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You are on page 1of 19

Converters

1

PI Controller for DC-DC Boost Converter Output

Voltage

!

Vpwm PWM mod. DC-DC Vout

(0-3.5V) and MOSFET conv. (0-120V)

driver

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout

+ driver

–

(scaled down

to about 1.3V)

2

The Underlying Theory

Vout ( s) G( s)

Vset ( s) 1 G( s)

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout

+ driver

–

(scaled down

to about 1.3V)

1 1

G PI ( s) K P Gconv ( s ) G PWM G DC DC ( s )

sTi 1 sT

Theory, cont. !

error e(t) Vpwm

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout

+ driver

–

1

VPWM (t ) K P e(t )

Ti e(t )dt

• Proportional term: Immediate correction but steady state error (Vpwm equals

zero when there is no error (that is when Vset = Vout)).

• Integral term: Gradual correction

Consider the integral as a continuous sum (Riemman’s sum)

Thank you to the sum action, Vpwm is not zero when the e = 0

Has some “memory”

4

E.g. Buck converter

• Vin = 24 V

• Vout = 16 V (goal)

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

5

E.g. Buck converter !

• Vin = 24 V

1

• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t ) e(t )dt

Ti

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

• Ki = 40, Kp = 0

iL

vC

e

6

E.g. Buck converter !

• Vin = 24 V

1

• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t ) e(t )dt

Ti

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

• Ki = 10, Kp = 0

iL

vC

e

7

E.g. Buck converter !

• Vin = 24 V

• Vout = 16 V (goal)

VPWM (t ) K P e(t )

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

• Ki = 0, Kp = 1

iL

vC

e

8

E.g. Buck converter !

• Vin = 24 V

• Vout = 16 V (goal)

VPWM (t ) K P e(t )

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

• Ki = 0, Kp = 0.1

iL

vC

e

9

E.g. Buck converter !

• Vin = 24 V

1

• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t ) K P e(t ) e(t )dt

Ti

• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

• Ki = 10, Kp = 1

iL

vC

e

10

Ti Ri Ci Theory, cont.

Response of Second Order System

1 1 (zeta = 0.99, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1)

G( s) K P 0.1

sTi 1 sT 1.8

1.6 0.2

Vout ( s) G( s)

1.4

0.4

Vset ( s) 1 G( s) 1.2

1

0.8

work! KP 1

s 0.6

0.99

Vout ( s ) T Ti K P 0.4

0.2

Vset ( s ) 1 K p 1

s s

2 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

T TTi

Recommended in PI

Ti 0.8T literature

s 2 2 n s n2

1 K p 0.65 K p 0.45

1

n2 2 n

TTi T From above curve – gives some

overshoot

2T T

K p 2 nT 1 1 2 1 11

TTi Ti

Improperly Tuned PI Controller

Mostly Integral Control - Oscillation Steady-State Error

90V 90V

Figure 11. Closed Loop Response with Mostly Integral Control Figure 12. Closed Loop Response with Mostly Proportional Control

(ringing) (sluggish)

12

!

Op Amps

I−

V− –

Vout

I+

V+ +

I+ = I− = 0

Output current is not limited

13

!

Example 1. Buffer Amplifier

(converts high impedance signal to low impedance signal)

–

Vout

Vin + Vout KVout KVin

Vout (1 K ) KVin

K

Vout Vin

1 K

K is large

Vout Vin

14

!

Example 2. Inverting Amplifier

(used for proportional control signal)

Rf V

Vout K (0 V ) KV , so V out .

Rin K

Vin – V Vin V Vout

Vout KCL at the – node is 0.

+ Rin Rf

Eliminating V yields

V V

out Vin out Vout

K K 0 , so

Rin Rf

Vout . For large K, then , so Vout Vin .

KRin KR f R f Rin Rf Rin Rin

15

Example 3. Inverting Difference

!

(used for error signal)

V

R R Vout K (V V ) K b V , so

Va 2

– V V

Vout V b out .

R + 2 K

V Va V Vout

Vb

KCL at the – node is 0 , so

R R R

V Vout

V Va V Vout 0 , yielding V a .

2

Eliminating V yields

V V Vout V V Va K V Va

Vout K b a , so Vout K out K b , or Vout 1 K b .

2 2 2 2 2 2

16

!

Example 4. Inverting Sum

(used to sum proportional and integral control signals)

Vout

R Vout K (0 V ) KV , so V .

K

R

Va –

R Vout KCL at the – node is

Vb +

V Va V Vb V Vout

0 , so

R R R

3V Va Vb Vout .

V 3

Substituting for V yields 3 out Va Vb Vout , so Vout 1 Va Vb .

K K

17

Example 5. Inverting Integrator !

(used for integral control signal)

~ ~

Using phasor analysis, Vout K (0 V ) , so

Ci ~

~ Vout

Ri

V . KCL at the − node is

Vin – K

Vout

+ ~ ~ ~ ~

V Vin V Vout

0.

Ri 1

jC

~

Vout ~

Vin V~out ~

~ K jC Vout 0 . Gathering terms yields

Eliminating V yields

Ri K

~

~ 1 1 Vin ~ 1 1 ~

Vout jC 1 , or Vout jRi C 1 Vin For large K , the

KRi K Ri K K

~

Vin

expression reduces to Vout ( jRi C ) Vin , so Vout

~ ~ ~

(thus, negative integrator action).

jRi C

~

For a given frequency and fixed C , increasing Ri reduces the magnitude of Vout .

18

Op Amp Implementation of PI Controller

Signal flow

– error Rp

αVout

+

–

–

+ 15kΩ – Vpwm

– +

Difference +

Vset

+ (Gain = −1) Proportional

Summer

(Gain = −Kp)

(Gain = −1

1)

Buffers

(Gain = 1)

Ci

Ri

Ri is a 500kΩ pot, Rp is a 100kΩ pot, and all other

–

resistors shown are 100kΩ, except for the 15kΩ

resistor. +

Inverting Integrator

The 500kΩ pot is marked “504” meaning 50 • 10 4 . (Time Constant = Ti)

The 100kΩ pot is marked “104” meaning 10 • 10 4 .

(Note – net gain Kp is unity when, in the open loop condition and with the integrator disabled,

Vpwm is at the desired value)

19

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