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We can even classify population in terms

of:
 sex
 religious
 affiliation
 ethnic origin or
 particular age groups
Deniker
Haddon

Hooton Von Eicshtedt


Primary Race I – White ( European, Eur-African, and Caucasoid )

Subraces: 1. Mediterranean
2. Ainu
3. Celtic
4. Nordic
5. Alpine
6. East Baltic
Composition subraces: 7. Armenoid
8. Dinaric
Residual mixed types: 9. Nordic Alpine
10. Nordic Mediterranean
Composition race:
Predominantly white: Australian
Predominantly Negroid: Tasmanian
Predominantly white: Indo-Dravidian
Predominantly white: Polynesian

Primary Race II- Negroid

Subraces: 1. African Negro ( Negritian Forest Negro )


2. Nilotic Negro
3. Negrito
Composition race:
Predominantly Negroid: Melanesian - Papuan
( Oceanic Negroid)

Secondary subrace: 1. Papuan


2. Melanesian

Composition race:
Predominantly Negroid: Bushman – Hottentot
Secondary subrace: 1. Bushman
2. Hottentot
Primary Race III – Mongoloid
Primary subrace: 1. Classic Mongoloid
2. Arctic Mongoloid
( Eskimoid )
Composition race:
Predominantly Mongoloid: Indonesian – Mongoloid
( Indonesian – Malay )
Secondary subrace: 1. Malay – Mongoloid
2. Indonesian

Composition race: American Indian


A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN
POPULATION
The 1995 population of the world stands at nearly 6 billion
people and is projected to reach 6.3 billion by the year 2000. Of
this number, around 30 percent or 1.89 billion comes from china
and India, the two most populous countries in the world. The
other countries with large population (with more than 100
million)include the United States of America, Indonesia, Japan
and Soviet Russia. The rate of population increase around the
world is not the same. On the average, it much higher among the
less-developed countries. For example the population of Kenya
doubles every 17 years and in India, every 35 years; whereas in
the United States, it only doubles after every 100 years. In
Hungary, however ,the population is stable-no increase. 600
years ago an estimated 77 billion people have lived on earth. Of
this number, only 12 billion lived before 6000 B.C..
At the beginning of the Christian era, it was estimated that
there were 250 million people on earth.
By 1650, the figure had doubled to 500 million.
By 1850 it again doubled to 1billion.
By 1930 the world population reached the 2 billion mark .
By 1962 the world’s population passed 3 billion and is expected
to double again by the year 2000.
 The exponential increase in population is due mainly to the
advancement in all aspects of human knowledge which started
during the middle ages, most specially in agriculture,
sanitation, nutrition and medicine.
 Ancient cultures generally favored in fertility.
 As civilization progressed, attitudes of people changed. For
instance the culture of ancient Greece favored limitation of
children.
 There is also evidence that birth control was practiced during
the early years of the roman empire. This alarmed Emperor
Augustus Caesar who instituted laws to encourage marriage
and with it, child bearing. He realized the importance of a large
number of people able to fight wars.
 After the fall of the roman empire until the Middle age ,Europe
was literary in turmoil. Wars between among major tribes
resulted in massive destruction of lives and properties.
 By the end of ninth century there were already signs of
recovery and progress.
 And with it population started to increase. This enabled some
countries, notably France and England, to send soldiers to
liberate the holy land from the Muslims. These soldiers were
known in history as the Crusaders.
 Then in fourteenth century, Europe was again ravaged.
 The period between the fifteenth and the seventeenth century
was marked by conquest of new land, expeditions, and
immigration of large number of European to the new world.
 Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1942 and
Vasco da Gama discovered India in 1948.
 By early seventeenth century ,a great movement originated in
Italy. This was known as the renaissance, meaning the revival
of learning.
Great stride in literary arts
Painting and sculpture Great men associated with
• Painting the arts and science
• cultural revolution  Leonardo da Vinci
• Science  Michelangelo

Science Literature
 Nicolaus Copernicus  Dante
 Galileo Galilie  Virgil
 Toward the latter half of the eighteenth century, there was a
notable decrease in death rate due to advance knowledge and
technology in medicine and improved sanitary conditions.

John Grant (1962)- an Englishman came up with the first


genuine table of mortality.

Isaac Vossius- Dutch scholar who suggested a figure of 545


million. Also at around the time, the birth rate was estimated to
be 35 to 40 per 1000 and the death rate, 30 to 35 per 1000.

Louis Pasteur-discovered the various vaccines.


Table 5.2 shows the annual birth rate per 1000 inhabitants in selected
countries of Europe and the United States.
Birth Rate is defined as the average number of live births per year per 1000
Year France United
inhabitants in a certain Germany
place. U.S .
Kingdom
TABLE 5.2
Annual Birth Rate Per 1000 Inhabitants IN
1880 Selected
24.6 European
33.9 Countries
38.0and the U.S.
36.0
1900 21.4 28.5 35.0 30.1
1911-1913 18.8 26.3 28.0 27.0
1933 16.2 19.8 16.7 16.5
 The death rate is defined as the average number of
deaths per 1000 population in a certain place.
 The difference in the birth rates and the death rates
represents the natural increase in population.
After the world war ll, changes occurred in the
population patterns;
1. The birth rate resumed an upward trend in the
developed countries.
2. The death rate underwent a sharp decline in the less
developed countries.
REGIONS Birth rate Death Rate Natural Increase
Africa 40 36 4
U.S., Canada 18 11 7
Latin America 42 26 18
Near East Asia 42 33 9
South East Asia 42 32 10
Japan 27 17 10
Far East Asia 42 32 10
Southern Europe 23 16 7
Eastern Europe 33 22 11
Rest of Europe 17 12 5
Oceania 20 10 10
World total 30 26 10
Table 5.4
Population Distribution in the world by
AGE GROUP Age Group (1980),
Developed Regions in Percent
Less-developed
Regions

0-4 27 42
15-64 63 55
65 and over 10 3

What may be considered as really significant change from a geographic


point of view is the migration of people from rural to urban areas among the
developed and the less-developed countries. This is an indication of
modernity in agricultural practices, requiring less labor f or higher
production of agricultural products. This is also an indication of
industrialization of the urban areas requiring more labor force to man
industries. But this has also resulted in many cases of overcrowded
population, inadequate housing, poor sanitation facilities, substandard
schools and in general, poor living conditions.
Table 5.5
Rural –Urban Ratios (In Percent) For the Years 1950
and 1970
Regions 1950 1970
Developed Regions
Rural population 49 32
Urban population 51 68

Less –developed
Regions
Rural population 84 24.5
Urban population 16 75.5

A quick look at the present population at the present


population of some selected cities in the world and the
projected population by the year 2000 indirectly reveals the
tremendous pressure that these cities will encounter in terms
of the facilities mentioned.
Table 5.6
Population Of Metropolitan Areas (In Millions)
Metropolitan 1992 2000
Areas
Tokyo Japan 25.8 28.0
Shanghai, China 14.2 17.4
Bombay, India 13.3 18.1
Metro Manila, 9.6 12.6
Philippines 8.7 13.5
Lagos, Nigeria 8.6 11.9
Karachi, Pakistan 7.6 9.9
Bangkok, Thailand 7.4 11.5
Dacca, Bangladesh
THE PHILIPPINE POPULATION: ITS
CHARACTERISTICS
ACCORDING TO BRITANNICA
WORD DATA, THE POPULATION OF
THE PHILIPPINES AS OF 1991
STRANDS AT AROUND 62 350 000. THE
POPULATION DENSITY IS 208 PEOPLE
PER SQUARE KILOMETER OF LAND.
BASED ON THE NATURAL INCREASE
RATE OF 28.1 PER 1000 POPULATION,
AGAIN ONE OF THE HIGHEST IN THE
WORD (THE WORD AVERAGE IS 17.2)
THE PROJECTED POPULATION BY THE YEAR
2000 IS 74, 609, 000 AND ASSUMING THE
SAME RATE OF GROWTH, IT WILL BE 86
493 000 BY THE YEAR OF 2010. FOR SUCH
RATE, DOUBLING TIME IS AROUND 30
YEARS. HENCE BY THE YEAR OF 2021, THERE
WILL BE MORE THAN 120 000 000
FILIPINOS.
TAKE A LOOK AT TABLE 5.7, WHICH SHOWS
THE POPULATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
BEGINNING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY .

IF OUR POPULATION N REMAINED AT


AROUND 10 MILLION, THE PHILIPPINES
WOULD HAVE BEEN A PARADISE.
THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF LAND OF
EVERYONE AND WITH OUR RICH NATURAL
RESOURCES, THERE WILL BE PLENTY FOODS.
THE STANDARD OF LIVING WOULD
RELATIVELY HIGH. OUR QUALITY OF LIFE
WOULD BE THE ENVY OF MANY OTHER
COUNTRIES. THERE WILL BE VERY FEW POOR
PEOPLE.
TABLE 5.7
POPULATION OF THE PHILIPPINES

YEAR Population in Millions

1900 7.64
1918 10.31
1939 16.00
1948 19.23
1960 27.10
1991 62.35

SOURCE: National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO)


CHARACTERISTICS
BASED ON THE LATEST FIGURE
AVAILABLE IN 1991, 42.7 PERCENT OF THE
PHILIPPINE POPULATION WAS URBAN,
AND 57.3 PERCENT WAS RURAL. IN 1987,
ONLY 41 PERCENT WAS URBAN AND 59
PERCENT RURAL. THIS INDICATED A RAPID
URBANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE
POPULATION. THERE ARE SEVERAL
REASONS FOR THIS PHENOMENON.
As a result of population explosion, the
arable land per family is becoming
smaller, making it harder for the families
to generate sufficient income for their
economic needs. This result is movement of
population from urban areas. The urban
setting may offer of opportunities not
found in the rural areas like working in
factories or becoming drivers of jeepney,
tricycle, and etc.
The immediate consequence of this
migration is the tremendous pressure put
on the basic services needed by this
migratory families. They need housing,
water electricity, and facilities such as
schools, markets, transportation, and
recreation which most cities are unable to
provide. This was result squatters
colonies, low water supplies over crowded
schools and market everywhere
Table 5.8 shows the breakdown the Philippine
population. The figures reveal that we have a very
young population, with too many unproductive
people and relatively few people of productive
age. This is a deterrent to economic recovery and
definitely a barrier to increased productivity.
The data in table 5.8 also show the very high
fecundity of the population. Fecundity is the ability
of the population to bear a children. The
immediate consequence of this is high birth rate.
TABLE 5.8
Population Distribution Of The Philippine By Age
Levels

AGE LEVEL PERSENTAGE


Below 15 years old 39.0
15- 29 30.5
17.0
30- 44
8.7
60-74 4.0
7o Above 0.98

Source: NCSO
FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION GROWTH

DO YOU KNOW WHY THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE PHILIPPINES INCREASES AT A RATE FASTER
THAN THAT OF JAPAN? DID YOU KNOW THAT THE RATE INCREASE OF PHILIPPINE POPULATION
IS LOWER AMONG THE BETTER EDUCATED PEOPLE THAN AMONG THE LESS EDUCATED? WHAT
DO YOU THINK ARE THE REASONS? DISCUSS THESE QUESTIONS IN CLASS.
THE RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH IS AFFECTED
BY SEVERAL FACTORS. THESE FACTORS MAY BE
ENVIRONMENTAL IN CHARACTER. THEY MAY
EVEN BE A RELIGIOUS. A RICH NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT WITH PLENTY OF FOOD AND
AGREEABLE CLIMATE IS CONDUCIVE TO A HIGH
RATE OF INCREASE IN POPULATION.

POPULATION WITH HIGH FECUNDITY TENDS TO


INCREASE FASTER. IN THE PHILIPPINES, PEOPLE
BETWEEN THE AGE OF 15 TO 44 CONSTITUTE
ALMOST 50 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION.
RELIGION PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN THE FAMILY PLANNING. THE
CATHOLIC RELIGION, FOR INSTANCE, FORBIDS THE USE OF
ARTIFICIAL BIRTH CONTROL MEASURES LIKE ORAL
CONTRACEPTIVES, CONDOMS, INTRAUTERINE DEVICE (IDUS),AND
ABORTION.

MIGRATION ALSO PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE POPULATION


INCREASE. THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE ADMITTED INTO THE UNITED
STATE, CANADA, AND AUSTRALIA FROM OTHER COUNTRIES HAS A
SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE POPULATION. HOWEVER, SINCE THE
POPULATION DENSITY IN THOSE COUNTRIES IS STILL QUITE LOW,
THE EFFECT ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE IS NOT YET FELT.
THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY MARKED WIDESPREAD MIGRATION FROM EUROPE, MOSTLY
TO THE SO – CALLED NEW WORLD. A LARGE NUMBER OF SPANIARDS AND
PORTUGUESE WENT TO SOUTH AMERICA, CONQUERED THE NATIVES, INTRODUCED
THEIR CULTURE, BROUGHT THEIR FAMILIES WITH THEM, OR MARRIED NATIVES.

THE CASE OF THE PHILIPPINES IS ENTIRELY DIFFERENT. AFTER FERDINAND MAGELLAN


LANDED IN THE PHILIPPINES AND MET HIS DEATH AT MACTAN IN 1521, SEVERAL
MORE EXPEDITIONS WERE SENT TO THE ISLANDS CULMINATING IN THE
ESTABLISHMENT OF A PERMANENT SPANISH SETTLEMENT IN CEBU BY MIGUEL
LOPEZ DE LEGASPI IN 1565. SIX YEARS LATER, THE SPANISH CITY OF MANILA WAS
FOUNDED. THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY 333 YEARS OF SPANISH RULE.
DURING THE AMERICAN PERIOD, VERY FEW
AMERICANS ALSO SETTLED IN THE PHILIPPINES.
AMERICAN LEFT WITH THE FILIPINOS THEIR
EDUCATIONAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS. AND AS FAR
AS MIGRATION WAS CONCERNED, THE REVERSE
HAPPENED. A GREAT NUMBER OF FILIPINOS
MIGRATED TO THE UNITED STATES SEEING IT AS A
LAND OF PROMISE AND OPPORTUNITY. IN THE 1980S
THERE WERE AROUND THREE MILLION FILIPINOS IN
THE UNITED STATES. IT IS RARE TO FIND A FILIPINO
FAMILY WITH NO IMMIGRANT RELATIVES IN THE
STATE NOWADAYS.
LIFE EXPECTANCY
LIFE EXPECTANCY IS THE AVERAGE AGE AT WHICH A PERSON IS CALCULATED TO
LIVE. IF YOU REACHED THE AGE OF 40 IN ANCIENT ROME, YOU ARE THEN
CONSIDERED AN OLD MAN.
WHY WAS THE SPAN OF LIFE DURING THAT TIME SO SHORT? AT THAT TIME
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE HUMAN BODY WAS LIMITED: PROPER NUTRITION WAS
PRACTICALLY UNKNOWN; SICKNESS COULD NOT BE DIAGNOSED; AND MEDICINES
FOR CURING ILLNESSES WERE PRACTICALLY NONEXISTENCE. A SIMPLE TOOTHACHE
WAS AGONIZINGLY PAINFUL; PLAGUES HAD NO CURE.
TODAY, THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY HAS INCREASED, ESPECIALLY IN MOST
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. JAPAN HAS THE HIGHEST LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR THE MEN
AND WOMEN COMBINED AT 78.6 YEARS. FOLLOWED BY ICELAND, SWEDEN, AND
SWITZERLAND AT 77.8 YEARS. IN UNITED STATE, THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY IS
75.9 YEARS. IN THE PHILIPPINES IT IS 63.3 WITH AN AVERAGE OF 64.9 YEARS FOR
FEMALE AND 61.7 FOR MALES. FOR THE WORLD THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY IS
63 YEARS, 73 FOR THE MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND 60 FOR THE LESS
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. AFRICA, AT 52, HAS THE LOWEST AVERAGE LIFE
EXPECTACY.