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# CHAPTER 4 : TORSION

Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. discuss effects of applying torsional loading to a long straight member
2. determine stress distribution within the member under torsional load
3. determine angle of twist when material behaves in a linear-elastic manner
4. discuss statically indeterminate analysis of shafts and tubes
5. discuss stress distributions and residual stress caused by torsional
loadings

Topics:

## • Torsional Deformation of a Circular Shaft

• The Torsion Formula/Angle of Twist
• Power Transmission
• Statically Indeterminate Problems

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4.0 APPLICATION

## Notice the deformation

of the rectangular
element when this
rubber bar is subjected
to a torque

2
This tabular drive shaft for a truck was subjected to an overload
resulting in failure caused by yielding of the material
3
The drive shaft of this cutting machine must be designed to meet the
power requirements of its motor. 4
Oil wells are commonly drilled to
depths exceeding a thousand
meters. As a result, the total angle
of twist of a string of drill pipe
can be substantial and must be
computed.

5
When computing both the stress and the angle of twist of this soil
auger, it is necessary to consider the variable loading which acts
along its length 6
INTRODUCTION
• Torsion is a moment that twists/deforms a member about its longitudinal
axis
• Its effect is of primary concern in the design of axles or drive shafts used
in vehicles and machinery
• By observation, if angle of rotation is small, length of shaft and its radius
remain unchanged

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Torsional Loads on Circular Shaft
• Interested in stresses and strains
of circular shafts subjected to
twisting couples or torques.
• Turbine exerts torque T on the
shaft.
• Shaft transmits the torque to the
generator.
• Generator creates an equal and
opposite torque T’.

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4.1 TORSIONAL DEFORMATION
OF A CIRCULAT SHAFT
Torsion refers to the twisting of a structural member when it is loaded
by moments/torques that produce rotation about the longitudinal axis
of the member
The problem of transmitting a torque or rotary motion from one plane
to another is frequently encountered in machine design.
Normally circular bars are used for such transmissions chiefly
because, in these bars, a plane section before twisting remains plane
after twisting.

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Assumption to determining the relationship of the shearing
stress in circular shaft subjected to torsions:
 the material of the shaft is homogeneous
 the maximum shearing stress in the shaft is within the
elastic limit
 the twist remains uniform along the whole length of the
shaft
 the normal cross-section of the shaft which are plane
and circular before the twist remain same after the twist
 the straight radial line of any cross section of the shaft
remain straight.
 the distance between any two cross section of the shaft
remain the same

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Torsional Deformation of Circular Bars

##  Consider a bar of circular cross-section twisted by

couples T at the ends. Because the bar is subjected to
torsion only, it is said to be in pure torsion.
 Assuming that the end B is fixed, then the torque will
cause end A to rotate through a small angle Ф, known
as the angle of twist. Thus the longitudinal line AB on
the surface of the bar will rotate through a small angle
to position A'B

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Since the ends of the element remain
planar, the shear strain is equal to
angle of twist,.
It follows that
r
BB '  L  r or  
L
According to Hooke’s law, for linear elastic materials, shear
stresses are proportional to shear strains and the constant
of proportionality is the modulus of rigidity, G. Hence

  G
G  r  Gr 
   G  G   
L L r L
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Torsion Formula: Relationship between
T and 
To determine the relationship between the
applied torque T and the stresses it produces, we
consider equilibrium of the internal forces and the
externally applied torque, T.
Considering an elemental area dA within an
elemental ring of thickness dr situated at radius r
from the centre:

dF=x dA dF   x  2x  dx
r
dF=x·2x.dx
dM  xdF
x   
  x   x  2x  dx 
x r r 
 
  2x 3  dx
x   x r
r

M    2x 3  dx 13
r
• Moments (M) from the internal stress distribution is
equal to the torque (T).

T    2x 3  dx
r

  2x 3  dx
r
J   2x 3  dx

T  J
r
T  G
 
J r L
J= Momen Luas Kedua Kutub / the polar moment of inertia of the
cross-sectional area 14
Polar moment of inertia for some structure

## i) Solid shaft ii) Hollow shaft

D
d
2
J   2x 3  dx
2
J   2x 3  dx TR
0 d max 
d 2 J
TR
 2x 4  2 max  D
J  J
 2x 4  2
 4  0 J Tr
 min 
d 4  4  d J
J 2
32
J

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D4  d 4 
• Computation of Angle of Twist
 T TL
 
L GJ GJ
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4.2 THE TORSION FORMULA
Torsional Formula – equation that relates the internal torque to the
shear stress distribution on the cross section of a circular shaft or
tube. This formula can be only used if the shaft is circular and the
material is homogeneous and behaves in a linear-elastic manner

Tc Tr
max  
J J
τmax = the maximum shear stress in the shaft, which occurs at the outer
surface
T = the resultant internal torque acting at the cross section. Its value is
determined from the method of sections and the equation of moment
equilibrium applied about the shaft’s longitudinal axis
J = the polar moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area
c = the outer radius of the shaft 16
Torsional Failure Mode
• Ductile materials generally fail in
shear. Brittle materials are weaker in
tension than shear.
• When subjected to torsion, a
ductile specimen breaks along a
plane of maximum shear, i.e., a
plane perpendicular to the shaft
axis.
• When subjected to torsion, a
brittle specimen breaks along
planes perpendicular to the
direction in which tension is a
maximum, i.e., along surfaces at
45o to the shaft axis.
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IMPORTANT POINTS
 When a shaft having a circular cross section is subjected to a torque, the
cross section remains plane while radial lines rotate. This causes a shear
strain within the material that varies linearly along any radial line, from
zero at the axis of the shaft to a maximum at its outer boundary
 For linearly elastic homogeneous material, due to Hooke’s law, the shear
stress along any radial line of the shaft also varies linearly, from zero at
its axis to a maximum at its outer boundary. This maximum shear stress
must not exceed the proportional limit.
 Due to the complementary property of shear, the linear shear stress
distribution within the plane of the cross section is also distributed along
an adjacent axial plane of the shaft.
 The torsion formula is based on the requirement that the resultant torque
on the cross section is equal to the torque produced by the linear shear
stress distribution about the longitudinal axis of the shaft. It is necessary
that the shaft or tube have a circular cross section and that it is made of
homogeneous material which has linear-elastic behavior.
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Procedure of Analysis
Internal loading
• Section shaft perpendicular to its axis at point where shear stress is to be
determined
• Use free-body diagram and equations of equilibrium to obtain internal
torque at section
Section property
• Compute polar moment of inertia and x-sectional area
• For solid section, J = c4/2
• For tube, J = (co4  ci2)/2
Shear stress
• Specify radial distance , measured from centre of x-section to point
where shear stress is to be found
• Apply torsion formula,  = T /J or max = Tc/J
• Shear stress acts on x-section in direction that is always perpendicular to 
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Sign Convention
Use right-hand rule: torque and angle of twist are positive when
thumb is directed outward from the shaft

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IMPORTANT POINT
 The angle of twist is determined by relating the applied torque
to the shear stress using the torsion formula, τ = Tρ/J and
relating the relative rotation to the shear strain using dφ =
γdx/ρ. Finally, these equations are combined using Hooke’s
law, τ = Gγ which yield angle of twist φ(phi) equation.
 Since Hooke’s law is used in the development of the formula
for the angle of twist, it is important that the applied torques do
not cause yielding of the material and that the material is
homogeneous and behaves in a linear-elastic manner.

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Example 4.1:
a) Determine the torque T which causes a maximum shearing
stress of 70 MPa in the steel cylindrical shaft shown.
b) Determine the maximum shearing stress caused by a torque of
magnitudeT = 800 Nm.

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Solution:
Solution (a)
Tr
 max 
J
d 4   2r    2  0.018
4 4

J    1.65 10 7
32 32 32
 maxJ 70 106 1.65 10 7
T   641.67 Nm
r 0.018
Solution (b)
Tr
 max 
J
d 4   2r    2  0.018
4 4

J    1.65 10  7
32 32 32
800  0.018
 max   87.3MPa
1.65 10 7

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Example 4.2:
Knowing that the internal diameter of
the hollow shaft shown is d = 23 mm,
determine the maximum shearing
stress caused by a torque of
magnitude T = 1.0 kNm.

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Solution:
40
d o  40mm  0.04m, ro   20mm  0.02m
2
23
d i  23mm  0.023m, ri   11.5mm  0.0115m
2
Tr
 max  o
J
J

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4
 4 
d o  d i  0.04 4  0.0234   2.24 10 7 m 4
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## 1.0 103 Nm  0.02m

max   89.3MPa
2.24 10 m
7 4

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Example 4.3:

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Solution:

0.04m
d o  40mm  0.04m, ro   0.02m
2
0.03m
d i  30mm  0.03m, ri   0.015m
2
J

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 4
 4 
d o  d i  0.04 4  0.034   1.72 10 7 m 4
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Tro
 max 
J
 maxJ 52 10 6 Nm 2  1.72 10 7 m 4
T   447.2 Nm
ro 0.02m

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Example 4.4:
The gears attached to the fixed-end steel shaft are subjected to the
torques shown below. If the shear modulus of elasticity is 80 GPa
and the shaft has a
diameter of 14mm,
determine the
displacement of the tooth
on gear A. The shaft turns
freely within the bearing at
B

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Example 4.5:
SOLUTION:
• Cut sections through shafts AB
and BC and perform static
equilibrium analyses to find
torque loadings.
• Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC.
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer • Given allowable shearing stress
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm, and applied torque, invert the
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid of elastic torsion formula to find the
diameter d. For the loading shown, determine required diameter.
(a) the minimum and maximum shearing
stress in shaft BC, (b) the required diameter d
of shafts AB and CD if the allowable shearing
stress in these shafts is 65 MPa. 31
SOLUTION :

## • Cut sections through shafts AB and BC

and perform static equilibrium analysis
to find torque loadings.

##  M x  0  6 kN  m   TAB  M x  0  6 kN  m   14 kN  m   TBC

TAB  6 kN  m  TCD TBC  20 kN  m

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• Apply elastic torsion formulas to • Given allowable shearing stress and
find minimum and maximum applied torque, invert the elastic torsion
stress on shaft BC. formula to find the required diameter.

## c24  c14   0.060 4  0.045 4 

  Tc Tc 6 kN  m
J  max   65 MPa 
2 2 J  c4  c3
2 2
6 4
 13.92 10 m
c  38.9 10 3 m
TBC c2 20 kN  m 0.060 m 
 max   2   d  2c  77.8 mm
J 13.92 10 6 m 4
 86.2 MPa
 min c1  min 45 mm
 
 max c2 86.2 MPa 60 mm  max  86.2 MPa
 min  64.7 MPa  min  64.7 MPa
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Example 4.6:
The stress distribution in a solid
shaft has been plotted along three
arbitrary radial lines as shown
below. Determine the resultant
internal torque at the section

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4.3 POWER TRANSMISSION
Power transmitted by a circular shaft, P - depends upon the
magnitude of the torque and the speed of rotation, . Power is
the rate at which work is done.
P=T
where, P is power (watt)
T is torque (Nm)
 is angular speed (rad/s)
The angular speed is often expressed as the frequency, f, of
rotation, i.e. the number of revolutions per second. This
means that
=2f
where f is measured in Hetz (Hz) = s-1;
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Design of Transmission Shaft
• Determine torque applied to shaft at
specified power and speed,
P  T  2fT
P P
T 
 2f
• Designer must select shaft
material and cross-section to • Find shaft cross-section which will not
meet performance specifications exceed the maximum allowable
without exceeding allowable shearing stress,
shearing stress.  max 
Tc
J
P  2fT J  3 T
 c  solid shafts
 max
N c 2
 2   T
 60 
J

 4 4
c2 2c2

c2  c1  
T
 max
hollow shafts
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Example
A solid steel shaft AB
shown below is used to
transmit 3750 W from
the motor M to which it
is attached. If the shaft
rotates at ω = 175 rpm
and the steel has an
allowable shear stress of
τallow = 100MPa,
determine the required
diameter of the shaft to
the nearest mm.
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Example:

## A 1.6-m long tubular steel shaft (G = 77 GPa) of 42 mm outer

diameter d1 and 30 mm inner diameter d2 is to transmit 120 kW
between a turbine and a generator. Knowing that the allowable
shearing stress is 65 MPa, determine the minimum frequency at
which the shaft may rotate.

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One of two hollow drive shafts of an ocean liner
is 38 m long, and its outer and inner diameters
are 400 mm and 200 mm respectively. The
shaft is made of a steel for which τ (all) = 60
MPa and G = 77 GPa. Knowing that the
maximum speed of rotation of the shaft is 2.75
Hz, determine
(a) the maximum power that can be transmitted
by the one shaft to its propeller,
(b) the corresponding angle of twist of the shaft.

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4.5 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE
PROBLEMS
• Given the shaft dimensions and the applied
torque, we would like to find the torque reactions
at A and B.
• From a free-body analysis of the shaft,

## which is not sufficient to find the end torques.

The problem is statically indeterminate.
• Divide the shaft into two components which
must have compatible deformations,

## • Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,

+ 120
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Procedure of Analysis
Equilibrium
 Draw a free-body diagram
 Write equations of equilibrium about axis of shaft
Compatibility
 Express compatibility conditions in terms of rotational
displacement caused by reactive torques
 Use torque-displacement relationship, such as
 = TL/JG
 Solve equilibrium and compatibility equations for unknown
torques

46
Example 1
The solid steel shaft shown below has a diameter of 20 mm. If it
is subjected to the two torque, determine the reactions at the
fixed supports A and B

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48
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4.5 Statically Indeterminate Prob.
Example 2
SOLUTION:
• Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between TCD and T0 .
• Apply a kinematics analysis to relate
the angular rotations of the gears.
• Find the maximum allowable torque
Two solid steel shafts are connected on each shaft – choose the smallest.
by gears. Knowing that for each shaft • Find the corresponding angle of twist
G = 77 GPa and that the allowable for each shaft and the net angular
shearing stress is 55 MPa, determine rotation of end A.
(a) the largest torque T0 that may be
applied to the end of shaft AB, (b) the
corresponding angle through which
end A of shaft AB rotates. 50
SOLUTION

## • Apply a static equilibrium analysis on • Apply a kinematics analysis to relate

the two shafts to find a relationship the angular rotations of the gears.
between TCD and T0 .

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• Find the T0 for the maximum • Find the corresponding angle of twist for each
allowable torque on each shaft – shaft and the net angular rotation of end A.
choose the smallest.

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Tutorial 1
Knowing that each portion of the shaft AD consists of a
solid circular rod, determine (a) the portion of the shaft in
which the maximum shearing stress occurs, (b) the
magnitude of that stress.

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Tutorial 2
Under normal operating conditions, the electric motor exerts a torque
of 2.4 kN m at A. Knowing that each shaft is solid, determine the
maximum shearing stress (a) in shaft AB, (b) in shaft BC, (c) in shaft
CD.

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Tutorial 3
 The steel shaft has a diameter 0f 40 mm and
is fiedx at its ends A and b. If it is subjected to
the couple, determine the meximum shear
stress in regions AC and CB of the shaft.
Gsteel=80GPa

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Tutorial 4
 For the aluminium shaft show (G = 27 GPa), determine (a) the
torque T which causes an angle of twist of 5°, (b) the angle of twist
caused by the same torque T in a solid cylindrical shaft of the same
length and cross-sectional area.

56
Tutorial 5
 The torque shown are exerted on pulleys B, C and D.
Knowing that the entire shaft is made of steel (G = 27
GPa), determine the angle of twist between (a) C and
B, (b) D and B.

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