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Presentation on

Automated storage and


retrieval system
1.INDEX
1. Introduction .
2. Storage System Performance and Location Strategies
3. Conventional Storage Methods and Equipment
4. Automated Storage Systems
5. Engineering Analysis of Storage Systems
• Definition (1) - An AS/RS is a combination of equipment and
controls which handles, stores, and retrieves materials with
precision, accuracy, and speed under a defined degree of
automation. (Materials Handling Institute)

• Definition (2) - AS/RS systems transport, storage, retrieve,


and report on every inventory item with up-to-the minute
accuracy

• Definition (3) – The Basic AS/RS consists of a rack structure for


storing loads and a storage/retrieval mechanism whose
motions are linear (x-y-z, motions).
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems
• An AS/RS consists of one or more storage aisles that are each
serviced by a storage/retrieval (S/R) machine.
• The aisles have storage racks for holding the stored materials.
• The S/R machines are used to deliver material to the storage
racks and to retrieve materials from the racks
 Warehouses
 Storing, Moving, and selecting parts
 Manufacturing
 Just in time arrival of parts
 Clean Rooms
 Moving and storing of material that cannot be contaminated
 Libraries
 Book storage and retrieval
 Hospitals and pharmaceutical purpose
 Storage and retrieval of dangerous material
 Grocery Distributer
 Moving and storing of material that cannot be contaminated
Function – to store materials (e.g., parts, work-in-process,
finished goods) for a period of time and permit retrieval when
required.

* Used in factories, warehouses, distribution centers, wholesale


dealerships, and retail stores
* Important supply chain component
* Automation available to improve efficiency
Performance measures for storage systems:
1.Storage capacity - two measures:
* Total volumetric space
* Total number of storage compartments (e.g., unit loads)
2.Storage density - volumetric space available for
storage relative to total volumetric space in facility
3.Accessibility - capability to access any item in storage
4.System throughput - hourly rate of storage/retrieval
transactions
5.Utilization and availability (reliability)
STORAGE SYSTEM STRATEGY

Two strategies: 1. Randomized, and


2. Dedicated
Randomized storage –
. In coming items are stored in any available location
. Usually means nearest available open location
Dedicated storage –
In coming items are assigned to specific locations in the storage
facility
Typical bases for deciding locations:
* Items stored in item number sequence
* Items stored according to activity level
* Items stored according to activity-to-space ratios
1. Less total space is required in a storage system that uses a
randomized storage strategy
* Dedicated storage requires space for maximum inventory level
of each item
2. Higher throughput rates are achieved in a system that uses
dedicated storage strategy based on activity level
* The most active items can be located near the input/output
point
* Compromise: Class-based dedicated storage
1.Items divided into classes according to activity level
2.Random storage strategy used within each class.
1.Bulk storage - storage in an open floor area
* Problem: achieving proper balance between storage density and
accessibility
2.Rack systems - structure with racks for pallet loads
* Permits vertical stacking of materials
3.Shelving and bins - horizontal platforms in structural frame
* Steel shelving comes in standard sizes
* Finding items can be a problem
4.Drawer storage - entire contents of each drawer can be
viewed
(a) Bulk storage arrangements:
(b) high-density bulk storage provides low accessibility,
(c) bulk storage with loads forming rows and blocks for improved accessibility
(d) Low cost per sq meter
(a) Pallet loads placed on
racks in multi-rack
structure
(b) Low cost
(c) Good storage
density
(d) Good accessibility
* Contents easily visible
* Good accessibility
* Relatively high cost

Small items (tools, repair


parts, etc.)
Mechanized and automated storage equipment
to reduce the human resources required to operate a
storage facility
1. Significant investment
2. Level of automation varies
* In mechanized systems, an operator participates in each
storage/retrieval transaction
* In highly automated systems, loads are entered or retrieved
under computer control
* To increase storage capacity
* To increase storage density
* To recover factory floor space currently used for WIP
* To improve security and reduce pilferage
* To reduce labor cost and/or increase productivity
* To improve safety
* To improve inventory control
* To improve stock rotation
* To improve customer service
* To increase throughput
1. Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS)
* Rack system with mechanized or automated crane to
store/retrieve loads
2. Carousel Storage System
* Oval conveyor system with bins to contain individual items
* Unit load AS/RS - Large automated system designed to
use S/R machines to move unit loads on pallets into and
out of storage racks.

* Deep-Lane AS/RS – High-density unit load storage


system, designed to store large amounts of stock with
relatively little amounts of stock types. It generally
stores ten or more loads in a single rack with the input
on one side and output on the other

* Mini-load AS/RS - Smaller automated system designed to


move smaller loads into and out of storage bins or
drawers.

* Man-on-board AS/RS - Uses personnel to pick items from


racks or bins, reducing transaction time.

* Automated item retrieval system - Items to be moved


are stored in single file lanes, rather than in bins or
drawers.

* Vertical lift storage modules –same principle of using a


center aisle to access loads is used except that the aisle
is vertical. Helps to save floor space
Unit load on
pallet AS/RS with
one aisle
1. Unit load storage and retrieval
* Warehousing and distribution operations
* AS/RS types: unit load, deep lane (food industry)
2. Order picking
* AS/RS types: mini load, man-on-board, item retrieval
3. Work-in-process storage
* Helps to manage WIP in factory operations
* Buffer storage between operations with different production
rates
* Supports JIT manufacturing strategy
* Kitting of parts for assembly
* Horizontal
* Operation is similar to overhead conveyor system used in dry
cleaning establishments
* Items are stored in bins suspended from the conveyor
* Lengths range between 3 m and 30 m
* Horizontal is most common type
* Vertical
* Operates around a vertical conveyor loop
* Less floor space required, but overhead room must be provided
Manually operated horizontal carousel storage system
1. Storage and retrieval operations
* Order picking
* Kitting of parts for assembly
2. Transport and accumulation
* Progressive assembly with assembly stations located around
carousel
3. Work-in-process
* WIP applications in electronics industry are common
4. Unique applications
* Example: time testing of electrical products
1. Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems
* Sizing the AS/RS
* AS/RS throughput analysis.
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems

• Each AS/RS aisle has one or more input/output stations where


materials are delivered into the storage system or moved out of the
system.

• The input/output stations are called pickup-and-deposit (P&D)


stations in AS/RS terminology.

• P&D stations can be manually operated or interfaced to some form


of automated system.
Analysis of Automated Storage/Retrieval
Systems
• The total storage capacity of one storage aisle
depends on how many storage compartments are
arranged horizontally and vertically in the aisle.
This can be expressed as follows:

CAPACITY PER AISEL=2 ny nz

• Where ny = number of load compartments along the


length of the aisle, and nz = number of load
compartments that make up the height of the aisle.
• The constant 2 accounts for the fact that loads are
contained on both sides of the aisle
Analysis of Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems

• If we assume a standard size compartment (to accept a


standard size unit load), then the compartment dimensions
facing the aisle must be larger than the unit load
dimensions.
• Let x and y = the depth and width dimensions of a unit load,
and z = the height of the unit load.
• The width, length, and height of the rack structure of the
AS/RS aisle are related to the unit load dimensions and
number of compartments as follows:
Where

W, L, and H are the width, length and


height of one aisle of the AS/RS rack
structure (mm).
x, y, and z are the dimensions of the unit
load (mm).
a, b, and c are allowances designed into
each storage compartment to provide
clearance for the unit load (mm)
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all
copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any
form or by any means, without permission in writing from
the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the
book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-

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