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MIS 710 Module 0

Database fundamentals

Arijit Sengupta
Structure of this semester
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MIS710

0. Intro 1. Design 2. Querying 3. Applications 4. Advanced


Topics
Database Conceptual
Query Java DB
Fundamentals Modeling Transaction
Languages Applications – Management
JDBC
Relational
Model Advanced
Data
SQL
Mining
Normalization

Newbie Users Designers Developers Professionals


Today’s buzzwords
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• Organizational data cycle


• Database
• Database Management Systems
• Data Independence
• Centralized Database Systems
• Client-Server Database Systems
• Distributed Database Systems
Objectives of today’s lecture
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• Know common database terminology


• Understand requirements and uses of
data
• Know the differences between databases
and flat files
• Realize the importance and need for
databases in problem-solving
• Understand the different types of
databases and their differences
Data: A Resource
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• The Success of an organization depends


on efficient use of its resources:
 Buildings, factories, equipment
 Technical know-how
 Human resources
 Data
• Data: An important organizational
resource
The Organizational Data
Cycle
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User Decisions

Knowledge Actions

Data Information
Electronic Data
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• Why?
Large volume in a small space
Ease of sharing
Ease of use
Data analysis
• How?
File-based system versus databases
Legacy (File-based) Systems
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• Uncontrolled data redundancy,


• Data inconsistency
• Poor data sharing
• Difficult to keep up with changes
• Record format Vs. user requirements
• Programs Vs. record format
• Low productivity
• High maintenance cost
So what is a database?
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• According to Oxford English


Dictionary:
“A structured collection of data held in
computer storage; esp. one that
incorporates software to make it
accessible in a variety of ways”
• So does it make pretty much every
collection of data a “database”?
The Database
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• The data itself PLUS The data


definitions (metadata), applications,
queries and visualizations
Database Approach
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• Non-redundant collection of logically related


facts
 representing some aspect of the real world
 the data itself plus the data definitions
• Permits sharing
• Consistent representation for each piece of data
• Avoids (minimizes) redundancy
• Allows different user views
• Users are isolated from most changes
Why Databases?
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• Independence from representation


formats
• Control redundancy and consistency
• Ensure integrity/security
• Better scalability
• Allow ad hoc access
• Better maintenance
• Better concurrency
Data Independence
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• Does data have to be part of programs?


• Do we need to change one if the other
changes?
• Three-tier architecture of databases

View What the users see


Conceptual How we model data
Physical How data is stored
Access Flexibility
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• Easy to ask ad-hoc questions


• No need for separate codes
• User-friendly interface
• Command-based (e.g., SQL)
• Graphical (e.g., QBE)
Data Integrity
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• Ensures that the stored data are


consistent and correct
• Easy to define global rules
customer_age > 21 years
number_of_credits < 18
• Can allow multiple users to access
data without compromising on data
integrity
Data Security
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• Access definition
Global
Local
• Uniform access authorization
Data Redundancy
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• Data need not be replicated


• Less wastage of storage space
• Less data anomaly
• Reduced and controlled redundancy
• Tighter control of replicated data
Standardization
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• Everybody talks the same talk.


Less chance of misunderstanding
Easier to interpret other’s data
• Easier to merge
Useful when several organizations
combine to form one.
Productivity and
Maintenance
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• Increase in productivity
 User-friendly interface
 Independence from specific data structure
• Easier maintenance
 Less code to maintain
• The DBMS is the bulk of the code.
• Ad-hoc queries make it possible to make do with
much less code.
 The vendor makes revisions of the DBMS.
• Economy of scale
Productivity vs. Maintenance
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100
90
80
70
Prod-DB
60
Prod-FL
50
Mnt-DB
40
30 Mnt-FL
20
10
0
Start 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week
Disadvantages of Databases
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• Software complexity
• Processing inefficiency
• Need for co-ordination
• Organizational impact
• Risk
DBMS
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• A Specialized piece of software that


sits between the data and its users.

Database
Management
System

Intension + Extension
Data
DBMS Functions and Users
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• Four major uses of a DBMS package


 Database Development, Interrogation, Maintenance,
and
 Application Development
• Automated tools for design, query, and
application development
• Database users
 Database administrators ( DBAs )
 Database designer
 End Users
Centralized Database
Systems
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Database
Client/Server Database
Systems
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Client

Client
Database
Server
Distributed Database
Systems
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Database
Server

Database Database
Server Server
Summary
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• Data is essential for an organization


• A Database is usually the most
effective way of storing and
organizing data
• File-based Vs. database systems
• Database system properties
• Types of database systems