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# EE 147

Electromechanical
Energy Conversion
Magnetically Coupled
Circuits

## Materials from Fundamentals of Electric Circuits (4th Edition),

Alexander & Sadiku, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Magnetically Coupled Circuit

1. Introduction
1. What is a transformer?
2. Mutual Inductance
3. Energy in a Coupled Circuit
4. Ideal Transformers

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What is a transformer? (1)
• It is an electrical device designed on the
basis of the concept of magnetic coupling.
• It uses magnetically coupled coils to
transfer energy from one circuit to
another.
• It is the key circuit elements for stepping
up or stepping down ac voltages or
currents, impedance matching, isolation,
etc.

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What is a transformer? (2)

## When a magnetic field fluctuates around a piece of wire, it generates

an electric current in the wire. So if we put a second coil of wire next to the first
one, and send a fluctuating electric current into the first coil, we will create an
electric current in the second wire.
The current in the first coil is usually called the primary current and
the current in the second wire is (surprise, surprise) the secondary current

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Mutual Inductance (1)
• It is the ability of one inductor to induce a voltage across a
neighboring inductor, measured in henrys (H).

di1 di2
v2  M 21 v1  M 12
dt dt
Open circuit Mutual inductance (or Open circuit Mutual inductance (or
induced voltage) across coil 2. induced voltage) across coil 1.

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M21 = Mutual inductance of coil 2 M12 = Mutual inductance of coil 1
with respect to coil 1. with respect to coil 2.
Mutual Inductance (2)
• If a current enters the dotted terminal of one coil,
the reference polarity of the mutual voltage in the
second coil is positive at the dotted terminal of
the second coil.

## Illustration of the dot convention. 6

Mutual Inductance (3)
Dot convention

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Mutual Inductance (4)
polarity of the mutual voltage; (a) series-aiding connection,
(b) series-opposing connection.

L  L1  L2  2M L  L1  L2  2 M
(series - aiding connection ) (series - opposing connection )

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Mutual Inductance (5)

Time-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils.

Frequency-domain
analysis of a circuit
containing coupled
coils.

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Mutual Inductance (6)
Example 13.1

## Calculate the phasor currents I1 and I2 in the

circuit shown below.

## Ans: I1  13.01  49.39A; I2  2.9114.04A

*Refer to textbook pp. 561-562 10
Energy in a Coupled Circuit (1)
• The coupling coefficient, k, is a measure of the
magnetic coupling between two coils; 0≤k≤1.

M  k L1L2

## • The instantaneous energy stored in the circuit is

given by
1 2 1 2
w  L1i1  L2i2  MI1 I 2
2 2
Positive sign for mutual term if both currents enter or leave the 11
dotted terminals. Negative sign if otherwise.
Energy in a Coupled Circuit (2)
Example 13.3
Consider the circuit below. Determine the coupling
coefficient. Calculate the energy stored in the coupled
inductors at time t = 1s if v=60cos(4t +30°) V.

## Refer to textbook pp. 566-567

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Ideal Transformer (1)
• A transformer is said to be ideal if:

## 1. Coils have very large reactances (L1, L2, M  )

2. Coupling coefficient is equal to unity (k = 1)
3. Primary and secondary coil are loss less (R1 = 0 = R2)

## • An ideal transformer is a unity-coupled, lossless

transformer in which the primary and secondary
coils have infinite self-inductances.

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Ideal Transformer (2)

V2 N 2 I 2 N1 1
 n  
V1 N1 I1 N 2 n

## V2>V1→ step-up transformer

V2<V1→ step-down transformer
(a) Ideal Transformer
(b) Circuit symbol
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Ideal Transformer (3)
• Polarity of V and direction of I:

## 1. If V1 and V2 are both positive or both negative at the

dotted terminals, use +n in V2 N 2 . Otherwise
 n
use –n . V1 N1

## 2. If I1 and I2 both enter or both leave the dotted

terminals, use –n in I 2 N1 1 . Otherwise use +n.
 
I1 N 2 n

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Ideal Transformer (4)

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Ideal Transformer (5)
• V1 can be expressed in terms of V2 and I1 in
terms of I2, or vice versa:
V2
V1  or V2  nV1
n
I1
I1  nI 2 or I2 
n

## • Complex power in primary winding is:

S1  V1I 1 
* V2
nI 2 *  V2 I *2  S 2
n
showing S supplied to primary is delivered to secondary 17
without loss.
Ideal Transformer (6)

## Input impedance as seen by the source figure above is:

V1 1 V2
Z in   2
I1 n I2

V2 ZL
Since ZL  , we get Z in  2
I2 n
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13.5 Ideal Transformer (7)
•Input impedance is also known as reflected
impedance, since it appears as if load impedance
is reflected to primary side.

## •Common practice in analyzing circuit with ideal

transformer is to eliminate transformer by
reflecting impedances and sources from one side
of the transformer to the other.

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Ideal Transformer (8)
•Example: Want to reflect secondary side of
circuit below to primary side:

## 1. Find Thevenin equivalent of circuit to the right of

terminals a-b. (i.e. Obtain VTh as open-circuit voltage
at terminals a-b).
2. Get ZTh by removing voltage source at secondary
winding and insert a unit source at terminals a-b.
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Ideal Transformer (8)
1. Obtain VTh

V2 Vs2
VTh  V1  
n n

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Ideal Transformer (8)
2. Obtain ZTh

V1 V2 n Z 2
Z Th    2 where V2  Z2I 2
I1 nI 2 n

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Ideal Transformer (11)
The general rule for eliminating the transformer
and reflecting the secondary circuit to the
primary side is: divide the secondary impedance
by n2, divide the secondary voltage by n, and
multiply the secondary current by n.

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Ideal Transformer (12)
The general rule for eliminating the transformer
and reflecting the primary circuit to the
secondary side is: multiply the primary
impedance by n2, multiply the primary voltage by
n, and divide the primary current by n.

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Ideal Transformer (13)
Example 13.7

## An ideal transformer is rated at 2400/120V, 9.6 kVA, and

has 50 turns on the secondary side.

Calculate:
(a) the turns ratio,
(b) the number of turns on the primary side, and
(c) the current ratings for the primary and secondary
windings.
Ans:
(a) This is a step-down transformer, n=0.05
(b) N1 = 1000 turns
(c) I1 = 4A and I2 = 80A