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Electrical , Lighting & Masonry

Electrical Lighting
 Wiring  Natural
1. Wiring codes & Color  Artificial light:
Codes for India
2. Wiring Method Incandescent
3. Cables Halogen
4. Electrical Panels Florescent
5. Conduit LED – light
Different Types of
emitting diode
7. materials
8. Safety
Electrical , Wiring & Masonry
1. Applications
2. Veneer masonry
3. Dry set masonry
4. Brick
5. Concrete brick
6. A Jacks
7. Stone Work
8. Gabions
9. Bagged Concrete
10. Passive Fire Protection

11. Mechanical Model of masonry structures

Electrical materials are
 developed and constructed for a special purpose such
as to:
1. control the flow of current in an electrical circuit;
2. carry electrical current from the source to the load or
current consuming apparatus;
3. hold and secure wires to its fixtures inside and outside
houses and buildings; and
4. protect the houses, buildings, appliances’ and
instruments from any destruction and dam
1. Wiring codes & Color Codes for India
The following list is showing Indian Standards, which are acceptable as good practice, and accepted
IS 732: 1989 Code of Practice for Electrical Wiring Installations?
IS 4648: 1968 Guide for Electrical Layout in residential buildings
IS 9537 (Part 1): 1980 Conduits for Electrical Installations: General requirements
IS 9537 (Part 2): 1981 Rigid Steel Conduits
IS 9537 (Part 3): 1983 Rigid Plain Conduits of insulating material
IS 3419: 1989 Specifications for fittings for rigid non metallic conduits
IS 694: PVC insulated cables for working voltages up to andincluding1100V
IS 1554 (Part 1): 1988 PVC insulated (heavy-duty) electric cables for working voltages up to and
including 1100V
IS 3961 (Part 5): 1968 Recommended current ratings for cables: PVC insulated light duty cables.
IS 4288: 1988 PVC insulated (heavy duty) electric cables with solid aluminium conductors
for voltages up to and including 1100V
IS 14772: 2000 Specifications for Accessories for household and similar fixed Electrical
IS 3043: 1987 Code of practice for Earthing
SP 30: 1984 National Electrical Code
SP 7 (Group 4): 2005 National Building Code
IS 14927(Part 1): 2001 Cable Trunking and Ducting systems for electrical installations.
Wiring Color codes In INDIA
 Electrical wiring is generally
refers to insulated conductor used
to carry current and associated

• Domestic electric appliances

like lights, fans, washing
machines, water pumps etc are
connected to the supply through
insulated wires which are
controlled by switches.
• The wiring diagram gives the
connections of different appliances
to the supply within a house or
Systems of Wiring
 State electricity board provide electric supply up to a point outside
the consumer premises. From this point consumer take the connection
to his main board . Insulated electrical wires will be taken out to
various places in the permises to supply power to different type of
loads like lights , fans , refrigerators , room coolers , heaters,etc
Specifications of Wires
 The conductor material (solid
and Standard conductors) ,
insulation , size and the number
of cores, specifies the electrical
 The conductors are usually of
either copper or aluminium.
Various insulating materials like
PVC,TRS and VIR are used
 Polyvinyl chloride (pvc)
Polyvinyl chloride, also known
as poly vinyl or vinyl,
commonly abbreviated PVC,
is the world's third-most Generally, they are two typesofPVC,
widely produced synthetic general purpose and heat resistance
plastic polymer, after PVCs with maximum conductor
polyethylene and temperatures of 70°C and 90°C
polypropylenE respectively. PVC insulated cables
are used in power distribution,
building wire, appliance wiring,
flexible cord and machine tool
Electrical Wire Size & Purposes
Wire Size (Square mm) Functionality/Purpose

1 Sq mm Wires Earthing Purpose

Distribution purpose. From switchboard to

1.5 Sq mm Wires
lighting / fan points.

Distribution Board (DB) to main boards in a

2.5 Sq mm Wires

Geyser/Heaters, Electrical Induction stove, other

4.0 Sq mm Wires
electrical appliances which require 15 Amperes

6 Sq mm Wires For Air conditioners (up to 1.5 Tons capacity)

•The selection of the wire is made
depending on the requirement
considering factors like current and
voltage ratings, cost and application.
• The current carrying capacity depends
on the total area of the wires.
Wiring and its Types

Wires are drawn along the consumer’s

building to distribute power to all points
where load is situated.
Types of wiring according to uses;
1. Domestic wiring.
2. Commercial wiring.
3. Industrial wiring
Points to be considered while selecting
any system of wiring
 1. installation
 2. future extension or alterations
 3. construction of building
 4. fire hazards or other special conditions
 5. corrosive fumes
 6. dampness
 7. type of wire and material used
 8. nature of load (lighting of power)
 9. safety of the system
 10. cost of wiring system
Factors affecting the choice of Wiring

 Durability : Type of wiring selected should conform to

standard specifications, so that it is durable i.e. without
being affected by the weather conditions, fumes etc.
 Safety : The wiring must provide safety against
leakage, shock and fire hazards for the operating
 Appearance : Electrical wiring should give an aesthetic
appeal to the interiors.
 Cost: It should not be prohibitively expensive.
Factors affecting the choice of Wiring

 Accessibility : The switches and plug points provided

should be easily accessible. There must be provision
for further extension of the wiring system, if
 Maintenance Cost : The maintenance cost should be
a minimum.
 Mechanical safety : The wiring must be protected
against any mechanical damage.
Types of Wiring
These are the following types of wiring are:-
 1. Cleat wiring

 2. Wood casting wiring

 3. CTS wiring or TRS wiring or Batten wiring

 4. Conduit wiring

 5. Metal sheathed wiring or lead sheathed wiring

1. Cleat Wiring
In this type of wiring , wood or plastc cleats are fixed to walls
or cellings at regular intervals .i.e.,0.6m between each cleat.
• PVC insulated cables are taken
through the holes of each cleat .
• Cleat support and hold wires. •
This is cheap method .
• Is used for temporary
• It is not suitable for home .
• It is outdated methods • This
System uses insulated Cables sub
protected in porcelain cleats
Wood Coasting Wire
 In this cable is run through a wood casing having
 • The wood casing is of required fixed length with
parallel grooves that accommodates the cables.
 • The wooden casing is fixed to the walls or ceiling with
 • After placing the cables inside the grooves of casing ,
a wooden cap with grooves is placed on it to cover the
 • This is also cheap wiring system.
 • There is a high risk of fire in case of short circuits.
CTS wiring or TRS wiring or Batten wiring

 The wires are run on the teak wooden battens which

are fixed on the wall or the ceiling by means of
screws and wooden plugs.
 C.T.S. or T.R.S Cables used are not much affected
by chemicals, water and steam.
Conduit wiring
In this wiring , . Surface conduit wiring is used in
 PVC cables are taken through either industries to connect the heavy motors.
PVC conduit pipes or through steel Concealed wiring is the most popular
conduit pipes.
and common method of wiring the
 This conduit wiring can be either surface residential buildings.
conduit wiring or concealed conduit
wiring. This method is the safest method of
 If the conduits are run inside the surface wiring and also look beautiful
of the walls and ceilings and are
covered with plastering, it is called as
conduit wiring.
Conduit wiring
 Advantages:
1. Conduit provides protection against mechanical
injury and fire & is shock proof
2. Conduit provides protection against chemicals
3. The whole system is water proof
4. Conductors are safety secured from moisture
5. This wiring has far better look
6. It has a longer life
Metal sheathed wiring (or)
lead sheathed wiring
 The metal sheath is provided
over the insulated conductor in
order to protect system from
mechanical injury, dampness
and atmospheric action.
 Same as C.T.S. wiring system
cables are run on wooden
batten and are fixed cables are
run on wooden batten and are
fixed with the help of thinned
link clips.
Block diagram
Line Diagram
Circuit Diagram
Wiring Diagram
Various systems by which power is
distributed to the domestic consumers
 Single-phase, 2-wire system
 Single-phase, 3-wire system
 Two-phase, 3-wire system
 Two-phase, 4-wire system
 Three-phase, 3-wire system
 Three-phase, 4-wire system
Single-phase, 2-wire system

 It is shown in Figure 1 (a) and (b). In Figure 1 (a),

one of the two wires is earthed whereas in Figure 1
(b) mid-point of the phase winding is earthed.
Single-phase, 3-wire system

 The 1-phase, 3-wire system is identical in principle

with the 3-wire DC system. As shown in Figure 2,
the third wire or neutral is connected to the centre
of the transformer secondary and earthed for
protecting personnel from electric shock should the
transformer insulation break down or the secondary
main contact high voltage wire.
Two-phase, 3-wire system

 This system is still used at some places.

The third wire is taken from the junction of
the two-phase windings I and II, whose
voltages are in quadrature with each other
as shown in Figure 3.
 If the voltage between the third or neutral
wire and either of the two wires is V, then
the voltage between the outer wires is V as
shown. As compared to 2-phase, 4-wire
system, the 3-wire system suffers from the
defect that it produces voltage unbalance
because of the unsymmetrical voltage drop
in the neutral.
Two-phase, 4-wire system

 As shown in Figure 4, the four

wires are taken from the ends of
the two-phase windings and the
mid-points of the windings are
connected together.
 As before, the voltage of the two
windings are in quadrature with
each other and the junction point
may or may not be earthed. If
voltage between the two wires of
a phase winding be V , then the
voltage between one wire of
phase I and one wire of phase II is
0.707 V.
Three-phase, 3-wire system

 Three-phase systems are used

extensively. The 3-wire system
may be delta-connected or
star-connected whose star
point is usually earthed.
 The voltage between lines is V
in delta-connection and √3 V in
case of star connection where
V is the voltage of each phase
as shown in Figure 5 (a) and
(b) respectively.
Three-phase, 4-wire system

 The 4th or neutral wire is taken from the star

point of the star-connection as shown in
Figure 6 and is of half the cross-section of
the outers or line conductors.
 If V is the voltage of each winding, then line
voltage is 3 V. Usually, phase voltage i.e.
voltage between any outer and the neutral
for a symmetrical system is 230V so that the
voltage between any two lines or outers is
 The three phase induction motors requiring
higher voltages of 400 V or so are put
across the lines directly.

SOCKET(Female) Switch

Convenience outlet-
a device that acts asa convenient source of electrical energy forcurrent consuming appliances. It
is wherethe male plug of an appliance is insertedand usually fastened on the wall orconnected in
an extension cord. It maybesingle, duplex, triplex or multiplex and couldbe surface type or flush
Male plug-
a device inserted to aconvenience outlet to conduct electriccurrent. A flat cord is attached to it on
oneend and the other end is connected to acurrent consuming instrument or appliance.
Lamp holders-
devices that hold andprotect the lamp and are also called asLamp Sockets/Receptacles

. These comein many designs and sizes. They areclassified as flush, hanging
(weatherproof/chain) and surface types.
Switch -
a device that connects anddisconnects the flow of electric current in acircuit. There are many
shapes, designs,and types and they are classified ashanging, flush, and surface types.
- a circuit protective device thatautomatically blows and cut the currentwhen and over load or
short circuithappens.
Circuit Breaker
- a protective device usedto automatically blows and cuts the currentwhen trouble in the circuit
such as shortcircuit or overload occurs.
Junction Box
- an octagonal shapedelectrical material where the connections or joints of wires are being
done. It is alsowhere the flush type lamp holder isattached. This could be made of metal
orplastic (PVC)
Utility Box
- a rectangular shaped metallicor plastic (PVC) material in which flush typeconvenience outlet
and switch are attached.
Flat Cord-
Is a duplex stranded wire usedfor temporary wiring installation andcommonly used in
extension cordassembly. It comes in a roll of 150 metersand with sizes of gauge # 18 and
gauge #16 awg (American wire gauge)
 Electrical cables are used to connect two or more
devices, enabling the transfer of electrical signals or
power from one device to the other. Cables are used
for a wide range of purposes, and each must be
tailored for that purpose. Cables are used extensively
in electronic devices for power and signal circuits. Long-
distance communication takes place over undersea
cables. Power cables are used for bulk transmission of
alternating and direct current power, especially using
high-voltage cable. Electrical cables are extensively
used in building wiring for lighting, power and control
circuits permanently installed in buildings. Since all the
circuit conductors required can be installed in a cable at
one time, installation labor is saved compared to
certain other wiring methods.
used for radio frequency signals, for example in
Coaxial cable cable television distribution systems.

Directe-Buried (DBC) is a kind of communications or transmissions

Cable electrical cable which is especially designed to be
buried under the ground without any kind of extra
covering, sheathing, or piping to protect it.

Flexible Cable Flexible cables, or 'continuous-flex' cables, are

electrical cables specially designed to cope with
the tight bending radii and physical stress
associated with moving applications, such as inside
cable carriers

Filled Cable Used for telecommunication

Non-metallic sheathed cable

Metallic sheathed cable

Multicore cable

Paired cable

Ribbon cable
Electrical panels

 Electrical panels are easily accessible junction

boxes used to reroute and switch electrical services.
The term is often used to refer to circuit breaker
panels or fuseboxes. Local codes can specify
physical clearance around the panels.
Electrical conduit provides very good protection to enclosed conductors from impact, moisture,
and chemical vapors. Varying numbers, sizes, and types of conductors can be pulled into a
conduit, which simplifies design and construction compared to multiple runs of cables or the
expense of customized composite cable. Wiring systems in buildings may be subject to frequent
alterations. Frequent wiring changes are made simpler and safer through the use of electrical
conduit, as existing conductors can be withdrawn and new conductors installed, with little
disruption along the path of the conduit.
Types of conduit:
Metal conduit
Non Metal Conduit
Types of Conduit
Rigid metal conduit (RMC) PVC conduit Flexible metallic conduit

Galvanized rigid conduit Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy (FRE) flexible nonmetallic conduit

Intermediate metal conduit Rigid nonmetallic conduit Liquidtight flexible metal conduit

Electrical metallic tubing Electrical nonmetallic tubing

Aluminum conduit
Facts about Lighting…..
 Lighting manipulates the mood or feeling of any interior
 Lighting can alter responses from the mind and body
 Lighting is considered artistic: decorative, dramatic
 Cool light: gives off a bluish cast
 Warm light: gives of an orange-yellow cast
Sources of light in a building…..

 Natural
 Artificial light:
 Incandescent

 Halogen

 Florescent

 LED – light emitting diode

Natural Light
 Light provided by sun, moon, and fire
 First light source to consider
 Sunlight that enters the house through
windows, doors, skylights, etc.
 Makes colors richer and brighter
 Healthy, cheerful light for living
 North or East exposure—Cool, bluish
 South or West exposure—Warm, orange
Incandescent Light
 Gives a yellow glow to rooms
 Uses more energy than other lighting types
Halogen Lighting
 Expensive but long-lasting
 Bright, white light
 Most like sunlight
 Very hot bulbs
Fluorescent Lighting
 Gives diffused, shadowless light
 Initially cost more
 Lasts up to ten times longer than an
incandescent bulb.
 Colored Florescent Light: Neon signs
LED Lighting
Lasts up to 25 years
No heat
Consume less energy
Uses of artificial light:
 General
 Provides enough light so you can see
everything in the room

 Task
 Focus light on the area where it is most
 Used for close-up activities

 Accent/Decorative
 Provides a concentrated beam of light
that focuses on a particular object or
Lighting Fixtures
 Ceiling : Lights mounted on the ceiling including
surface mounted, semi-surface mounted,
pendants, and chandeliers.
Lighting Fixtures
 Cove: A light placed just below the ceiling with a
board or deflector beneath it
Lighting Fixtures
 Portable: Lights that can be moved such as lamps
or clip on lights
Lighting Fixtures
 Recessed: Light fixtures hidden in the ceiling such as
can lights or eyeball lights
Lighting Fixtures
 Strip: A series of bulbs mounted together in a line
Lighting Fixtures
 Wall: Lights mounted on the wall such as sconces
 You should be able to…
 Light your way as you go room to room
 Switch lights on/off at each doorway

 Turn on stairway lighting as you go up or down stairs

 Light the entrance as you enter

 Control outdoor lighting from the house

 Control outside lighting from inside the house

 Meet all building codes

 Avoid a circuit overload

Electrical Symbols on a blueprint….