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Civilization II

-- Warming-Up Review
(from early modern period,
around 1500 AD)

Europe: Emerging from the
Medieval Ages
 Declining influence of church on secular affairs
 Burgeoning period of the establishment of the
principles that holds even today
— separation between church
and state
 Liberation of people’s mind — look at the
world from secular perspective
What’s next?

Inside Europe: Outside Europe:

changes in internal colonialism and
mechanism imperialism

1. In politics: the rise and establishment of 1. Bring ‘foreign lands’ into

sovereignty, by challenging papal the European system
2. Spread Western culture,
2. In economy: wide spread of capitalism technology and religion
3. In science and technology: study nature 3. Increasingly a real world
from secular perspective -- Scientific system took shape
4. In society and culture: Renaissance,
enlightenment movement, great thinkers
emerged, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau
Liberation and Contradiction

1. Liberation: of people’s mind and hand --

the Renaissance

2. Contradiction: Facing the New while

Struggling with the Old

1. Renaissance and Impact
(beginning about 1350, lasted 2 centuries)

 Artists and thinkers recover and apply the

learning and standards of ancient Greece and
 an age of transition: crucial elements of the
medieval outlook were rejected, classical cultural
forms were revived, and modern attitudes

1) Secular Outlook Accepted

 began in the independent city-states of Northern

 in these urban centers, commercial elites
enjoyed the leisure and freedom that came with
the wealth procured by trade
 members of urban upper class did not allow
religion to interfere with their quest for the full life
 secular outlook was increasingly challenging the
dominance of religion in life

2) Humanism Expanded

 medieval scholars used Greek philosophy to

prove the truth of Christian doctrines

 Italian humanists read classical literature to

nourish their new interest in the worldly life

 subject of the art forms are also secular and


3) Individualism Established

 competitive marketplace in the cities taught the

urban elite to assert their own personalities
 demonstrated their unique talents and fulfill their
 motivated them to venture into uncharted seas
 to look for greater opportunities, including
conquering other lands and peoples

An Entirely New Culture Created

 In art: the human form and rules of perspective

were recovered from antiquity
 In politics: ancient history of Greece and Rome
was studied for clues on how to solve the
problems of the Renaissance city-state
 such as internal turmoil, mercenary army, the
threat of powerful foreign monarchies like France
and Spain
 e.g. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527)-The Prince

2. Facing the New while
Struggling with the Old

1492 – 1560s

1) The New—Exploring the World
Map 14.1 Early Voyages of World Exploration
Map 14.2 Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in
the Americas, 1492–1560 14
2) The Old — Struggling for the
“True” Religion

Life of
Luther and
the heroes of
Four Major Reformers
1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
2. Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)
3. John Calvin (1509-1564)
4. Henry VIII (1491-1547) and the
Anglican Church in England

1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
 Young German friar,
abandoned law for monastery

 Tormented by own religious anxieties

 Hated priests selling indulgences--substitutes

for the spiritual activities of prayer and

 1517, posted ninety-five theses that questioned

the sale of indulgences and church offices
2. Huldrych Zwingli

 Chief Preacher in Zurich

 1520, declared himself reformer
and attacked the corruption of the ecclesiastical
hierarchy and church rules (fasting and clerical
 Under him, Zurich became center of Swiss
reform mov’t
3. John Calvin

 French man who studied law

 Led another mov’t in France and
 Gradually abandoned Catholic Church
 Gather many adherents, in France, culminated in the
Affair of the Placards in 1534—church doors were
posted with broadsheets denouncing the mass
 Provoked crackdown on Protestants, Calvin fled abroad
Anne Boleyn, 1501-1536

4. Henry VIII (1491-1547)

• Initially opposed the Reformation
and even granted “Defender of
Faith” by the Pope
• Needed a male heir and wanted
to marry Anne Boleyn
• To do so, his marriage to
Catherine of Aragon
must be invalidated by
Pope, but was refused

Catherine of Aragon, 1485 – 1536

Henry VIII (continued)
• He chose 2 protestants for important positions:
-- Thomas Cromwell as Chancellor
-- Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury
• Under them, Parliament passed acts severing ties
between the English church and Rome

• The Act of Supremacy (1534) made Henry head

of the Anglican church
• Other legislation recognize his marriage to Anne
and invalidated claim to the throne by Mary, his
daughter by Catherine
Henry VIII (continued)
• He took a series of anti-Catholic measures:
confiscated and sold property of monasteries

• Divorced Anne (w/ whom he had a daughter

Elizabeth I)

• Married six times and had one son Edward

• When he died in 1547, principle of royal

supremacy in religious matters was firmly
established in England
What about the other force
- the Roman Catholic Church?

The Council of Trent
-- 1545, Pope Paul III convened a general council
of the church at Trent, a town between Holy
Roman Empire and Italy
-- 1545-1563, meetings sporadically lasted nearly
20 years
-- bishops, archbishops and
cardinals made a wide-ranging
decisions in condemning the
central doctrines of Protestantism

-- Reasserted the supremacy of clerical
authority over laity
-- reaffirmed that the church’s interpretation of
Bible could not be challenged
-- reaffirmed the legitimacy of indulgences
-- rejected divorce that is permitted by
-- but, it also called for
reform from within

(A session of the Council of

Trent, from an engraving.) 25
Impact of the Council of Trent
-- a watershed in the history of Christianity

-- the schism between Protestant and Catholic

was made permanent
-- all hopes of reconciliation

-- Catholic church now

started to roll back the tide
of dissent
Catholic Church after the
Council of Trent
-- founding new religious orders
-- most important of them: the Society of Jesus
– Jesuits
by Spanish
nobleman, -- Jesuits
Ignatius of
Loyola missionaries
– a man who
played a key
turned from role in the global
quest for Portuguese
military glory
to serving the
maritime empire
A painting of St Ignatius Loyola (kneeling), founder of the
Society of Jesus, with Pope Paul III in 1534. 27
Controversial Missionary Zeal
-- set sail throughout the globe
-- message to indigenous peoples were conflict
- for some, a repressive and coercive alien
- for others, a sweet sign of reason and faith

-- In Africa and America, relied

more on swords to win

-- In East Asia, mainly sermon

rather than the sword
Mapping the
Europe, c.

Approximate spread of
Protestantism during the
Reformation and after the
Counter Reformation in Europe
Summary and Conclusion
 Europe: undergoing new changes, at the same
time, struggling with the past
 Both combined, shaped the development of
western civilization since the 16th century
 Protestant permanently broke from the Roman
Catholic Church
 Unfortunately, Catholics and Protestants would
continue to fight for the restoration of a SINGLE
faith for many generations
 These fighting took the form of civil war as well as
international conflict

The End

Spring 2016
– Holy Roman Empire (962 – 1806)
• The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges
Römisches Reich) was a union of territories in
Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the Early
Modern period under a Holy Roman Emperor.
• The first Holy Roman Emperor was Otto the Great
in 962
• The last was Francis II, who abdicated and
dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic
• It was officially known as the Holy
Roman Empire of the German from the
16th century onwards.
Banners of the Holy Roman Emperor 32
• The Empire's territorial extent varied over its
history, but at its peak it encompassed the

-- Kingdom of Germany
-- the Kingdom of Italy
-- the Kingdom of Burgundy
-- territories embracing the present-day
Germany (except Southern Schleswig)
-- Austria (except Burgenland)
-- Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Belgium, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic,
Slovenia (except Prekmurje)
-- significant parts of modern France, Italy, and

• For much of its history the Empire consisted of
hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities,
duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, as well as
other domains. Despite its name, for much of its
history the Empire did not include Rome within its

The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1600,

superimposed over modern European state borders. 34
Map 14.4 Habsburg-Valois-Ottoman Wars,
1494–1559 35