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ADVANCE HEAT TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY Prepared by Atal Khan Resources Person Prof: Dr Ghullamullah Kakar Balochistan University
ADVANCE HEAT TRANSFER
TECHNOLOGY
Prepared by
Atal Khan
Resources Person
Prof: Dr Ghullamullah Kakar
Balochistan University of Information Technology & Management
Sciences

WHAT IS HEAT TRANSFER ?

  • Heat (thermal) energy is created by the movement of particles (atoms) that produces heat.

  • Heat (thermal) energy increases as temperature increases because as temperature increases, atoms move faster (have more kinetic energy)

  • Heat (thermal energy) is transferred from one object to another when the objects are at different temperatures.

  • The amount of heat (thermal energy) that is transferred when two objects are brought into contact depends on the difference in temperature between the objects.

  • Heat is transferred only when two objects are at different temperatures

  • Thermal energy always moves from warmer to cooler objects

  • The warmer object loses thermal energy and becomes cooler as the cooler object gains thermal energy and becomes warmer.

  • Energy will continue to move from a warmer object to a cooler object until both have the same temperature.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER  Three mechanisms for heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.  Conduction:
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
Three mechanisms for heat transfer: conduction, convection and
radiation.
Conduction: A diffusive process wherein molecules transmit their
kinetic energy to other molecules by colliding with them.
Convection: A process associated with the motion of the medium.
When a hot material flows into a cold material, it will heat the region
- and vise versa.
Radiation: The transfer of heat via electromagnetic radiation. Example
- the Sun.

HEAT EXCHANGERS

  • A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid, or between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.

  • They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment.

  • The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which

cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat

sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated

by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER

  • Shell and tube heat exchanger.

  • Plate heat exchangers.

  • Plate and shell heat exchanger.

  • Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger.

  • Plate fin heat exchanger.

  • Pillow plate heat exchanger.

  • Fluid heat exchangers.

  • Waste heat recovery units.

SHELL &TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER  The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is
SHELL &TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is
shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The exchangers exhibit more than
65% of the market share with a variety of design experiences of about
100 years. Shell-and tube heat exchangers provide typically the surface
area density ranging from 50 to 500 m2/m3 and are easily cleaned.
The design codes and standards are available in the TEMA (1999)-
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. A simple exchanger,
which involves one shell and one pass, is shown in Figure

WHY A SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER?

  • Shell and tube heat exchangers are the most widespread and commonly used basic heat exchanger configuration in the process industries.

  • The reasons for this general acceptance are several.

  • The shell and tube heat exchanger provides a comparatively large ratio of heat transfer area to volume and weight.

  • It provides this surface in a form which is relatively easy to construct in a wide range of sizes.

  • It is mechanically rugged enough to withstand normal shop fabrication stresses, shipping and field erection stresses, and normal operating conditions.

  • The shell and tube exchanger can be reasonably easily cleaned, and those components most subject to failure - gaskets and tubes can be easily replaced.

COMPONENTS OF STHES

  • It is essential for the designer to have a good working knowledge of the mechanical features of STHEs and how they influence thermal design.

  • The principal components of a STHE are:

  • shell; shell cover;

  • tubes; tubesheet;

  • baffles; and nozzles.

  • Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass

partition plates, impingement plate, longitudinal baffle,

sealing strips, supports, and foundation.

BAFFLES

  • Baffles serve two purposes:

  • Divert (direct) the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  • Support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube vibration and sagging.

  • When the tube bundle employs baffles,

  • the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for undisturbed flow around tubes without baffles.

  • For a baffled heat exchanger the higher heat transfer coefficients result from the increased turbulence.

  • the velocity of fluid fluctuates because of the constricted area between adjacent tubes across the bundle.

BAFFLE DIAMETER  Baffle diameter refers to the outer diameter of the baffle. A clearance must
BAFFLE DIAMETER
Baffle diameter refers to the outer diameter of the baffle. A
clearance must be provided between the shell inside diameter
and baffle diameter to avoid shearing of baffle.
BAFFLE SPACING  Baffle spacing is defined as the distance between two adjacent baffles. The baffle
BAFFLE SPACING
Baffle spacing is defined as the distance between two adjacent
baffles. The baffle spacing is used in range from 0.2 to 1.0 times
the shell diameter. A close baffle spacing will give higher heat
transfer coefficients but at the expense of higher pressure drop.
The optimum spacing will usually be between 0.3 to 0.5 times
the shell diameter
Bs = 0.4Ds (Where Ds is the diameter of shell in inches)
TYPES OF BAFFLE PLATES & SEGMENTAL CUT BAFFLES •The single and double segmental baffles are most
TYPES OF BAFFLE PLATES &
SEGMENTAL CUT BAFFLES
•The single and double segmental baffles are most frequently used.
•They divert the flow most effectively across the tubes.
•The baffle spacing must be chosen with care.
•Optimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% - 60% of the shell diameter.
•Baffle cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended.
Double Segmental Baffles Triple Segmental Baffles The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure applications.
Double Segmental Baffles
Triple Segmental Baffles
The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure applications.
TYPES OF BAFFLE PLATES Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings and inner
TYPES OF BAFFLE PLATES
Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings and inner discs, which
direct the flow radially across the tube field.
The potential bundle-to-shell bypass stream is eliminated
This baffle type is very effective in pressure drop to heat transfer conversion
In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the clearance between tube outside diameter and baffle-hole diameter.
In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the clearance between tube
outside diameter and baffle-hole diameter.
TUBE PITCH The spacing between the tubes (center to center) is referred to as the tube
TUBE PITCH
The spacing between the tubes
(center to center) is referred to
as the tube pitch (P T ). Triangular
or square pitch arrangements are
used. Unless the shell side tends
to foul badly, triangular pitch is
used.
Rate equation and DT TM The rate equation for a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is the same
Rate equation and DT TM
The rate equation for a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is the same as
for a concentric pipe exchanger:
q 
AU T
i
i
TM
However, U i and DT TM are evaluated somewhat differently for shell-and-tube
exchangers. In a shell-and-tube exchanger, the flow can be single or multipass. As a result,
the temperature profiles for the two fluids in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger
are more complex, as shown below.
q AU  T
i
i
TM
Computation of DT TM : For the concentric pipe heat exchanger, we showed the following (parallel
Computation of DT TM :
For the concentric pipe heat exchanger, we showed the following (parallel and
countercurrent flow):
=
DT TM
T lm
When a fluid flows perpendicular to a heated or cooled tube bank, and if both of the fluid
temperatures are varying, then the temperature conditions do not correspond to either
parallel or countercurrent. Instead, this is called crossflow.
For crossflow and multipass heat exchange designs, we must introduce a correction for the log mean
For crossflow and multipass heat exchange designs, we must introduce a
correction for the log mean temperature difference (LMTD):
F G * T LM
 T TM =
T ha
T hb
Z 
T cb  T ca
T cb  T ca
 H 
T ha  T ca
•The factor Z is the ratio of the fall in temperature of the shell side fluid
•The factor Z is the ratio of the fall in temperature of the shell side fluid to the rise in temperature
of the tube side fluid.
•The factor h H is the heating effectiveness, or the ratio of the actual temperature rise of the tube side
fluid to the maximum possible temperature rise obtainable (if the shell inlet end approach were
zero, based on countercurrent flow).
•Therefore, as with the concentric pipe heat exchanger, the true mean temperature difference for
the 1-1 exchanger is equal to the log mean temperature difference (DT LM ).
•For multiple pass shell-and-tube designs, the flow is complex and the DT LM is less than that for a
pure countercurrent design.
•We must account for the smaller temperature driving force using a correction factor,F G , which is
less than 1 and typically greater than 0.8.
•The rate of heat transfer in multiple pass heat exchangers is written as:
q UAF T
G
LM
•where T LM is the log mean temperature difference for pure countercurrent flow
1-2 exchangers
1-2 exchangers
2-4 exchangers
2-4 exchangers
Tube-side coefficient: The heat transfer coefficient for inside the tubes (h i ) can be calculated
Tube-side coefficient:
The heat transfer coefficient for inside the tubes (h i ) can be calculated using
the Sieder-Tate equation for turbulent flow in a constant diameter pipe:
0.8
0.14
 0.333
C p 




hD
DG









  0.023



k
  
k


 w
Shell-side coefficient: The heat transfer coefficient for the shell side cannot be calculated using the correlations
Shell-side coefficient:
The heat transfer coefficient for the shell side cannot be calculated
using the correlations discussed so far since the direction of flow is
partly perpendicular to the tubes and partly parallel.
An approximate equation for predicting shell-side coefficients is the
Donohue equation:
The Donohue equation is based on the weighted average of the mass velocity of the shell-side
The Donohue equation is based on the weighted average of the mass velocity of
the shell-side fluid flowing parallel to the tubes (G b ) and the mass velocity of the
shell-side fluid flowing across the tubes (G c ):
0.6
0.33
0.14

  
D o G e
   C k p    
   h o k D o     0.2  
  
   w  
where
G e = (G b G c ) 1/2
G  m / S


D
2
D
2
G  m / S
D
o
S
s
S
 PD
b
b
f b
 N
o
c
c
c
s
b
4
b
4
  1 
p  
,
f b = fraction of the shell cross-section
occupied by the baffle window.
m
N b = number of tubes in baffle window
is the mass flow rate of the shell -side fluid
D o = outside diameter of tubes
D s = inside diameter of the shell
P = baffle spacing
G b
p = tube pitch
G c
G b
Flow Area Through Baffle “Window” - S b 2 2 D D o S  s
Flow Area Through Baffle “Window” - S b
2
2
D
D o
S
s
b
f b
 N
b
4
4
= fraction of the shell cross-section occupied by the baffle window.
f b
For a 25 percent baffle cut,
f b = 0.1955
D
s
Baffle Cut
Tube Diameter D
o
Baffle Window Area
Flow Area Across Tube Bundle - S c  D  o S  PD 
Flow Area Across Tube Bundle - S c

D

o
S
 PD

1 

c
s

p 
D
o
D
s
p
P

FLUID ALLOCATION : TUBE SIDE

  • Tube side is preferred under these circumstances:

  • Fluids which are prone to foul

  • The higher velocities will reduce buildup

  • Mechanical cleaning is also much more practical for tubes than for shells.

  • Corrosive fluids are usually best in tubes

  • Tubes are cheaper to fabricate from exotic materials

  • This is also true for very high temperature fluids requiring alloy construction

  • Toxic fluids to increase containment

  • Streams with low flow rates to obtain increased velocities and turbulence

  • High pressure streams since tubes are less expensive to build strong.

  • Streams with a low allowable pressure drop

FLUID ALLOCATION : SHELL SIDE

  • Shell side is preferred under these circumstances:

  • Viscous fluids go on the shell side, since this will usually improve the rate of heat transfer.

  • On the other hand, placing them on the tube side will usually lead to lower pressure drops. Judgment is needed.

  • Low heat transfer coefficient:

  • Stream which has an inherently low heat transfer coefficient (such as low pressure gases or viscous liquids), this stream is

preferentially put on the shell-side so that extended surface

may be used to reduce the total cost of the heat exchanger.

Options for Shell-Side Thermal Analysis

  • Kern's integral method

  • Bell-Delaware method

  • Stream analysis method

DESIGINNING

  • Design a 2-pass Shell and Tube type heat exchanger by applying a basic design procedure, involving the rating of a heat transfer design with corresponding rating program including:

  • Geometrical calculations

  • Heat transfer correlation

  • Pressure drop correlation

  • Design specifications: Tube: Materials = SS, ID = 9.5 mm, OD = 12.7 mm and length = 333.5 mm Shell: Material = GI, ID = 700 mm, OD = 750 mm

A miniature shell-and-tube heat exchanger is designed to cool engine oil in an engine with the engine coolant (50% ethylene glycol). The engine oil at a flow rate of 0.23 kg/s enters the exchanger at 120°C and leaves at 115°C. The 50% ethylene glycol at

a rate of 0.47 kg/s enters at 90°C. The tube material is SS (ID = 9.5

mm, OD = 12.7 mm, length = 333.5 mm and Kw = 45 W/mk ) . Fouling factors of 0.176x10 - 3 m 2 K/W for engine oil and 0.353x10 -3 m 2 K/W for 50% ethylene glycol are specified. Route the engine oil through the tubes. The permissible maximum

pressure drop on each side is 10 kPa. The volume of the exchanger is

required to be minimized. Since the exchanger is custom designed, the tube size can be smaller than NPS 1/8 (DN 6 mm) that is the

smallest size in Table C.6 in Appendix C, wherein the tube pitch ratio

of 1.25 and the diameter ratio of 1.3 can be applied. Design the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

CALCULATION
CALCULATION
  • The thermal conductivity for the tube material is given as

Kw = 45 W/mk

  • Design specifications:

  • Tube: Materials = SS, ID = 9.5 mm, OD = 12.7 mm and length = 333.5 mm

  • Shell: Material = GI, ID = 700 mm, OD = 750 mm

  • The diameter ratio (Dr = OD/ID) is given as suggested in the problem description.

  • Dr = 1.33

Pr=Pt/OD =====Pt=Pr x OD

  • If Pr = 1.25 ===then Pt = 15.9mm

  • The number of baffle (Nb) is obtained

B =Lt/(Nb + 1) ==Nb = (B/Lt) -1

  • B = Baffle spacing

  • Lt = Tube length

  • If B = 25.4 mm ==Nb = 14

  • The number of passes is defined by

  • Np = 2

  • The tube clearance Ct is obtained from

Ct = Pt OD =

15.9 12.7 = 3.2 mm

Shade area = CL x Pt 2 = 1 x

15.9 2 = 252.81 mm 2

TUBE COUNT CALCULATION CONSTANTS (CTP) UP TO THREE-PASSES ARE GIVEN
TUBE COUNT CALCULATION CONSTANTS (CTP) UP TO
THREE-PASSES ARE GIVEN
FINDING NUMBER OF TUBES
FINDING NUMBER OF TUBES
 So Nt will be calculated as Nt = 1373.665 = 1374  TUBE SIDE (ENGINE
So Nt will be calculated as
Nt = 1373.665 = 1374
TUBE SIDE (ENGINE OIL)
The crossflow area, velocity and Reynolds number are defined as
Ac1 = 48671.37 mm 2 = 0.0487 m 2
V1 =
5.7 x 10 -3
m/s
Re1 = 4.366
The Reynolds number indicates very laminar flow. The velocity in the tubes
appears acceptable when considering a reasonable range of 0.5 – 1.0 m/s in
Table 5.4 for the engine oil.
Source of the case study
Source of the case study

THANKS