Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL

TECHNOLOGY
DBE 212
PREPARED BY GROUP ONE
GROUP MEMBERS

• Mumbere Ibrahim
• Kizito Elijah
• Zubeda Samsha
• Biira Samsha
• Ndoshire Andrew
• Jiga Brian Jackson
ELECTRICAL POWER
TRANSMISSION
DEFINITION:
BULK MOVEMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM A GENERATING SITE, SUCH AS
A POWER PLANT, TO AN ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION.
OR
THE PROCESS BY WHICH LARGE AMOUNTS OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED ARE
TRANSPORTED OVER LONG
DISTANCES FOR EVENTUAL USE BY CONSUMERS.
WHY ELECTRIC POWER TRANSFER?
• To distribute power to various different areas.
• To generate many potential power substations.

• .
Transmission helps to evaluate the significance of electricity to the public

• Meet the growing need for safe, reliable electricity


• Connect new generation sources to the grid
• Improve reliability, efficiency
• Renewable portfolio standards
BACKGROUND
• Power lines transmit electricity
• Power lines can be;
• Overhead
• Underground Power lines and
transmission towers

Underground Utility
Work
THE ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM

The diagram depicts the basic


elements of an electric power
system:
• Generation – Where energy is
created
• Transmission and Distribution –
Energy is transported across
high-voltage transmission to
lower-voltage distribution lines
• Load – Power is delivered to
homes and businesses
GOALS AIMED AT IN TRANSMISSION

• Efficiency – transport electric power over distances with minimal losses.


• Safety – transport power through urban and rural areas minimizing harm to
people and animals.
• Costs – use the minimal raw materials and building/operating costs possible.
• Robustness – create a system which s not volunerable to surges from lighting,
solar flairs, earthquakes, ice storms and the system be able to heal heal itself
when out gates occur and isolating problem areas.
TYPES OF ELECTRICAL LINES

• Electrical Cables
• High Voltage, Low Voltage
• Supervisory and Signaling Cables
• Cathodic protection (cabinets, cables, earthing conductors, cable shrouds)
• Communication Cables
• Phone lines
• Coaxial cables (e.g. data cables)
• Broadband cables
• Tram traction cables and trolley wires
• Railway supply cables and traction wires
METHODS OF POWER TRANSMISSION

• Electrical power transmission


• Mechanical power transmission
• Chemical power transmission
TYPES OF ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION
OVERHEAD UNDERGROUNG
• INVOLVES TRANSMISSION OF • POWER IS TRANSMITTED AT
POWER AT HEIGHTS FROM THE DEPTHS BELOW THE GROUND
GROUND. LEVEL
UNDERGROUND TRANSMISSION
• This is the transmission of power from one point to another by passing the
power cables through the ground.
TYPES OF UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC
TRANSMISSION CABLES
• There are two main types of underground transmission lines currently in use.
• One type is constructed in a pipe with fluid or gas pumped or circulated through and around
the cable in order to manage heat and insulate the cables.
Welded Externally
Coated Steel Pipe

• Pressurized Gas or Fluid


( usually nitrogen or
sy nthetic oil at 200 p si

Segmented Copper
Conducto r

Paper Insulation

Metallic Shield
• The other type is a solid dielectric cable which requires no fluids or gas and is a more recent
technological advancement

Underground Solid cable, cross-linked polyethylene cables left to right: 345 kV, 138 kV, 69
kV, and distribution
OVERHEAD POWER TRANSMISSION
• An overhead power line is a
structure raised above the ground
level to transmit and distribute
electric power along large
distances.
• It consists of one or more conductors
suspended by towels or poles
OVERHEAD EVALUATION

• Here most of the insulation is provided by air


• Power lines have the lowest cost
• They transmit large quantities of electric energy
• Poles can easily be made of wood
• The bear wire conductors on the line are generally made of aluminum ( or
reinforced with steel )
CLASSIFICATION OF OVERHEAD POWER LINES

• They are classified into range or voltages


• Low voltage (LV) Used for connection between a residential or small
commercial consumer and the utility.
• Medium voltage (MV) Between 1KV-69KV for distribution In urban and
rural areas.
• High voltage (HV) Between 115KV-138KV for sub transmission and
transmission of bulk quantities of electric power for large consumers.
• Extra high voltage (EHV) between 230KV-800KV used for long distance very
high power transmission
• Ultra high voltage (UHV) higher than 800KV
OVERHEAD

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Relatively cheap • Open to people
• Fault finding is easy • Low insulation levels
• Easy fault eradication • They interfere with the geography
of the area
UNDERGROUND

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

• They are safer or protected from • Difficult to pass through swamps


external harm
• Fault finding is difficult
• They are reliable. Can be sustained for
long periods of time • Interfering with human activities like
• Cheaper to maintain’ mining
• Saves space • It is expensive.
TRANSFER SYSTEM FROM POWER SOURCE.

• Transmission lines are sets of wires, called conductors, that carry electric power from
generating plants to the substations that deliver power to customers.
• At a generating plant, electric power is “stepped up” to several thousand volts by a
transformer and delivered to the transmission line.
• At numerous substations on the transmission system, transformers step down the power to a
lower voltage and deliver it to distribution lines. Distribution lines carry power to farms, homes
and businesses.
• The type of transmission structures used for any project is determined by the characteristics of
the transmission line’s route, including terrain and existing infrastructure.