Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

Switching - Commonly Used

Abbreviations
• PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
• PABX - Public Automatic Business Exchange
• PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network
• TAX - Trunk Automatic Exchange
• CUG - Closed User Group
• DID - Direct Inward Dialling
GSM - Commonly Used Abbreviations
• GSM - Group Speciale Mobile
• MSC - Main Switching Center
• HLR - Home Location Register
• VLR - Visitor Location Register
• EIR - Equipment Identity Register
• AuC - Authentication Center
• BTS - Base Transceiver Station
• BSC - Base Station Controller
• TRX – Trans Receiver
GSM - Commonly Used Terms
• Cell / Sector
• Traffic Capacity - Erlang
• MOU - Minutes of Usage
• Frequency Spectrum - Bandwidth
• Traffic Channels
• Signalling Channels
• BCCH - Broadcast Control Channel
• SDCCH-Standalone Dedicated ControlChannel
• Paging
• Location Update
• Hand Over
• Drop Call
GSM - Commonly Used Terms
• Uplink / Downlink
• Interference
• Clipping
• Attach / Detach
• Micro Cell / Macro Cell
• Repeater / Booster
• Tower Mounted Amplifier - TMA
• GSM / Microwave Antenna
• Diversity
• BER - Bit Error Rate
• Full Rate / Half Rate / Enhanced Full Rate
• Grade of Service
GSM - Commonly Used Terms
• Timing Advance
• Signal Strength
• Voice Quality / Speech Quality (Rx Qual)
• Roaming
• IN - Intelligent Network
• LOS - Line of Sight
• IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber
Identity
• IMEI - International Mobile Equipment
Identity
• MSISDN - Mobile Station Integrated Services
Digital Number
GSM - Commonly Used Terms
• DTX - Discontinuous Transmission
• TRX - Transmitter / Receiver
• OMC - Operations Maintenance Center
• NMC - Network Management Center
• SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
• SMS - Short Message Service
• dB - Decibel & dBm
• SFH - Synthesised Frequency Hopping
• FLP - Fractional Load Plan
GSM - Commonly monitored Parameters
• Parameters monitored:
– Drop Call Rate
• Signalling Phase - Drop 1 in %
• Traffic Channel - Drop 3 in %
– Congestion in
• Signalling - in Seconds
• Traffic Channel - in Seconds
• PSTN in attempts/calls
– Handover Success Rate in %
– Handover Failure Rate in %
– Answer to Seizure Ratio in %
– Total Traffic/Peak Traffic in Erlangs / Minutes
– Call Success Rate in %
– Blocked Calls due to Congestion in Traffic &
Signalling Channles
Commonly Used Terms
• Dual Band / Tri Band
• WLL - Wireless Local Loop
• CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
• Limited Mobility
• HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched
Data,Ph 2, 57.6 KBPS
• GPRS - General Packet Radio Service,Ph 2+
• UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications
Service Vehicle - 144 kbit/s; Pedestrian 384
kbit/s; In-building 2 Mbit/s.
Commonly Used Terms
• EDGE - Enhanced Datarate for GSM
Evolution, Data rates up to 384 KBPS, 3G
Evolution
• CAMEL - Customised Applications for Mobile
Networks Enhanced Logic
– GSM Feature for including IN
– Pre-paid roaming services between networks
– Fraud control
• Bluetooth -To replace wires for connection
between PCs,Printers,Palm
Tops,Laptops,Mobiles. 720 KBPS, distance of
10 Meters
Common observed Problems in GSM
• Network Busy
• No Connection
• After dialling ‘Airtel’ comes Back
• Number Busy
• All Lines in this route are busy-Announcement
• One Way Voice
• Call lands into Voice Mail
• Call Drops suddenly
• Call Echo
• Call Clipping
Customer Care and Billing System
Credit
Control Credit
Customer
Vetting
Care
Rating
Payment
Procedure Bill
Production
Auto Customer
Payments Management Customer
System Administration
Standard
Letters Leads
Tracking
Fraud
Management Sales
Dealer Ledger
Commission Reports
CCBS Interfaces
Stock Control
Credit Bureau S.M.S.

Document
Management Banks

Customer
Credit Card Management POS
System System

Intelligent Collection
Network Agencies

General
H.L.R.
Ledger
M.S.C.