hydraulics Aerodynamics
(Liquid flows in pipes (Flow of air over bodies)
and open channels)
Is Fluid Mechanics Old- or low-tech?
Fluid Mechanics and Your MP3 Player

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Is Fluid Mechanics Old- or low-tech?

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Fluid Dynamic and Das Dynamic Bearing

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Fluid Dynamic and Das Dynamic Bearing

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Fluid Mechanics Overview
Fluid Mechanics

Gas Liquids Statics Dynamics

F  0i  F  0 , Flows
i

Water, Oils, Stability


Air, He, Ar,
N2, etc. Alcohols, Pressure Buoyancy Compressible/
etc.
Incompressible
Laminar/
Surface
Turbulent
Tension
Steady/Unsteady
Compressibility Density Viscosity Vapor Viscous/Inviscid
Pressure Fluid Dynamics:
Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Fluid Statics
Rest of Course

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


What is a fluid?
• A fluid is a substance in the gaseous or liquid form
• Distinction between solid and fluid?
– Solid: can resist an applied shear by deforming.
Stress is proportional to strain
– Fluid: deforms continuously under applied shear.
Stress is proportional to strain rate

Solid Fluid
F F V
    
A A h

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Characteristics of Fluids
• Gas or liquid state
• “Large” molecular spacing relative to a solid
• “Weak” intermolecular cohesive forces
• Can resist a shear stress when it is at rest
• Will take the shape of its container
• Generally considered as a continuum
• Viscosity distinguishes different types of fluids

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Fluid as a Continuum
• Molecules are widely spaced in
the gas phase. However, we
can disregard the molecular
nature of a substance.
• View it as a continuous,
homogeneous matter with no
holes, that is, a continuum.
• This allows us to treat
properties as smoothly varying
quantities.
• Continuum is valid as long as
size of the system is large in
comparison to distance
between molecules.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
 V   Smallest volume for which the mass
can be considered continuum

As a consequence of the continuum, each fluid


property is assumed to have a definite value at every
point in space. They are considered to be continuous
functions of position and time. For example

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Mean Free Path
It is the average distance covered by a moving particle
(such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between
successive impacts (collisions) which modify its
direction or energy or other particle properties.
Pressure in
Vacuum range Molecules / cm3 Molecules / m3 Mean free path
(mbar)
Ambient
1013 2.7 × 1019 2.7 × 1025 68 nm
pressure
Low vacuum 300 – 1 1019 – 1016 1025 – 1022 0.1 – 100 μm
Medium
1 – 10−3 1016 – 1013 1022 – 1019 0.1 – 100 mm
vacuum
High vacuum 10−3 – 10−7 1013 – 109 1019 – 1015 10 cm – 1 km
Ultra high
10−7 – 10−12 109 – 104 1015 – 1010 1 km – 105 km
vacuum
Extremely high
<10−12 <104 <1010 >105 km
vacuum

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Basic Equations
Analysis of any problem in fluid mechanics
necessarily includes statement of the basic laws
governing the fluid motion. The basic laws are
• Conservation of mass
• Newton’s second law of motion
• The principle of angular momentum
• The first law of thermodynamics
• The second law of thermodynamics

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Methods of Analysis

 System
(or “Closed System”)

 Control Volume
(or “Open System”)

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Dimensions and Units
• A dimension is a measure of any physical
quantity (without numerical values) .
• A unit is a way to assign a number or
measurement to that dimension.
• Basic dimensions include: Mass M, length L,
time T, and temperature θ or Force F, length L,
time T, and temperature θ.
• Unit systems include English system and the
metric SI (International System).
• Dimensional homogeneity is a valuable tool in
checking for errors. Make sure every term in an
equation has the same units.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight:

• Density is defined as the mass per unit volume


ρ = m/V (kg/m3)
 Different fluids can vary greatly in density
 Liquids densities do not vary much with
pressure and temperature
 Gas densities can vary quite a bit with
pressure and temperature
• Specific volume is defined as
v = 1/ρ = V/m (m3/kg)
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight:
• Specific gravity, or relative density is defined as
the ratio of the density of a substance to the
density of some standard substance at a specified
temperature (usually water at 4°C), i.e.,
SG = r/rH20
SG is a dimensionless quantity.

• The specific weight is defined as the weight per


unit volume, i.e.,
γ = ρg
where g is the gravitational acceleration and γ has
units of N/m3.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Viscosity: Introduction
• Viscosity is a property that represents the internal
resistance of a fluid to motion.
• The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the
flow direction is called the drag force, and the
magnitude of this force depends, in part, on
viscosity.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Types of Drag
There are essentially three types of drag: Friction
drag, Form or Pressure drag, and Induced drag.

• Friction drag occurs at the boundary layer.


• Form drag is directly proportional to the cross-
sectional area of the object traveling through a fluid.

• Induced drag is a drag force that


occurs whenever a moving object
redirects the airflow coming at it.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Shape and Form Skin
flow drag friction

0% 100%

~10% ~90%

~90% ~10%

100% 0%

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Viscosity
a

(b)

(a)

(a) Deformation of material placed between two parallel


plates. (b) Forces acting on upper plate.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Viscosity

No slip
condition

Behavior of a fluid placed between two parallel plates.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Viscosity: Newtonian vs. Non-Newtonian Fluids
Fluids for which the
shearing stress is
linearly related to the
rate of shearing strain
are designated as
Newtonian Fluids.
Fortunately most
common fluids, both
liquids and gases, are
Newtonian.
Linear variation of du
shearing stress with rate of  
shearing strain dy

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Toothpaste
Latex Paint

Corn Starch

Linear variation of shearing stress with rate of


shearing strain for several types of fluids

Fluids for which the shearing stress is not linearly


related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as
Non-Newtonian Fluids.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Dynamic (absolute) viscosity of some common fluids as
a function of temperature.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
The effect of temperature on viscosity can be closely
approximated using two empirical formulas.
• For gases by the Sutherland correlation
1

aT 2

1 b / T
Where T is the absolute temp and a and b are
experimentally determined constants.
For air, the values of these constants are
a = 1.458  10-6 kg/m.s.K1/2 and b = 110.4 K
at atmospheric conditions

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


• For liquids an empirical equation that has been used is
b
T  c 
  a 10
Where T is the absolute temp and a, b, and c are
experimentally determined constants.
For water using the values
a = 2.414  10-5 N.s/m2, b = 247.8 K and c = 140
K results in less than 2.5 percent error in viscosity
in the temperature range of 0oC to 370oC.
This equation is often referred to as Andrade’s
equation.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Viscosity: Kinematic Viscosity


r
• It is another way of representing viscosity
• Used in the flow equations
• The units are of L2/T or m2/s and ft2/s

1 poise = 1/10 N.s/m 2


1 poise (P) = 100 centipoise (cP)
1 cP = 1/100 poise = 0.001 N.s/m 2

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Compressibility of Fluids: Bulk Modulus
How compressible is the fluid?
dp dp
E   
d V / V dr / r

• Where dP is the differential


change in pressure needed to
create a differential change in
volume dV, of a volume V.
• Units of the bulk modulus (also
referred to as the bulk modulus of
elasticity) are N/m2 (Pa).
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Compressibility of Fluids: Bulk Modulus
• Large value for the bulk indicate that the fluid is
relatively compressible-that is, it takes a large
pressure change to create a small change in
volume.
• For example, at atmospheric pressure and
temperature of 15oC it would require a pressure
of 21.5 MPa to compress a unit volume of water
1%.
• Since large pressure are required to effect a
change in volume, we conclude that liquids can
be considered as incompressible for most
practical engineering applications.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Compressibility of Fluids: Compression of Gases
When gases are compressed or expanded the
relationship between P and ρ depends on the nature
of the process.
Isothermal Process (constant temperature):
p
r
 constant E  p
Isentropic Process (frictionless, no heat exchange):
p
r k
 constant E  kp
k is the ratio of specific heats  k  c p / cv 
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Compressibility of Fluids: Compression of Gases
• Note that in both cases the bulk modulus varies
directly with pressure.
• For air under standard atmospheric conditions
with p = 101.3 kPa (abs) and k = 1.4, the
isentropic bulk modulus is 142 kPa. For water
under the same conditions is 2150 kPa. It shows
that air is approximately 15,000 times as
compressible as water.
• It is thus clear that in dealing with gases, greater
attention will need to be given to the effect of
compressibility on fluid behavior.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Compressibility of Fluids: Speed of Sound
A consequence of the compressibility of fluids is that
small disturbances introduced at a point propagate at a
finite velocity. Pressure disturbances in the fluid
propagate as sound, and their velocity is known as the
speed of sound or the acoustic velocity, c.
dp Ev
c or c 
dr r
kp
Isentropic Process : c
r

Ideal Gas and Isentropic Process: c  kRT

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
A sonic boom produced by an aircraft moving at
M=2.92, calculated from the cone angle of 20 deg.
An observer hears the boom when the shock wave,
on the edges of the cone, crosses his or her location.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Vapor Pressure : The Microscopic View
Evaporation occurs in a fluid when liquid molecules
at the surface have sufficient momentum to
overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces.

• When a liquid evaporates to a gas in a closed


container, the molecules cannot escape.
• Some of the gas molecules will eventually strike
the condensed phase and condense back into it.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Vapor Pressure: The Microscopic View
• When the rate of condensation of the gas becomes
equal to the rate of evaporation of the liquid, the
amount of gas and liquid no longer changes.
• The gas in the container is in equilibrium with the
liquid. Then the vapour is said to be saturated.
• The pressure exerted by the gas on the liquid
surface in equilibrium with a liquid in a closed
container at a given temperature is called the vapor
pressure.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Vapor Pressure: Measurements (Basic)

If you have a mercury


barometer tube in a trough of
mercury, at 1 atmosphere
pressure the column will be
760 mm tall.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Vapor Pressure: Measurements

If you squirt a few drops of liquid


into the tube, it will rise to form a
thin layer floating on top of the
mercury. Some of the liquid will
evaporate and you will get the
equilibrium. It is only an equilibrium
if both liquid and vapour are present.

The saturated vapour pressure of the liquid will force the


mercury level down a bit. In this case, the mercury has been
forced down by a distance of 760 - 630 mm. The saturated
vapour pressure of this liquid at the temperature of the
experiment is 130 mmHg.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Vapor Pressure: The Microscopic View
The vapor pressure of a liquid varies with its
temperature, as the following graph shows for
water.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Evaporation and Boiling

They refer to the same physical process, they differ


in some aspects.
Evaporation occurs at the liquid-vapor interface
when the vapor pressure in the air is less than the
saturation pressure of the liquid at a given
temperature.
Boiling occurs at the solid-liquid interface when a
liquid is brought into contact with surface
maintained at a temperature Ts sufficiently above
the saturation temperature Tsat of the liquid.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Evaporation and Boiling

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Evaporation and Boiling
Atmosphere air can be viewed as a mixture of dry air
(air with zero moisture) and water vapor (moisture).

Patm  Pa  Pv

Atmosphere pressure is the sum of the pressure of dry


air Pa and the pressure of water vapor, called the vapor
pressure (Pv).

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Evaporation and Boiling
For liquid water that is open to the atmosphere, the
criterion for phase equilibrium -> The vapor pressure
(Pv) in the air must be equal to the saturation pressure
of water at the water temperature.
Pv   Psat@T
where   relative humidity
Psat@T  saturation pressure of liquid
at the specificed temperature
Ex: Pv   Psat@25o C  0.6  3.17 kPa
 1.90 kPa

If the Pv in the air < Psat of water at the water


temperature, some liquid will evaporate.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Vapor Pressure: Cavitation
It is the formation of air bubbles, forming on the
low pressure region in a flowing fluid and they are
swept into regions of higher pressure where they
suddenly collapse.

Vortex pump
Propeller
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Vapor Pressure: Cavitation

Centrifugal Pump Impeller Francis Turbine Impeller

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Surface Tension
• A drop of blood forms a hump on a horizontal
glass.
• A drop of mercury forms a near-perfect sphere and
can be rolled just like a steel ball over a smooth
surface.
• Water droplets from rain or dew hang from
branches or leaves of trees.
• A liquid fuel injected into an engine forms a mist of
spherical droplets.
• Water dripping from a leaky faucet falls as nearly
spherical droplets.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Surface Tension
• Water beads up into small drops on flower petals.
• A soap bubble released into the air forms a nearly
spherical shape.

Water beading on a leaf Water dripping from a tap Mercury droplets on a table

Water striders stay atop the liquid

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Surface Tension
In these and other observances, liquid droplets
behave like small spherical balloons filled with
liquid, and the surface of the liquid acts like a
stretched elastic membrane under tension.

The pulling force that causes this tension acts


parallel to the surface and is due to the attractive
forces between molecules of the liquid. The
magnitude of this force unit length is called surface
tension σ and is usually expressed in the unit N/m.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Surface Tension : A Microscopic View

Considering two liquid molecules, one at the surface


and one deep within the liquid body. The attractive
forces applied on the interior molecule by the
surrounding molecules balance each other because of
the symmetry.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Surface Tension : A Microscopic View
The attractive force on surface molecule is not
symmetric, and the attractive forces applied by the
gas molecules above are usually very small.
Therefore, there is a net attractive force acting on
molecules at the surface of the liquid, which tends to
pull the molecules on the surface towards the interior
of the liquid. This force is balanced by the repulsive
forces from the molecules below the surface that are
trying to be compressed. The result is that the liquid
to minimize its surface area. This is the reason for the
tendency of liquid droplets to attain a spherical shape.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Work in Changing a Surface Area
A liquid film suspended on
a U-shaped wire frame with
a movable side. Both sides
of the thin film are surfaces
exposed to air, and thus the
length along which the
surface tension acts in this
case 2l. Then a force
balance on the movable wire
gives
F  2l 
F

2l
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Calculation of Pressure inside a liquid droplet
Real Fluid Drops Mathematical Model

The force developed around the edge due to surface tension


along the line: F  2 R  Applied to Circumference
surface

This force is balanced by the pressure difference Δp


Fpressure  Dp  R 2 Applied to Area

2
Dp  pi  pe 
R
Dp is the pressure difference between the inside and outside.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Surface Tension: Liquid Droplet and Soap Bubble

4
Dp 
R
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Surface Tension: Capillary Effect
The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube
inserted into the liquid is called as capillary effect . It is
the consequence of surface tension. The curved free
surface of a liquid in the tube is call the meniscus.
“Wetted” “Non-Wetted”

Adhesion

Cohesion
Adhesion

Cohesion

Adhesion > Cohesion Cohesion > Adhesion

h is the height, R is the radius of the tube, θ is the angle of


contact.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Capillary Effect : Wetting and Nonwetting Fluid

The strength of
capillary effect is
quantified by the
contact angle ø,
defined as the angle
that the tangent to
the liquid surface
makes with the solid
surface at the point
of contact.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Capillary Effect : A Microscopic View
• Cohesive forces are the forces between like
molecules, such as water and water and adhesive
force are the forces between unlike molecules such
as water and glass.
• The liquid molecules at the solid-liquid interface are
subjected to both cohesive forces by other liquid
molecules and adhesive forces by the molecules of
the solid.
• The relative magnitudes of these forces determine
whether a liquid wets a solid surface or not. Thus
water tends to rise along the glass surface and the
opposite occurs for mercury.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Calculation of Capillary Rise
The weight of the fluid is balanced with the vertical
force caused by surface tension.
Fsurface  2R cos 
W  R h 2

Equating the two and solving for h:


2 cos 
Free Body Diagram h
R
• For clean glass in contact with water, θ  0°
• For a clean glass in contact with mercury, θ  130°.
Thus h is negative or there is a push down of the fluid.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Surface Tension

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Torque
Torque also called moment or moment of force is the
tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,
fulcrum, or pivot.

T  r F
T  rF sin 
Where T is the torque vector and
r is the displacement vector
 is the angle between the force
vector and the lever arm vector.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Torque
The torque on a body determines the rate of change of
the body's angular momentum.
dL
T
dt
where L is the angular momentum vector. If multiple
torques are acting on the body,
dL
T1  T2      Tn  Tnet 
dt
For rotation about a fixed axis  L  I 
where I is the moment of inertia and ω is the angular
velocity. It follows that
dL d  I   I d  
Tnet     I
dt dt dt
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics
Moment of inertia
Moment of inertia, also called mass moment of
inertia or the angular mass, is a measure of an
object's resistance to changes in its rotation rate.

ME F212 Fluid Mechanics


Moment of inertia

Divers minimizing their moments of inertia to


increase their rates of rotation.
ME F212 Fluid Mechanics