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Chemical Reactions

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Chemical Reactions SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! If you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts"

Types of

Types

of Reactions

Reactions

There are five types of chemical reactions we will talk about:

1.

Synthesis reactions

2.

reactions

3.

Single displacement reactions

4.

reactions

 

________________

 

5.

Combustion reactions

You need to be able to identify the type of reaction and predict the product(s)

Steps

Steps toto Writing

Writing Reaction

Reaction Equations

Equations

  • 1. Identify the type of reaction.

  • 2. Predict the product(s) using the type of reaction as a model.

  • 3. Balance it.

Don’t forget about the diatomic elements! (H,N,O,F,Cl,Br,I) For example, Oxygen is O 2 as an element.

When in a compound, however, it (O) will not be diatomic because it’s no longer an element, but an atom in a compound!

  • 1. 1. Synthesis

Synthesis reactions

reactions

Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generally elements) combine to form a compound. (Sometimes these are called “combination” or “addition” reactions.) reactant + reactant 1 product Basically: A + B AB

Example: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Example: C + O 2 CO 2

1. 1. Synthesis Synthesis reactions reactions • Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generally elements )

Synthesis

Synthesis Reactions

Reactions

Here is another example of a synthesis reaction.

Practice

Practice

Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations.

Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas. Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas. Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas.

Calcium oxide is synthesised from its elements.

Synthesis

Synthesis Reactions

Reactions

  • Practice

Practice Answers:

Answers:

  • 1.

1. 2Na(s)

2Na(s) ++ Cl Cl 22 (g)

(g) →→ 2NaCl(s)

2NaCl(s)

  • 2. 2. Mg(s) Mg(s) ++ FF 22 (g) (g) →→ MgF MgF 22 (s) (s)

  • 3. 3. 2Al(s) 2Al(s) ++ 3F3F 22 (g) (g) →→ 2AlF 2AlF 33 (s) (s)

  • 4.

4. 2Ca(s)

2Ca(s) ++ OO 22 (g)

(g) →→ 2CaO(s)

2CaO(s)

  • 2. 2. Decomposition

Decomposition Reactions

Reactions

Decomposition reactions occur when a

compound breaks up into its elements or

into simpler compounds

1 Reactant Product + Product

In general: AB A + B

Example: 2 H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2

Example: 2 HgO 2Hg + O 2

2. 2. Decomposition Decomposition Reactions Reactions • Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into

Decomposition Reactions

Decomposition

Reactions

Another view of a decomposition reaction:

Decomposition Reactions:

Decomposition

Reactions: Compounds

Compounds simpler

simpler

compounds (refer

compounds

(refer toto Decomposition

Decomposition Rxns

Rxns yellow

yellow sheet)

sheet)

Chlorates and carbonates:

Metal chlorates decompose to form oxygen and a metal chloride.

Example: 2 Al(ClO 3 ) 3 2 AlCl 3 + 9 O 2

Metal carbonates decompose to form carbon dioxide and a metal oxide.

Example: CaCO 3 CO 2 + CaO

Acids: decompose to form water and a nonmetal oxide

Example: H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2

Metal hydroxides: decompose to form water and a metal oxide

Example: Mg(OH) 2 H 2 O + MgO

Practice

Practice

Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations:

Solid lead (IV) oxide decomposes when heated. Sodium chlorate is heated to 1850 o C. Aluminum nitride decomposes. Water undergoes electrolysis.

Decomposition Reactions

Decomposition

Reactions

  • Practice

Practice Answers

Answers

  • 1.

1.

PbO 22 (s)

PbO

(s)

→→

Pb(s) ++ OO 22 (g)

Pb(s)

(g)

  • 2. 2. 22 NaClO NaClO 33 (s) (s) →→ 22 NaCl(s) NaCl(s) ++ 33 OO 22 (g) (g)

  • 3. 3. 22 AlNAlN 33 (s) (s) →→ 22 Al(s) Al(s) ++ 33 NN 22 (g) (g)

4. 22

4.

HH 22 O(l)

O(l) →electricity→

electricity 22 HH 22 (g)

(g)

++

OO 22 (g)

(g)

Practice

Practice

Identify the type of reaction for each of the following (synthesis or decomposition) reactions, and write the balanced equation:

N 2(g) + O 2(g) nitrogen monoxide

BaCO 3(s)

Co (s) +

S (s)

(make Co be +3)

SrO (s) + H 2 O (g)

NI 3(s)

Practice

Practice answers

answers

  • 1. synthesis

1.

synthesis:: NN 22 (g)

(g) ++ OO 22 (g)

(g)

→→

22 NO(g)

NO(g)

  • 2. 2. decomposition: decomposition: BaCO BaCO 33 (s) (s) →→ COCO 22 (g) (g) ++ BaO(s) BaO(s)

  • 3. synthesis:

3.

synthesis: 22 Co(s)

Co(s)

++ 33

S(s)

S(s)

→→

CoCo 22 SS 33 (s)

(s)

  • 4. synthesis:

4.

synthesis: SrO(s)

SrO(s) ++ HH 22 O(g)

O(g) →→ Sr(OH) 2 (s)

  • 5. decomposition: decomposition: 22 NI NI 33 (s) (s) →→ NN 22 (g) (g) ++ 33 II 22 (g) (g)

  • 3. 3. Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Single Replacement Reactions occur when a free

element replaces another in a compound.

A metal can replace a metal (+) OR

a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-).

element + compoundnew element + new compound

A + BC AC + B A + BC BA + C

(if A is a metal)

OR

(if A is a nonmetal)

(remember the cation always goes first!)

**When H 2 O splits into ions, it splits into

H + and OH -

(not H + and O -2 !!)

Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Another view:

Single Single Replacement Replacement Reactions Reactions • Another view:

Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

How toto determine

How

determine when

when aa SRSR rxn

rxn will

will occur:

occur:

  • InIn SRSR reactions,

reactions, the

the more

more active

active metal-or

metal-or

halogen-will end

halogen-will

compound compound..

end upup asas anan ion

ion,, so,

so, inin the

the

e.g.

e.g.

Na(s) ++ CsCl(aq)

Na(s)

CsCl(aq) →→ Cs(s)

Cs(s) ++ NaCl(aq),

NaCl(aq), but…

but

Cs(s) ++ NaCl(aq)

Cs(s)

NaCl(aq) →→ N.R.

N.R. ((nnoo rreaction)

eaction)

FF 22 (g)

(g)

++ CaCl

CaCl 22 (aq)

(aq)

→→

Cl 22 (g)

Cl

(g)

Br 22 (l)

Br

(l)

++

NaF →→

NaF

N.R.

N.R.

++

CaF 22 (aq),

CaF

(aq), but

but ……

Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

  • Remember:

Remember:

Metals

Metals lose

lose electrons

electrons –– toto become

become

““+”

+ ions.

ions.

Halogens

Halogens (non-metals)

(non-metals) gain

gain electrons

electrons –– toto

become ““−”

become

ions.

ions.

ToTo determine

determine the

the relative

relative activity

activity of

of metals

metals

and halogens,

and

halogens, check

check the

the Activity

Activity Series!

Series!

Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Write and balance the equations for the

following single replacement reactions :

Zinc metal reacts with aqueous

hydrochloric acid.

Note: Zinc replaces the hydrogen ion in the

reaction.

(continue (continue practice practice onon next next slide) slide)

Single

Single Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas.

Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate.

Calcium metal reacts with a solution of silver nitrate.

Single

Single replacement

replacement Reactions

Reactions

  • Practice

Practice answers:

answers:

1.

1.

Zn(s) ++ 2HCl(aq)

Zn(s)

2HCl(aq) →→ ZnCl

ZnCl 22 (aq)

(aq)

++

HH 22 (g)

(g)

2.

2.

22 NaCl(s)

NaCl(s) ++ FF 22 (g)

(g)

→→ 22 NaF(s)

NaF(s)

++

Cl 22 (g)

Cl

(g)

  • Al(s) ++ 33 Cu(NO

3.

3.

22 Al(s)

Cu(NO 33 )) 22 (aq)

(aq)

  • 22 Al(NO

Al(NO 33 )) 33 (aq)

(aq)

→→

33 Cu(s)

Cu(s) ++

  • 4. 4. 22 CaCa (s) (s) ++ 2AgNO

2AgNO 3(aq) 3(aq) →→ AgAg (s) (s) ++ 2Ca(NO

2Ca(NO 33 )) 2(aq) 2(aq)

  • 4. 4. Double

Double Replacement

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Double Replacement Reactions occur

when a metal in one compound replaces a

metal in another compound.

Compound + compound new

compound + new compound

AB + CD AD + CB

4. 4. Double Double Replacement Replacement Reactions Reactions • Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal

Double Replacement

Double

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and

last ions go together + inside ions go together.

Example:

Double Replacement Double Replacement Reactions Reactions • Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and

AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq)

Double Replacement Double Replacement Reactions Reactions • Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and

Another example:

Double Replacement Double Replacement Reactions Reactions • Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and

K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq)

Double Replacement Double Replacement Reactions Reactions • Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and
  • 2 KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s)

Double Replacement

Double

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

  • States

States of

of matter

matter of

of products

products ……

  • InIn double

double replacement

replacement reactions

reactions between

between

22 aqueous

aqueous compounds,

compounds, how

how dodo you

you know

know

the

the state

state of

of matter

matter of

of each

each of

of the

the

products?

products?

……..check

..

check

the Solubility

the

Solubility Rules!

Rules!

Practice

Practice

Predict the products. Balance the equation.

  • 1. HCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq)

  • 2. CaCl 2(aq) +

Na 3 PO 4(aq)

  • 3. Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + BaCl 2(aq)

  • 4. FeCl 3(aq) +

NaOH (aq)

  • 5. H 2 SO 4(aq) +

NaOH (aq)

  • 6. KOH (aq) + CuSO 4(aq)

Double Replacement

Double

Replacement Reactions

Reactions

  • Practice

Practice answers:

answers:

  • HCl (aq) (aq) ++ AgNO

HCl

AgNO 3(aq) 3(aq) →→ HNO

HNO 3(aq) 3(aq) ++ AgCl

AgCl ((ss))

  • CaCl 2(aq) 2(aq) ++ 22 NaNa 33 POPO 4(aq) 4(aq) →→ 6NaCl

33 CaCl

6NaCl (aq) (aq) ++

CaCa 33 (PO(PO 44 )) 2( 2(ss))

  • Pb(NO Pb(NO 33 )) 2(aq) 2(aq) ++ BaCl BaCl 2(aq) 2(aq) →→ Ba(NO Ba(NO 33 )) 2(aq) 2(aq) ++ PbCl PbCl 2( 2(ss))

  • FeCl FeCl 3(aq) 3(aq) ++ 3NaOH 3NaOH (aq) (aq) →→ 33 NaCl NaCl (aq) (aq) ++ Fe(OH) Fe(OH) 3( 3(ss))

  • HH 22 SOSO 4(aq) 4(aq) ++ 2NaOH

2NaOH (aq) (aq) →→ NaNa 22 SOSO 4(aq) 4(aq) ++ 2H2H 22 OO (l) (l)

  • 22 KOH KOH (aq) (aq) ++ CuSO CuSO 4(aq) 4(aq) →→ KK 22 SOSO 4(aq) 4(aq) ++ Cu(OH) Cu(OH) 2( 2(ss))

  • 5. 5. Combustion

Combustion Reactions

Reactions

Combustion reactions

occur when a hydrocarbon

reacts with oxygen gas.

This is also called

burning!!! In order to burn

something you need 3

substances in the “fire

triangle”:

1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon)

2) Oxygen to burn it with

3) Something to ignite the

reaction (spark)

5. 5. Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen
5. 5. Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen
Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • In general: C H + O  CO + H O

Combustion

Combustion Reactions

Reactions

Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • In general: C H + O  CO + H O

In general:

  • C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

Products in complete

combustion are ALWAYS carbon

dioxide and water. (although

incomplete burning does cause

some by-products like carbon

monoxide and carbon)

Combustion is used to heat

homes and run automobiles

Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • In general: C H + O  CO + H O
Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions • In general: C H + O  CO + H O

(octane, as in gasoline, is C 8 H 18 )

Combustion

Combustion

Reactions

Reactions

Combustion Combustion Reactions Reactions Edgar Allen Poe’s drooping eyes and mouth are potential signs of CO

Edgar Allen Poe’s

drooping eyes and

mouth are potential

signs of CO

poisoning.

Combustion

Combustion

Example

C 5 H 12 +

O 2

CO 2 +

8

H 2 O

5

6

Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction:

C 10 H 22 +

O 2

(answer on slide after next!)

Mixed Practice

Mixed

Practice

State the reaction type, predict the products, and balance the following reaction equations:

  • 1. BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4

  • 2. C 6 H 12 +

O 2

  • 3. Zn + CuSO 4

  • 4. Cs + Br 2

  • 5. FeCO 3

Mixed Practice

Mixed

Practice

  • Combustion

Combustion reaction:

reaction:

  • 22 CC 1010 HH 22(l) 22(l) ++ 3131 OO 2(g) 2(g)

→→ 2020 COCO 2(g) 2(g) ++ 2222 HH 22 OO (g) (g)

  • 1. 1.

DRDR:: BaCl

BaCl 2(aq) 2(aq) ++ HH 22 SOSO 4(aq) 4(aq) →→ 2HCl

2HCl (aq) (aq) ++ BaSO

BaSO 4(s) 4(s)

  • 2. 2. CC::

CC 66 HH 12(l) 12(l) ++ 99 OO 2(g) 2(g) →→ 66 COCO 2(g) 2(g) ++ 66 HH 22 OO (g) (g)

  • 3. 3. SRSR:: ZnZn (s) (s) ++ CuSO

CuSO 4(aq) 4(aq) →→ CuCu (s) (s) ++ ZnSO

ZnSO 4(aq) 4(aq)

  • 4. 4. SS:: 22 CsCs (s) (s) ++ Br Br 2(g) 2(g) →→ 22 CsBr CsBr (s) (s)

  • 5. 5. DD:: FeCO

FeCO 3(s) 3(s)

→→ COCO 2(g) 2(g) ++ FeO

FeO (s) (s)

Total Ionic

Total

Ionic Equations

Equations

  • Once you

Once

you write

write the

the molecular

molecular equation

equation

(synthesis, decomposition,

(synthesis,

check for

check

for reactants

reactants and

oror insoluble.

insoluble.

decomposition, etc.),

and products

etc.), you

you should

should

products that

that are

are soluble

soluble

  • Aqueous

Aqueous (aq)

(aq) substances

substances are

are dissolved

dissolved inin water.

water.

  • We can

We can use

use aa solubility

solubility table

table toto tell

tell usus which

which

compounds dissolve

compounds

dissolve inin water.

water.

  • IfIf aa compound

compound isis soluble

dissociates into

soluble (does

(does dissolve

dissolve inin water),

water),

then itit dissociates

then

into itsits component

component ions

ions

  • the compound

inin water),

water), then

IfIf the

compound isis insoluble

then itit remains

insoluble (does

(does NOT

NOT dissolve

dissolve

remains asas aa compound

compound ((ss))

Solubility

Solubility Table

Table

Solubilities

Solubilities Not

Not onon the

the Table!

Table!

  • Gases

Gases only

only slightly

slightly dissolve

dissolve inin water.

water.

  • Strong

Strong acids

acids and

and bases

bases ionise

ionise completely

completely

inin water.

water.

  • Hydrochloric,

Hydrochloric, Hydrobromic,

Hydrobromic, Hydroiodic,

Hydroiodic, Nitric,

Nitric,

Sulfuric,

Sulfuric, Perchloric

Perchloric Acids

Acids

  • Group

Group II hydroxides

hydroxides (should

(should bebe onon your

your chart

chart

anyway)

anyway)

  • Water

Water slightly

slightly ionises

ionises inin water!

water! ((→→ HH ++ and

and

OHOH -- )---more

)---more onon this

this later!

later!

Total Ionic

Total

Ionic Equations

Equations

Molecular

Molecular Equation:

Equation:

KK 22 CrO

CrO 4(aq) 4(aq) ++

Pb(NO 33 )) 2(aq) 2(aq)

Pb(NO

Soluble Soluble

Soluble

Soluble Insoluble

Insoluble



PbCrO

PbCrO 4(4(ss))

Soluble

Soluble

++

22 KNO

KNO 3(aq) 3(aq)

Total

Total Ionic

Ionic Equation:

Equation:

  • 22 KK ++ ++ CrO

CrO 44 -2-2 ++ PbPb +2+2 ++ 22 NONO 33 -- 

PbCrO 44 ((ss)) ++ 22 KK ++ ++ 22 NONO 33

PbCrO

--

All ions

All

ions are

aqueous (aq)!

(aq)!

are aqueous

Net Ionic

Net

Ionic Equations

Equations

  • These

These are

are the

the same

same asas total

total ionic

ionic equations,

equations,

but

but you

you should

should cancel

cancel out

out all

all aqueous

aqueous

species (ions)

species

(ions) that

that appear

appear onon BOTH

BOTH sides

sides of

of

the

the equation.

equation.

Totall Ionic

Tota

Ionic Equation:

Equation:

  • 22 KK ++ ++ CrO

CrO 44 -2-2 ++ PbPb +2+2 ++ 22 NONO 33 -- 

Net Ionic Net Ionic Equations Equations  These are the same asas total ionic equations, but

PbCrO 44 ((ss)) ++ 22 KK ++ ++ 22 NONO 33

PbCrO

--

Net Ionic Net Ionic Equations Equations  These are the same asas total ionic equations, but

Net Ionic

Net

CrO

CrO 44 -2-2 (aq)

Ionic Equation:

Equation:

PbPb +2+2 (aq) (aq)

(aq) ++

 PbCrO

PbCrO 44 ((ss))

Net Ionic Net Ionic Equations Equations  These are the same asas total ionic equations, but

Net Ionic

Net

Ionic Equations

Equations

Try this

Try

this one!

one! Write

Write the

the molecular,

molecular, total

total ionic,

ionic, and

and net

net

ionic equations

ionic

equations for

for this

this reaction:

reaction: Solutions

Solutions of

of silver

silver

nitrate and

nitrate

and lead

lead (II)

(II) chloride

chloride react

react inin hot

hot water.

water.

Molecular: Molecular:

Total Total Ionic: Ionic: Net Net Ionic: Ionic:
Total
Total Ionic:
Ionic:
Net
Net Ionic:
Ionic:
Net Ionic Net Ionic Equations Equations  Try this Try this one! one! Write Write the
Net Ionic Net Ionic Equations Equations  Try this Try this one! one! Write Write the

Net Ionic

Net

Ionic Equations

Equations

  • Answers…

Answers…

Molecular

Molecular::

22 AgNO

AgNO 3(aq) 3(aq) ++

PbCl

PbCl 2(aq) 2(aq)

→→

Pb(NO 33 )) 2(aq) 2(aq) ++ 22 AgCl

Pb(NO

AgCl ((ss))

Total

Total Ionic

Ionic::

22 AgAg ++

++ 22 NONO 33 --

++

PbPb +2+2 ++ 22 Cl

Cl --

→→

PbPb +2+2 ++

NONO 33 --

++

AgCl

AgCl ((ss))

Net Ionic

Net

Ionic::

AgAg ++ (aq) (aq)

++

Cl

Cl -- (aq)

(aq)

→→

AgCl

AgCl ((ss))