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# EE462L, Fall 2012

## PI Voltage Controller for DC-DC

Converters

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PI Controller for DC-DC Boost Converter Output
Voltage
!
Vpwm PWM mod. DC-DC Vout
(0-3.5V) and MOSFET conv. (0-120V)
driver

## PI PWM mod. DC-DC

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout
+ driver

(scaled down

## DC-DC Converter Process with Closed-Loop PI Controller

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The Underlying Theory

Vout ( s) G( s)

Vset ( s) 1  G( s)

## PI PWM mod. DC-DC

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout
+ driver

(scaled down

## G(s)  GPI (s)  GPWM (s)  GDC  DC (s)

1 1
G PI ( s)  K P  Gconv ( s )  G PWM  G DC  DC ( s ) 
sTi 1  sT

Theory, cont. !
error e(t) Vpwm

## PI PWM mod. DC-DC

Vset controller and MOSFET conv. Vout
+ driver

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VPWM (t )  K P e(t ) 
Ti  e(t )dt

• Proportional term: Immediate correction but steady state error (Vpwm equals
zero when there is no error (that is when Vset = Vout)).
Consider the integral as a continuous sum (Riemman’s sum)
Thank you to the sum action, Vpwm is not zero when the e = 0
Has some “memory”
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E.g. Buck converter
• Vin = 24 V
• Vout = 16 V (goal)
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm

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E.g. Buck converter !
• Vin = 24 V
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• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t )   e(t )dt
Ti
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm
• Ki = 40, Kp = 0

iL

vC

e
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E.g. Buck converter !
• Vin = 24 V
1
• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t )   e(t )dt
Ti
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm
• Ki = 10, Kp = 0

iL

vC

e
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E.g. Buck converter !
• Vin = 24 V
• Vout = 16 V (goal)
VPWM (t )  K P e(t )
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm
• Ki = 0, Kp = 1

iL

vC

e
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E.g. Buck converter !
• Vin = 24 V
• Vout = 16 V (goal)
VPWM (t )  K P e(t )
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm
• Ki = 0, Kp = 0.1

iL

vC

e
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E.g. Buck converter !
• Vin = 24 V
1
• Vout = 16 V (goal) VPWM (t )  K P e(t )   e(t )dt
Ti
• L = 200 uH, C = 500 uF, R = 2 Ohm
• Ki = 10, Kp = 1

iL

vC

e
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Ti  Ri Ci Theory, cont.
Response of Second Order System
 1  1 (zeta = 0.99, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1)
G( s)   K P    0.1
 sTi  1  sT 1.8
1.6 0.2
Vout ( s) G( s)

1.4
0.4
Vset ( s) 1  G( s) 1.2
1
0.8
work! KP  1 
 s   0.6
0.99
Vout ( s ) T  Ti K P  0.4
 0.2
Vset ( s ) 1 K p  1
s  s
2  0
 0 2 4 6 8 10
 T  TTi
Recommended in PI
Ti  0.8T literature
s 2  2 n s   n2
1 K p   0.65 K p  0.45
1
 n2  2 n 
TTi T From above curve – gives some
overshoot
2T T
K p  2 nT  1   1  2 1 11
TTi Ti
Improperly Tuned PI Controller

## Mostly Proportional Control – Sluggish,

Mostly Integral Control - Oscillation Steady-State Error

90V 90V

Figure 11. Closed Loop Response with Mostly Integral Control Figure 12. Closed Loop Response with Mostly Proportional Control
(ringing) (sluggish)

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!
Op Amps
I−
V− –

Vout
I+
V+ +

 I+ = I− = 0

##  Voltages are with respect to power supply ground (not shown)

 Output current is not limited

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!
Example 1. Buffer Amplifier
(converts high impedance signal to low impedance signal)

## Vout  K (V+  V− ) = K(Vin – Vout)

Vout
Vin + Vout  KVout  KVin

Vout (1  K )  KVin

K

Vout Vin 
1 K

K is large

Vout  Vin
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!
Example 2. Inverting Amplifier
(used for proportional control signal)

Rf V
Vout  K (0  V )   KV , so V   out .
Rin K
Vin – V  Vin V  Vout
Vout KCL at the – node is    0.
+ Rin Rf
Eliminating V yields

V V
 out  Vin  out  Vout
K  K  0 , so
Rin Rf

##  1 1 1  Vin  Vout Vin Rf

 Vout     . For large K, then  , so Vout  Vin .
 KRin KR f R f  Rin Rf Rin Rin
 

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Example 3. Inverting Difference
!
(used for error signal)

V 
R R Vout  K (V  V )  K  b  V  , so
Va  2 
– V V
Vout V  b  out .
R + 2 K
V  Va V  Vout
Vb
KCL at the – node is   0 , so
R R R
V  Vout
V  Va  V  Vout  0 , yielding V  a .
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Eliminating V yields

V V  Vout  V  V  Va   K  V  Va 
Vout  K  b  a  , so Vout  K out  K  b  , or Vout 1    K  b .
 2 2  2  2   2   2 

## For large K , then Vout  (Va  Vb )

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!
Example 4. Inverting Sum
(used to sum proportional and integral control signals)

 Vout
R Vout  K (0  V )   KV , so V  .
K
R
Va –
R Vout KCL at the – node is
Vb +

V  Va V  Vb V  Vout
   0 , so
R R R

3V  Va  Vb  Vout .

 V  3 
Substituting for V yields 3 out   Va  Vb  Vout , so Vout   1  Va  Vb .
 K  K 

## Thus, for large K , Vout  (Va  Vb )

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Example 5. Inverting Integrator !
(used for integral control signal)
~ ~
Using phasor analysis, Vout  K (0  V ) , so

Ci ~
~ Vout
Ri
V   . KCL at the − node is
Vin – K
Vout
+ ~ ~ ~ ~
V  Vin V  Vout
  0.
Ri 1
jC
~
 Vout ~
 Vin   V~out ~ 
~ K  jC   Vout   0 . Gathering terms yields
Eliminating V yields
Ri  K 
~
~   1 1   Vin ~  1 1  ~
Vout   jC   1   , or Vout   jRi C   1   Vin For large K , the
 KRi K   Ri K K 
~
 Vin
expression reduces to Vout ( jRi C )  Vin , so Vout 
~ ~ ~
(thus, negative integrator action).
jRi C
~
For a given frequency and fixed C , increasing Ri reduces the magnitude of Vout .
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Op Amp Implementation of PI Controller
Signal flow

– error Rp
αVout
+

+ 15kΩ – Vpwm
– +
Difference +
Vset
+ (Gain = −1) Proportional
Summer
(Gain = −Kp)
(Gain = −1
1)
Buffers
(Gain = 1)
Ci
Ri
Ri is a 500kΩ pot, Rp is a 100kΩ pot, and all other

resistors shown are 100kΩ, except for the 15kΩ
resistor. +
Inverting Integrator
The 500kΩ pot is marked “504” meaning 50 • 10 4 . (Time Constant = Ti)
The 100kΩ pot is marked “104” meaning 10 • 10 4 .

(Note – net gain Kp is unity when, in the open loop condition and with the integrator disabled,
Vpwm is at the desired value)
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