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Prepared by:

Restie S. Pipo
◦ KINDS OF PAVEMENT

◦ 1. Rigid - Type Pavement


- Concrete Pavement
- Concrete Mix
- Cement + Aggregates + Water
- Design Mix

◦ 2. Flexible Type - Asphalt Pavement


- Asphalt Pavement
- Bituminous Mix
- Asphalt + Mineral Aggregates
- Job Mix

◦ Asphalt Pavements – pavements consisting of a surface course of mineral aggregate


coated and cemented together with asphalt cement on supporting course such as
asphalt bases, crushed stone, slag or gravel or on Portland Cement concrete brick or
block pavement.
◦Asphalt Pavement Structures
◦(Flexible Pavement Structure)

◦Courses of asphalt aggregate mixtures plus any


non-rigid courses between the asphalt
construction and the foundation or subgrade.

◦“Flexible” – The term sometimes used in


connection with asphalt pavements denotes the
ability of such a pavement structure to conform to
settlement of foundation.

◦ Bituminous Mix
◦ Composition of Bituminous Mix

1. Asphalt – is the binder of the aggregates

- Normally ranges from 5 – 8% mass percent on the basis of total dry aggregate.
- Grade of asphalt cement normally ranges from 60/70 to 200/300 penetration.

◦ The service performance of an asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the grade and quantity
of asphalt it contains.

◦ The grade selected for each project is influenced by climatic conditions, traffic, and strength of
the road foundation.

◦ Hot climates – use lower penetration grades or hard asphalts.

◦ Cold Climates – use higher penetration grades or softer asphalts.


◦ Bituminous Mix
◦ Composition of Bituminous Mix

2. Mineral Aggregate

- Constitute about 92-95% by weight of the asphalt concrete mixture.

- Supply nearly all of the pavement load bearing capacity.

- Their quality and physical properties are critical to pavement performance.

◦ Aggregate Fractions:

1. Coarse Aggregate (CA)

- Retained 2.36 mm (No. 8) Sieve

- May be obtained from gravel deposits or stone quarries.


◦ Aggregate Fractions:

◦ 2. Fine Aggregate (FA)

- Passing 2.36 mm (No. 8) sieve and retained on 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve

- Sources of fine aggregate are natural deposits of bank, beach or river sand or
screenings from aggregate crushing plants.

◦ The dividing size between coarse and fine aggregate is 2.36 mm (No. 8).
◦ Aggregate Fractions:

◦ 3. Mineral Filler (MF)

- Passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve

- May consist of finely ground limestone, rock powder, naturally occurring silt,
Portland cement, hydrated lime or similar clean non-plastic finely divided
mineral matter.

- It may occur naturally in the fine and coarse aggregate as mineral dust or it may
be added as a separate ingredient.

- Normally range 0.5 to 1.0 mass percent dry aggregate basis if hydrated lime is
used, lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregate which are
predominantly calcareous.
◦ Types of Asphalt Pavement

◦ 1. Dense – Graded Hot Mix Asphalt


- Hot mix asphalt pavement, the highest quality among”the different types

- Consists of well graded aggregate and asphalt cement which are heated and blended together in
exact proportions at a hot mix plant.

◦ Well – Graded Aggregates – aggregate that is graded from the max. size down to filler with object of
obtaining an asphalt mix with controlled void content and high stability.

◦ 2. Open – Graded Surface and Base Courses

- One containing little or no mineral filler or in which the void spaces in the compacted aggregates
are relatively large.

◦ 3. Stone – Mastic Asphalt

◦ - gap-graded HMA that is designed to maximize deformation (rutting ) resistance and durability
by using a structural basis of stone-on stone contact.
◦ Types of Asphalt Pavement
◦ 4. Asphalt Emulsion Mixes (Cold Mixes)

- Cold mix pavements use asphalt emulsion or cut-back asphalt.

- Require little or no heating of materials and can often be produced at the construction site
without a central plant.

- For maintenance use.


◦ Courses of Asphalt – Aggregate Mixture

1. Asphalt Base Course – a foundation course consisting of mineral aggregate,


bound together with asphaltic material.

2. Asphalt Intermediate Course (Binder Course) – a course between a base course


and an asphalt surface course.

3. Asphalt Surface Course (Wearing Course) – the top course of an asphalt


pavement.

3. Asphalt Leveling Course – a course (asphalt-aggregate mixture) of variable


thickness used to eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior
to superimposed treatment or construction.
◦ Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement – is one in which asphalt mixtures are
used for all courses (layers) above the subgrade.

◦ Asphalt Overlay – one or more courses of asphalt construction on an


existing pavement. HMA overlay as designed to rehabilitate and
strengthen an old pavement, extending its life and correcting surface
irregularities.

◦ - generally, includes a leveling course to correct the contour of the


old pavement followed by uniform course or courses to provide
needed thickness.

◦ - when overlaying rigid type pavement the overlay should be not


less than four inches thick to minimize reflection of cracks and joints
through the overlay.

◦ - greater thickness of overlay may be required depending upon


conditions of old pavement and traffic to be served.
◦ Important Properties of Aggregates

1. Strength
2. Particle shape
3. Surface texture
4. Absorption
5. Gradation
6. Cleanliness
7. Specific Gravity
8. Affinity for water
9. Soundness
◦ Two Types of Bituminous Mix

1. Plant – Mix: a mixture produced in an asphalt mixing plant which consist of


◦ mineral aggregates uniformly coated with asphalt cement or liquid asphalt.

◦ Types of Plant Mixes

◦ a. Hot – Mix – plant mixes which must be spread and compacted at an elevated temperature.

- Hot-laid
- Both the aggregate and asphalt cement are heated prior to mixing for giving origin to the
term “hot-mix”.
- Higher durability and stability than cold mix

◦ b. Cold – Mix – plant mixes which may be spread or compacted at atmospheric temperature.

- Cold-laid
- Use only for patching

◦ 2. Road – Mix (Mixed-in-Place): an asphalt course produced by mixing mineral aggregate and
liquid asphalt at the road site by means of travel plants, motor graders, drags or special road-
mixing equipment.
Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA)
in a Compacted Mix Specimen
◦ Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

◦ Sampling is equally as important as the testing and the sampler shall use every precaution to obtain
samples that are representative to the bituminous mixture

◦ Care shall be taken in sampling:


- To avoid segregation of coarse aggregate and bituminous mortar
- To prevent contamination by dust or other foreign matter

◦ DEFINITION OF TERMS:

◦ field sample –a quantity of the material to be tested of sufficient size to provide an acceptable estimate
of the average quality of a unit. Field sample is composed of three or more increments chosen at random
from the material as it is loaded or unloaded from the truck. Extract test portions from the field sample by
quartering or splitting.

◦ increment – part of a sample.

◦ lot – a sizable isolated quantity of bulk material from a single source, assumed to have been produced
by the same process(for example, a day’s production or a specific mass of volume).

◦ test portion- a quantity of the material of sufficient size extracted from the larger field sample,
◦ by a procedure designed to ensure accurate representation of the field sample, and thus of the unit
sampled.

◦ unit- a batch or finite subdivision of a lot of bulk material (for example, a truck load or a specific area
covered ).
Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

Sampling Bituminous Paving Mixtures (AASHTO T 168)


(Sampling of bituminous paving mixtures at points of manufacture, storage,
delivery, or in place.)

PROCEDURE

1 . I N S P E C T I O N - T H E M AT E R I A L S H A L L B E I N S P E C T E D T O D E T E R M I N E
D I S C E R N I B L E VA R I AT I O N S . T H E S E L L E R S H A L L P R O V I D E E Q U I P M E N T
N E E D E D F O R S A F E A P P R O P R I AT E I N S P E C T I O N A N D S A M P L I N G .

2 . S A M P L I N G - T H E P R O C E D U R E S F O R S E L E C T I N G L O C AT I O N S O R T I M E S
F O R S A M P L I N G A R E D E S C R I B E D I N P R A C T I C E D 3 6 6 5 - S TA N D A R D
P R A C T I C E F O R R A N D O M S A M P L I N G O F C O N S T R U C T I O N M AT E R I A L S .

2.1 Sampling from a Conveyor Belt - Stop the conveyor belt. Randomly select at least three
areas of approximately equal size on the belt for sampling. In each of the locations to be
sampled, insert templates, the shape of which conform to the shape of the belt. From the
selected areas obtain approximately equal increments of material which will form a Sample
whose quantity equals or exceeds the minimum recommended (See Table). Carefully scoop
all material between templates into a suitable container.

2.2 Sampling from Truck Transports - By a random method, select the units to be sampled
from the production of materials delivered. Obtain at least three approximately equal
increments. Avoid sampling the extreme top surface. Select at random from the unit being
sampled and combine to form a field sample whose quantity equals or exceeds the minimum
Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

PROCEDURE (cont’d)

2.3 Sampling from the Roadway Prior to Compaction - When only one sample is to be taken,
obtain at least three approximately equal increments, selected at random from the unit being
sampled, and combine to form a field sample whose quantity equals or exceeds the minimum
recommended in Table 1.

2.3.1 When three or more samples are to be taken in order to evaluate a lot of material,
utilize a random method to determine the locations to be sampled. Select a sample
consisting of approximately three equal increments, from each location, assuring the
quantity of each sample exceeds the minimum recommended in Table 1.

2.3.2 Take all increments or samples from the roadway fort the full depth of the material,
taking Care to exclude any underlying material. When necessary, place templates on
the existing roadway to exclude any underlying material. Clearly mark the specified
area from which each increment or sample is to be removed. Templates which are
placed before the mixture is spread will be a definite aid securing increments of
approximately equal mass.

2.4 Sampling from a Skip Conveyor Delivering Mixture to Bin Storage - Select the unit to be
sampled from the skip conveyor by a random method based on the bin’s storage capacity.
Stop the skip conveyor immediately following pugmill discharge. Dig a furrow 150 mm (6 in.)
in depth extending from the top to the bottom of the pile. Obtain three approximately equal
increments from the top, middle, and bottom of the furrow depositing each increment in a
container. The combined increments should form a field sample whose quantity equals or
exceeds the minimum recommended in Table 1.
Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

PROCEDURE (cont’d)

2.5 Sampling from a Funnel Device Feeding a Conveyor for Mixture Delivery to Storage -
Select the units to be sampled from the funnel device by a random method based on the
bin’s maximum storage Capacity. Obtain at least three approximately equal increments of
material for each sample by passing a bucket or a pan or other suitable container across the
full flow of materials as it drops from the funnel device onto the conveyor. The combined
portions should form a field sample whose quantity equal or exceeds the minimum
recommended in Table 1.

2.6 Sampling from Roadway after Compaction – Select the units to be sampled by a random
method from the material in place. Obtain at least three approximately equal samples
selected at random from the unit being sampled. Test each sample and average the test
results to determine the acceptability. Take all samples from the roadway for the full depth of
the material. Taking care to exclude any underlying material. Each increment shall be
obtained by coring, sawing, or other methods in such a manner as to ensure a minimum
disturbance of the material.
Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

PROCEDURE (cont’d)

3. NUMBER AND QUANTITIES OF FIELD SAMPLES:

3 . 1 T H E N U M B E R O F F I E L D S A M P L E S ( O B TA I N E D B Y O N E O F T H E
METHODS DESCRIBED) REQUIRED DEPENDS ON THE CRITICALITY
O F, A N D VA R I AT I O N I N , T H E P R O P E R T I E S T O B E M E A S U R E D .
D E S I G N AT E E A C H U N I T F R O M W H I C H A F I E L D S A M P L E R I S T O B E
O B TA I N E D P R I O R T O S A M P L I N G . THE NUMBER OF FIELD
SAMPLES FROM THE PRODUCTION SHOULD BE SUFFICIENT TO
G I V E T H E D E S I R E D C O N F I D E N C E I N T E S T R E S U LT S .

3 . 2 A G U I D E T O T H E Q U A N T I T Y O F M AT E R I A L I N F I E L D S A M P L E S I S
G I V E N I N TA B L E 1 . T H E Q U A N T I T I E S D E P E N D O N T H E T Y P E A N D
N U M B E R O F T E S T S T O W H I C H T H E M AT E R I A L I S T O B E
S U B J E C T E D , A N D S U F F I C I E N T M AT E R I A L M U S T B E O B TA I N E D T O
PROVIDE FOR THE PROPER EXECUTION OF THESE TESTS.
G E N E R A L LY, T H E A M O U N T S S P E C I F I E D I N TA B L E 1 W I L L P R O V I D E
A D E Q U AT E M AT E R I A L F O R R O U T I N E T E S T I N G . EXTRACT TEST
PORTIONS FROM THE FI ELD SAMPLE BY QUARTERI NG OR
SPLITTING IN A SIMILAR MANNER TO PRACTICE C 702 PRACTICE
F O R R E D U C I N G F I E L D S A M P L E S O F A G G R E G AT E T O T E S T I N G S I Z E
OR AS REQUIRED BY OTHER APPLICABLE TEST METHODS.
Sampling/Minimum Testing Requirements

PROCEDURE (cont’d)

4. SHIPPING SAMPLES

4 . 1 T R A N S P O R T S A M P L E S I N C O N TA I N E R S S O C O N S T R U C T E D A S T O
P R E C L U D E L O S S O R C O N TA M I N AT I O N O F A N Y PA R T O F T H E
SAMPLE, OR DAMAGE TO THE CONTENTS FROM MISHANDLING
D U R I N G S H I P M E N T.

4 . 2 S A M P L E S S H A L L H AV E I N D I V I D U A L I D E N T I F I C AT I O N AT TA C H E D
G I V I N G T H E I N F O R M AT I O N R E Q U I R E D B Y T H E S A M P L E U S E R .
T Y P I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N T H AT M AY B E U S E F U L C O U L D I N C L U D E ,
B U T N O T N E C E S S A R I LY B E L I M I T E D T O , T H E F O L L O W I N G :

4 . 2 . 1 J O B F O R W H I C H T H E M AT E R I A L I S T O B E U S E D , G I V I N G
P R O J E C T N U M B E R , H I G H W AY R O U T E N U M B E R . C O U N T Y, A N D
O T H E R P E R T I N E N T G E O G R A P H I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N .

4.2.2 S O U R C E O F S A M P L E , I N C L U D I N G F O R P L A N T- M I X E D
S A M P L E S T H E N A M E O F O W N E R O R O P E R AT O R O F P L A N T,
L O C AT I O N O F P L A N T, T Y P E O F P L A N T, S I Z E O F B AT C H , A N D
I D E N T I F I C AT I O N O F B I T U M E N A N D M I N E R A L A G G R E G AT E S
USED IN THE MIXTURE,

4 . 2 . 3 P O I N T AT W H I C H S A M P L E D , F O R S A M P L E S TA K E N F R O M
R O A D W AY, B O T H B Y S TAT I O N N U M B E R A N D L O C AT I O N
NUMBER AND QUANTITIES OF FIELD SAMPLES: The number of field samples from the
production should be sufficient to give the desired confidence in test results.

GUIDE FOR ESTIMATING QUANTITY OF SAMPLE

Nominal Maximum Size of Approximate Mass of


Aggregates Uncompacted Mixture,min.
kg(lb)
Minimum Testing Requirements
2.36-mm(No. 8) 2 (4)
4.75-mm (No. 4) 2 (4)
9.5-mm (3/8-in.) 4 (8)
12.5-mm (1/2-in) 5 (12)
19.0-mm (3/4-in.) 7 (16)
25.0-mm (1-in.) 9 (20)
37.5-mm (11/2-in.) 11 (25)
50.0-mm (2-in.) 16 (35)
Minimum Testing Requirements

1 – Q.T. – For every 130 M.T. or fraction thereof


Size of sample : 20 kg

Tests on Bituminous Mix

1. Extraction – quantitative determination of asphalt content in bituminous paving


mixtures. Asphalt content may be express either as a percentage by weight of total
weight of mix or a percentage by weight of dry aggregates.

Calculation:
wt. of original - wt. of sample
sample after extraction
% Asphalt Content = ----------------------------------------------- x 100
(by wt. of mix) wt. of original sample

wt. of original - wt. of sample


sample after extraction
% Asphalt Content = ----------------------------------------------- x 100
(by wt. of agg.) wt. of sample after extraction
Tests on Bituminous Mix

2. Bulk Specific Gravity – Bulk specific gravity of the compacted bituminous mixtures
are used in calculating unit weight of the mixture. The specific gravity or density is
an important data in the determination of the degree of compaction of a newly
constructed asphalt pavement.

Calculation:
A
Bulk Specific Gravity, Gmb = -------------------
B - C

where:
A = mass of specimen in air, g
B = mass of surface – dry specimen, g.
C = mass of specimen in water, g.

3. Grading – determining the relative proportions of various particles sizes of mineral


aggregates in a mix, if it conforms with the Job-Mix Formula/Specifications.
Tests on Bituminous Mix

4. Stability (Immersion – Compression Method) – this method covers measurement of the loss of
cohesion resulting from the action of water on compacted bituminous mixtures.

1. Dry Stability – compressive strength of freshly molded and cured specimens.


2. Wet Stability - compressive strength of duplicate specimens that have been immersed in
water under prescribed conditions.

Calculation:

Index of Retained Strength (IRS) – calculate numerical index of resistance of bituminous mixtures
to the detrimental effect of water as the percentage of the original strength that is retain after
the immersion period.

Load Load
Stability (Compressive Strength) = -------------- = ------------
Area  D2/4

Wet Stability
Index of Retained Strength, (IRS), % = ---------------------- x 100
Dry Stability
Job-Mix Formula
Job-Mix Formula – primary quality control mechanism for the production of asphalt
mixtures with a high degree of uniformity that will satisfy job
requirements. The Job-Mix Formula, with the allowable
tolerances becomes the job control grading band. The job
control grading band, however, must be within the boundaries
of the specification grading band. (See Figure)

Each Job-Mix Formula submitted shall proposed definite single values for:

1. The percentage of aggregate passing each specified sieve size.


2. The percentage of bituminous material to be added.
3. The temperature of the mixture delivered on the road.
4. The kind and percentage of additive to be used.
5. The kind and percentage of mineral filler to be used.
◦ Job-Mix Formula

◦ After the job-mix is established, all mixture furnished for the project shall conform thereto within the following ranges of tolerances:

Passing No. 4 and larger sieve ± 7%


Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieve (inclusive) ± 4%
Passing No. 200 sieve ± 2%
Bituminous Material ± 0.4%
Temperature of Mix ± 100C

◦ NOTES TO BE CONSIDERED:
◦ The mixture shall have a minimum compressive strength (dry stability) of 1.4 MPa (200 psi) or 1400 kN/m2 or KPa.

◦ The mixture shall also have a mass percent air voids with the range of 3 to 5.

◦ The mixture shall also have an index of retained strength of not less than 70%.

◦ All least three weeks prior to production, the contractor shall submit in writing a job-mix formula for each mixture supported by
laboratory test data along with samples and sources of the components and viscosity temperature relationships information to the
Engineer for testing and approval.

◦ Should a change in source of material be proposed or should a job-mix formula prove unsatisfactory, a new job-mix formula shall be
submitted by the contractor in writing and be approved by the Engineer prior to production.

◦ Approval of a new job-mix formula may require laboratory testing and verification.
Table 703.2
Gradation Ranges – Hot Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements
(Mass percent passing square sieves, AASHTO T 11 and T 27)

Sieve Designation, G R A D I N G
mm A B C D E F G
37.5 (1-1/2 inch) 100 - - - - - -
25 (1 inch) 95-100 100 100 - - - -
19 (3/4 inch) 75-95 95-100 95-100 100 - 100 -
12.5 (1/2 inch) - 68-86 68-86 95-100 100 - 100
9.5 (3/8 inch) 54-75 56-78 56-78 74-92 95-100 - 95-100
4.75 (No. 4) 36-58 38-60 38-60 48-70 75-90 45-65 30-50
2.36 (No. 8) 25-45 27-47 27-47 33-53 62-82 33-53 5-15
1.18 (No. 16) - 18-37 18-37 22-40 38-58 - -
0.600 (No. 30) 11-28 11-28 13-28 15-30 22-42 - -
0.300 (No. 50) - 6-20 9-20 10-20 11-28 10-20 -
0.075 (No. 200) 0-8 0-8 4-8 4-9 2-10 3-8 2-5
Table 703.3
Gradation Requirements – Cold Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement
(Mass percent passing square sieves, AASHTO T 27)

Sieve Designation Bottom (Binder) Wearing (Surface)


Standard, mm Alternate US Std Course Course
37.5 1-1/2” 100 -
25 1” 85 – 100 -
19 ¾” 40 – 70 100
12.5 ½” 10 – 35 95 – 100
4.75 No. 4 4 – 16 15 – 40
2.36 No. 8 0–5 10 – 25
0.600 No. 30 - 4 – 13
0.300 No. 50 - 0–5
SOCOR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION
13 – J Midtown Executive Homes
1238 United Nations Ave., Paco, Manila

JOB-MIX FORMULA
FOR ITEM 310 E
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE
(Max. 3/8” Size Aggregates)
PROJECT :

I. GRADATION
Sieve Sizes
Job Mix Gradation Tolerance Limit Specification
US Standard mm
½” 12.500 100 100 100
3/8” 9.500 99 95 – 100 95 – 100
No. 4 4.750 85 78 – 90 75 – 90
No. 8 2.360 64 62 – 68 62 – 82
No. 16 1.180 39 38 – 43 38 – 58
No. 30 0.600 24 22 – 28 22 – 42
No. 50 0.300 14 11 – 18 11 – 28
No. 200 0.075 4 2-6 2 – 10
II. ASPHALT CONTENT:

a) Asphalt Cement -------------------------------- Penetration 60 – 70

b) % By Weight of Aggregates -------------------------------- 6.06

II. FILLER: c) % By Weight of Total Mix -------------------------------- 5.71

Hydrated Lime
IV. ADDITIVES
None
SOCOR CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION
JOB-MIX FORMULA
ITEM 310 E

Specification
Sieve Sizes %, Passing Job-Mix
Item 310 E
½” (12.5 mm) 100 ± 7 100 100
3/8” (9.5) 99 ± 7 95 – 100 95 – 100
No. 4 (4.75) 85 ± 7 78 – 90 75 – 90
No. 8 (2.36) 64 ± 4 62 – 68 62 – 82
No. 16 (1.18) 39 ± 4 38 – 43 38 – 58
No. 30 (0.600) 24 ± 4 22 – 28 22 – 42
No. 50 (0.300) 14 ± 4 11 – 18 11 – 28
No. 200 (0.075) 4±2 2–6 2 – 10

Asphalt Content, % by weight of mix = 5.71


Asphalt Content, % by weight of aggregate = 6.06 ± 0.4%
5.66 - 6.46
say = 5.7 – 6.5
Testing of Drilled Cores from an Asphalt Pavement

Significance and Use

• Core tests determine the thickness and density of compacted asphalt pavement

Sampling:

1. Specimens shall be taken from the pavement with a core drill, diamond or
carborundum saw, or by other suitable means.

2. Care shall be taken to avoid distortion, bending or cracking of specimen during and
after removal from the pavement.

3. Specimens shall be free from foreign materials such as seal coat, tack coat,
foundation material, soil, paper or foil.

4. Specimens for thickness and density determination.

Sawed specimen : at least 150 mm x 150 mm

Cored specimen : 100 mm dia. full depth


Recommended that:
1. The diameter of cylindrically molded or cored specimens, or the length of the sides
of sawed specimens, be at least equal to four times the maximum size of the
aggregates.

2. That the thickness of the specimens be at least one and on-half times of the
maximum size of the aggregates.

Obtaining of Core Specimens

Case I : At least one but no more than three (3) samples shall be taken for each full
day’s operation.

To ascertain the degree of compaction of the asphalt pavement, more than one (1)
core sample but not greater than three (3) maybe taken for each day’s operation.
When 2 or 3 cores are taken, each core should represent a specific pavement area
completed within a day. Averaging of the thickness and density of the 2 or 3 cores
should not be done.

Case 2 : If no core was taken at the end of each day’s operation and the project ha
already been completed, a core shall be taken for every 100 linear meters per lane or
fraction thereof of the completed pavement. Each core shall represent 100 LM of the
asphalt pavement. Averaging of the thickness and density of the core should not be
done.
TESTS ON ASPHALT CORE
1. Density
Calculation:

Density (d) = Gmb x Density of water

where:

Density of water = 1.0 gm/cm3


Gmb = Bulk Specific Gravity

CALCULATION OF BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (Gmb)

A
Gmb = ---------------------
B - C
where:
A = mass of specimen in air, g
B = mass of surface dry specimen, g
C = mass of specimen in water, g
Calculation:

Field Density
% Compaction = -----------------------------------------------x 100
Laboratory Compacted Density

2. Thickness
1. Make four (4) measurements at approximately quarter points on the periphery of cores or
at the approximate midpoint of each of the four (4) sides of rectangular sawed
specimens. (See figure)

2. The average of these measurements is the thickness (t) of the specimen.

1 1

4 2 4 2

3 3
POSITIONS OF MEASUREMENTS
◦ Acceptance, Sampling and Testing of Finished Asphalt Pavement

◦ The contractor shall cut full depth samples as directed from the finished pavement for testing. Samples shall be neatly cut by
saw or core drill. Each sample shall be at least 150 mm x 150 mm or 100 mm diameter full depth. At least one, but not more
than three samples shall be taken fro each full day’s operation. If no core samples were taken during the day’s operation, core
samples shall be taken from the completed pavement for every 100 L.M. per lane. The contractor shall supply and furnish new
material to back fill bore holes left by the samples taken.

◦ No acceptance and final payment shall be made on completed asphalt pavement unless core test for thickness determination
is conducted, except for Barangay Roads where the implementing office is allowed to waive such test.

◦ The samples obtained will be used to measure the thickness of the pavement. The same samples will be used to test the
density of the compacted pavement.

◦ The compacted pavement shall have a density equal to, or greater than 97 mass percent of the density of a laboratory
specimens. The asphalt pavement represented by the cores shall not be accepted if the deficiency in density is more than 2%.
Acceptance, Sampling and Testing of Finished Asphalt Pavement

The compacted pavement shall have a thickness tolerances of – 5 mm. Thickness in


excess of the specified thickness shall not be considered in the payment of asphalt
pavement. The asphalt pavement represented by the individual core shall not be
accepted if the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm.

If the deficiency in the core thickness is more than 5 mm, additional layer maybe
permitted in order to meet the designed thickness, however, the minimum additional
asphalt overlay thickness should be depended on the minimum thickness capacity of
asphalt paver but it should not be less than 50 mm (2 inches) and that proper
construction procedures are followed.

Method of Measurement:

The area to be paid shall be the number of square meters (m2) of asphalt pavement
placed, compacted and accepted based on the thickness and densities of the cores
taken.
Republic of the Philippines
Department of Public Works and Highways
BUREAU OF RESEARCH AND STANDARDS
EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City

WORKSHEET ON TESTING OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE CORE


Project :
Source/Suppli :
er
Tested By :
Lab. No. : Date Tested
:

Thickness Bulk Specific Gravity


Lab. cm. Bulk
I.D. Station Wt. In Wt. in Wt.
No. Sp.
1 2 3 4 Ave. Air Water SSD
Gravity