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kpmg

Process Mapping
Module Objectives

By the end of this module, the participant will be able to:

• Understand need for process mapping

• Apply various types of process maps in a project

• Utilize flow charts and other charts to map a process

• Prepare a detailed Process Map


Why Are Process Maps Used?

 Document the actual process


 Show the relationship of process steps or Y
= f(X)
 Identify the location and quantity of defects
 Locate value added and non-value added
steps of a process
 Lead to improvement “next steps”
 Communicate information
 Train employees on the process
What is a Process Map?

 What is a Process Map?

 What will a Process Map identify?

 When do you apply the process mapping tool?

 What are the results of mapping a process?

Detailed mapping can be used on ANY process and is a LIVING


document
Versions of a Process
At Least Three Versions

What You Think It Is... What It Actually Is... What You Would
Like It To Be...
Levels Of A Process

Business Business
Process Development
(“Strategic”)

Business Customer
Sales Underwriting Contracting
Processes Service

High Level
Supplier Terms Docs Negotiate Close Customer
Process Map
(ext.) Customers
Underwriters (int.) Cust. Service Dept.

Detailed
Sub-Process
Map
Tasks Procedures
Process Map

 Should describe
- Major Activities / Tasks
- Sub-processes
- Process Boundaries
- Process Input Variables (Xs)
- Process Output Variables (Ys)
- Customers & Suppliers
SIPOC Benefits

 Documents a process as it moves from suppliers’ parts


to customers’ product

 Includes information:
- necessary to balance competing customer requirements
- identify “gaps”
- verify team and information resource requirements

 Helps drive Process Owners to use the right metrics and


verify them continuously with the customers and
suppliers
Basic Structure of SIPOC

Requirements Requirements

S I P O C
Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers
Input Boundary Output Boundary

High Level Process Map also known as SIPOC


SIPOC Business Process
Example: Identify Process

New
Employment
Process
SIPOC Business Process Example:
Identify Customers of the Process

New
Customers
Employment
Process Manager

Co-workers

External Customers

Other Departments
SIPOC Business Process Example:
Identify Outputs & Link With
Customers

New
Output Customers
Employment
Process New Employee Manager

Co-workers

External Customers

Other Departments
SIPOC Business Process Example:
Identify Suppliers to the Process

New
Suppliers Output Customers
Employment
Executive Process New Employee Manager
Committee
Co-workers
Department
Managers External Customers

Recruiters Other Departments

Etc.
SIPOC Business Process Example:
Identify Inputs Linked with
Suppliers

New
Suppliers Input Output Customers
Employment
Executive Manpower Need Process New Employee Manager
Committee
Hiring Budgets Co-workers
Department
Managers Requisition External
Customers
Recruiters Job Descriptions
Other
Etc. Candidates Departments
SIPOC Business Process Example:

New
Suppliers Input Output Customers
Employment
Executive Manpower Need Process New Employee Manager
Committee
Hiring Budgets Co-workers
Department
Managers Requisition External
Customers
Recruiters Job Descriptions
Other
Etc. Candidates Departments
Business Process SIPOC Exercise

In teams, complete a SIPOC map for Any process in your


department.

Identify Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs and Customers of the


process.

(15 min.)
(5 min. debrief)
Catapult SIPOC Exercise

In teams, complete a visual SIPOC map for the process


you used for launching the catapult

(15 min.)
(5 min. debrief)

Use “Problem Statement” information from previous module


SIPOC Form Guide - Excel Version

S I P O C
Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers
(Providers of (Resources ( Top level (Deliverables (Anyone who
the required required by description of from the receives a deliverable
resources) the process) activity) process) from the process)
Requirements Requirements
What does the
process expect
What does
Who is the from each Boundary each customer
supplier of input?
expect from
each input?
When does the each output?
What are the
process start?
outputs from
the process?
What Inputs are
required to
enable this
process to What is the
occur? process? Who is the
customer of
each output?

When does the


process end?

Boundary
SIPOC Business Process Example
Excel Method

Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers


(Providers of the required (Resources required by the (Top level description of the (Deliverables from the (Anyone who receives a
resources) process) activity) process) deliverable from the process)
Requirements Requirements

Qualified Manager
Executive Committee Manpower Needs
Fits xyz
Hiring Budgets culture
Co-worker
Oriented to
Requisition New Employment Hiring Business
New Employee
Department Managers Process
Setup for Other
payroll benefits Departments
Job Descriptions
Recruiters Qualified
Candidates External
Customer Customers
Focused
Detailed Process
Mapping
Detailed Process Mapping Symbols

– Process Step or Operation (White)

– Delay (Red)

– Measurement, Quality Check, or


Inspection (Yellow)

– Storage (Yellow)

– Decision (Blue)

– Transport or Movement of Material or


Transmission of Information (Yellow)

BK1-2PROCESS MAP
Basic Structure

Scrap

Bad
Bad

Good

Good
• How many Process or Operation Steps are there?
• How many Decision Points?
• How many Measurement / Inspection Points?
• Where are the Bottlenecks?
• How many Re-work Loops?
Warehouse
Definitions

VALUE ADDED

 A step in an industrial or business process that, given a


choice, the customer is willing to pay for
- Includes those activities that are required by contract or law
- Anything, if you left it out, which would impact customer
satisfaction

NON VALUE ADDED

 Any activity, when left out, that does not directly impact
the customer and may incur no dissatisfaction
- These steps may be necessary to support VALUE ADDED steps
however
Process Mapping Steps

1. Complete High Level Process Map


2. Identify all steps in the process, including value added
and non-value-added, cycle time, defect / yield data and
all rework loops
3. Determine outputs at each step (process and product)
4. List inputs and classify input variables
5. Add operating specifications and process targets for
the controllable input variables

5 Easy Steps
Why List the Inputs and Outputs?

 Xs are sources of variation


 Variation causes defects
 Xs must be under control to prevent defects
 Root cause of defects is the variation of Xs
 Ys are outputs of processes and include failure
modes of processes
 Defects are also outputs of a process step

To reduce defects!
Input Classifications

 Controllable Inputs (C)


- Can be changed
- Sometimes called “Knob” Variables

 Noise Inputs (N)


- Difficult or impossible to control or choose not to

 Standard Operating Procedures (S)


- Procedure for running process
Step 1 Example:
“Pasta” High Level Map

Pasta High Level Process Map

Cooking
Suppliers Input Output Customers
Pasta
Restaurant Owner Raw Pasta Cooked Patrons
Grocery Store Pan Owner
Pasta
H2O Cook
Cup
Stove
Spoon
Salt
Oil
Step 2 Example :
Identify All Process Steps

Pasta Process Map


Designate steps as value-added or non-value-added
Rework
.01 DPU

No
.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES

Input Add water, Boil Add Cook Done? Output


salt & oil Water Pasta Pasta Yes
Raw Pasta Cooked
Pan Pasta
H2O
Stove
Spoon
Salt
Oil Add cycle time, defect / yield data and ALL rework loops
Step 3 Example :
Determine Outputs for Each Step

Pasta Process Map Rework


.01 DPU

No
.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES

Input Add water, Boil Add Cook Done? Output


salt & oil Water Pasta Pasta Yes
Raw Pasta Cooked
Pan Pasta
H2O Boiling Water Properly Cooked
Stove Water Remaining
Spoon Steam
Cup
Salt
Oil

What are the outputs for the other steps?


Step 4a Example :
List Inputs for Each Step

Rework
Pasta Process Map
.01 DPU

No
.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES

Input Add water, Boil Add Cook Done? Output


salt & oil Water Pasta Pasta Yes
Raw Pasta Amt. of Salt Cooked
Pan Amt. of Oil Pasta
Lid or Not Boiling Water
H2O Altitude Time Properly
Water Remaining
Stove Ambient Temp Steam Lid or Not Cooked
Spoon Time Type of Pasta
Cup Minerals in H2O Amount of Pasta
Salt Pan Material Altitude
Pan Size Ambient Temp
Oil
Pan Condition Cooking instructions
Boiling Instructions
BTUs
Step 4b Example :
Classify Input Variables

Rework
Pasta Process Map
.01 DPU

No
.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES

Input Add water, Boil Add Cook Done? Output


salt & oil Water Pasta Pasta Yes
Raw Pasta Cooked
Pan C Amt. of Salt
Pasta
C Time Properly
H2O C Amt. of Oil Boiling Water
C Lid or Not Cooked
C Lid or Not Water Remaining
Stove N Altitude Steam C Type of Pasta
C Amount of Pasta
Spoon N Ambient Temp.
N Altitude
N Time
Cup N Minerals in H2O N Ambient Temp
S Cooking Instruction
Salt C Pan Material
C Pan Size Key
Oil C or N Pan Condition
S Boiling Instructions C -Controllable
C BTUs S - SOP
N - Noise
Step 5 Example:
Add Operating Specifications

Pasta Process Map Rework


.01 DPU

No
.5 MINUTE 6 MINUTES .25 MINUTE 9 MINUTES

Input Add water, Boil Add Cook Done? Output


salt & oil Water Pasta Pasta Yes
Raw Pasta Cooked
Pan C Amt. of Salt
Pasta
C Time Properly
H2O C Amt. of Oil Boiling Water
C Lid or Not Cooked
C Lid or Not Water Remaining
Stove N Altitude Steam C Type of Pasta
C Amount of Pasta
Spoon N Ambient Temp.
N Altitude
N Time
Cup N Minerals in H2O N Ambient Temp
S Cooking Instructions
Salt C Pan Material
Controllable Upper
C Pan Size Lower Key
Oil Input Variable Target
C orSpec Spec
N Pan Condition
S Boiling Instructions C -Controllable
Time (minutes) 9 10 8
C BTU’s S - SOP
Amount of N - Noise
Pasta (ounces) 16 18 14
Process Mapping – Excel Method

Value
Added/
Non
value
Input Type Process Added Output
Add water,
salt and
Amount of water Controllable water VA Ingredients added
Amount of salt Controllable CT=.5 minutes
Amount of oil Controllable DPU=?
Pasta instructions SOP COPQ=?

Amt. of Salt Controllable Boil Water NVA Boiling Water


Amt. of Oil Controllable CT=6 minutes Water Remaining
Lid or Not Controllable DPU=? Steam
Altitude Noise COPQ=?
Ambient Temp. Noise
Time Noise
Minerals in H2O Noise
Pan Material Controllable
Pan Size Controllable
Pan Condition Controllable or Noise
Boiling Instructions SOP
BTUs Controllable

Can be effective, however, difficult to show rework loops


Tips In Process Mapping

 Clarify process boundaries

 Brainstorm steps

- Use verbs

- Do not include who in step description

 Combine, eliminate duplicates, clarify steps


Catapult Process Map Exercise

In teams, complete a detailed map for the process you used


for launching the catapult (steps 2-5, slide 19)

(45 min.)
(15 min. debrief)

Set-up Place Ball Pull Back Arm Release Measure


catapult in pocket Distance
Additional Breakout Sessions

 In teams, pick one of the following and go through the


process mapping procedure
 Examples
- Making coffee (buy, set-up, brew, serve)
- Getting to work (wake, clean, dress, eat, travel)
- Paying bills (open mail, review, write check, mail out)
 Choose leader, spokesperson, timekeeper, scribe
 As a team, be prepared to present the map on a
flipchart easel
Success Factors

 Team members
 Time and scheduling
 Method
 Involve stakeholders
 Multiple opinions

Involve people who know (focus on) the “current” process


Preparing the Process Map

 Team Effort • Inputs to Mapping


– Brainstorming
- Cross Functional
– Operator Manuals
- Process Owners

- Customers – Specifications

- Suppliers – Process Owner Experience

Involve people who know (focus on) the “current” process


Traps to Avoid

•Depth

–Choosing wrong level


costs time and effort

•Accuracy
–Incorrect information
–Too much detail
–Too little detail
Additional Maps

 Common flowchart

 Top-down flowchart

 Functional or Deployment flowchart

 Others

Useful in general…but do NOT provide the


detail required for full analysis
Common Flowchart

Help
Start Snooze Wait Kids

No No No
Wake Bath Free
Ready? Shower Kids Ready
Up
Yes ? Yes ?
Yes

OK Wave
Eat Drive Traffic? Go Late? To
No Boss
Heavy Yes
Change
Route
Sneak
In
Stop
Top-Down Flowchart

• Two levels of detail


• Summarizes “how it is supposed to work”
• Used to “describe” not “analyze”
Card Dropping

Pick Position Drop

Deck on table Foot on x Align arm


Pick one Stand straight Hold still
Thumb and forefinger Face target Release fingers
Do not bend Hand: shoulder height Free fall
Card vertical
Functional or Deployment Flow
Diagram
Business
Unit

Define Prepare Review & Receive &


needs paperwork approve use

Review &
Configure
I.T.

approve
& install
standard
Procure- Top Mgt/ Finances

Review & Issue


approve payment
Corporate

Review &
approve

Acquire
ment

equipment

Supplier Supplier

17
21 days 6 days 15 days 5 days days 7 days 71 days
Links to Other Tools

A consensus map of how the process performs which


provides input to:
- Cause and Effects Matrix
- Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)
- Control Plan Summary
- Capability Summary
- Multi-Vari Studies
- DOE planning
Next Steps

Detailed Process Cause and


Map Effects Matrix

Initial Control Plans FMEA

DETAILED Process Mapping is the foundation of many other


Breakthrough Strategy tools
Key Learning Points

 SIPOC

 Process Mapping

 Input classification

 VA / NVA
Module Objectives Review

The participant will be able to:

- Understand need for process mapping

- Apply various types of process maps in a project

- Utilize flow charts and other charts to map a process

- Prepare a detailed Process Map


Appendix
Initial Assessment of Control Plan

 Start an initial assessment after process map is complete


 Add
- Measurement technique
- Operating specifications
- Targets
Current Control Plan
Current
Process Spec Cpk / Date
Measurement %R&R Control
Process Step Input Output (LSL, USL, (Sample Who Where When Reaction Plan
System or P/T Method (from
Target) Size)
FMEA)

Open file control.xls


Transactional Example

Request is put
• Checklist Incomplete
into Checklist rotation • 1 Day - 21 Days

Yes

Account Mgr. prepares


Account Mgr. reviews Request is sent to
request to Pricing Dept. Request need to
product and prices with No Pricing Dept. Admin.
for special pricing be checklisted
customer Support for Typing

• Request Not Sent Mail • Keystroke Errors


• Request Lost E - Mail • Misunderstanding of Request
• Request Incomplete Fax • 5 Min - 1/2 Days
• No Formal Format MS - Mail
• 1 Day - 5 Days Phone

Signed Letter given


Typed Letter Typed / Signed
back to Pricing Dept.
taken back to Pricing Letter given to MPMP Product Code / Price is
Admin. Support for
Specialist for Review Entry Specialist for Active in Billing System
Distribution to
and Signature Billing system input
approved list

5 Min - 1/2 Day •5 Min - 1/2 Day • Keystroke Errors


• Misunderstanding of Request
• 1 Day - 3 Days

BK1-2PROCESS MAP
Corrective Action Guidelines
Start

• Used to determine
Wrong
Fix Battery Position Battery Pos.

cause of failures OK

• Troubleshooting Yes
Light ?
No

Bad
Replace Battery Test Battery

OK
Yes No
Light ?

Bad
Replace Bulb Test Bulb

OK

Stop Light ? Buy New Flashlight


Yes No
Data Flow Diagram

Brokerage System Payables


Data Flow Diagram Records

Payable

Advance Purchase
Seller Settlement
Seller on Agreement
ID #
Purchase #

Settlement

Agreement
to Purchase

Deliveries
Another Industrial Engineering
Example
Deliverable Generic Widget Product
Process Total Manaufacturing
Champion Joe Toofast
Department ABC
Organization XYZ
Project NA
Facility Idaho
Step Step Description Work Verify Fix Move Delay Store Unit Description Dist Time OP
1 Receive steel X Steel bar stock 37.2
2 Perform inspection X 5.5
3 Complete documentation X 1.4
4 Transport to cut-off X 237 5.3
5 Execute cut-off operation X Steel cube stock 7.7
6 Perform inspection X 1.5
7 Rework as required X 4.6
8 Complete documentation X 0.5
9 Transport to milling X 382 11.4
10 Execute milling operation X Finished part 5.6
11 Perform inspection X 1.2
12 Rework as required X 1.5
13 Complete documentation X 0.5
14 Transport to assembly X 265 8.7
15 Execute assembly operation X Finished Widget 1.7
16 Perform inspection X 0.3
17 Rework as required X 0.8
18 Complete documentation X 2.5
19 Transport to shipping X 478 12.4
Total = 3 4 3 4 4 1 1,362 110.3
Efficency = 16%