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Civilization II

-- Warming-Up Review
(from early modern period,
around 1500 AD)

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Europe: Emerging from the
Medieval Ages
 Declining influence of church on secular affairs
 Burgeoning period of the establishment of the
principles that holds even today
— separation between church
and state
 Liberation of people’s mind — look at the
world from secular perspective
HOW?
What’s next?

Inside Europe: Outside Europe:


changes in internal colonialism and
mechanism imperialism

1. In politics: the rise and establishment of 1. Bring ‘foreign lands’ into


sovereignty, by challenging papal the European system
authority
2. Spread Western culture,
2. In economy: wide spread of capitalism technology and religion
3. In science and technology: study nature 3. Increasingly a real world
from secular perspective -- Scientific system took shape
Revolution
4. In society and culture: Renaissance,
enlightenment movement, great thinkers
emerged, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau
Liberation and Contradiction

1. Liberation: of people’s mind and hand --


the Renaissance

2. Contradiction: Facing the New while


Struggling with the Old

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1. Renaissance and Impact
(beginning about 1350, lasted 2 centuries)

 Artists and thinkers recover and apply the


learning and standards of ancient Greece and
Rome
 an age of transition: crucial elements of the
medieval outlook were rejected, classical cultural
forms were revived, and modern attitudes
emerged

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1) Secular Outlook Accepted

 began in the independent city-states of Northern


Italy
 in these urban centers, commercial elites
enjoyed the leisure and freedom that came with
the wealth procured by trade
 members of urban upper class did not allow
religion to interfere with their quest for the full life
 secular outlook was increasingly challenging the
dominance of religion in life

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2) Humanism Expanded

 medieval scholars used Greek philosophy to


prove the truth of Christian doctrines

 Italian humanists read classical literature to


nourish their new interest in the worldly life

 subject of the art forms are also secular and


worldly

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3) Individualism Established

 competitive marketplace in the cities taught the


urban elite to assert their own personalities
 demonstrated their unique talents and fulfill their
ambitions
 motivated them to venture into uncharted seas
 to look for greater opportunities, including
conquering other lands and peoples

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An Entirely New Culture Created

 In art: the human form and rules of perspective


were recovered from antiquity
 In politics: ancient history of Greece and Rome
was studied for clues on how to solve the
problems of the Renaissance city-state
 such as internal turmoil, mercenary army, the
threat of powerful foreign monarchies like France
and Spain
 e.g. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527)-The Prince

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2. Facing the New while
Struggling with the Old

1492 – 1560s

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1) The New—Exploring the World
Map 14.1 Early Voyages of World Exploration
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Map 14.2 Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in
the Americas, 1492–1560 14
2) The Old — Struggling for the
“True” Religion

Life of
Martin
Luther and
the heroes of
the
Reformation
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Attackers:
Four Major Reformers
1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
2. Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)
3. John Calvin (1509-1564)
4. Henry VIII (1491-1547) and the
Anglican Church in England

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1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
 Young German friar,
abandoned law for monastery

 Tormented by own religious anxieties

 Hated priests selling indulgences--substitutes


for the spiritual activities of prayer and
pilgrimage

 1517, posted ninety-five theses that questioned


the sale of indulgences and church offices
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2. Huldrych Zwingli
(1484-1531)

 Chief Preacher in Zurich


 1520, declared himself reformer
and attacked the corruption of the ecclesiastical
hierarchy and church rules (fasting and clerical
celibacy)
 Under him, Zurich became center of Swiss
reform mov’t
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3. John Calvin
(1509-1564)

 French man who studied law


 Led another mov’t in France and
Switzerland
 Gradually abandoned Catholic Church
 Gather many adherents, in France, culminated in the
Affair of the Placards in 1534—church doors were
posted with broadsheets denouncing the mass
 Provoked crackdown on Protestants, Calvin fled abroad
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Anne Boleyn, 1501-1536

4. Henry VIII (1491-1547)


• Initially opposed the Reformation
and even granted “Defender of
Faith” by the Pope
• Needed a male heir and wanted
to marry Anne Boleyn
• To do so, his marriage to
Catherine of Aragon
must be invalidated by
Pope, but was refused

Catherine of Aragon, 1485 – 1536


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Henry VIII (continued)
• He chose 2 protestants for important positions:
-- Thomas Cromwell as Chancellor
-- Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury
• Under them, Parliament passed acts severing ties
between the English church and Rome

• The Act of Supremacy (1534) made Henry head


of the Anglican church
• Other legislation recognize his marriage to Anne
and invalidated claim to the throne by Mary, his
daughter by Catherine
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Henry VIII (continued)
• He took a series of anti-Catholic measures:
confiscated and sold property of monasteries

• Divorced Anne (w/ whom he had a daughter


Elizabeth I)

• Married six times and had one son Edward

• When he died in 1547, principle of royal


supremacy in religious matters was firmly
established in England
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What about the other force
- the Roman Catholic Church?

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The Council of Trent
-- 1545, Pope Paul III convened a general council
of the church at Trent, a town between Holy
Roman Empire and Italy
-- 1545-1563, meetings sporadically lasted nearly
20 years
-- bishops, archbishops and
cardinals made a wide-ranging
decisions in condemning the
central doctrines of Protestantism

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-- Reasserted the supremacy of clerical
authority over laity
-- reaffirmed that the church’s interpretation of
Bible could not be challenged
-- reaffirmed the legitimacy of indulgences
-- rejected divorce that is permitted by
Protestants
-- but, it also called for
reform from within

(A session of the Council of


Trent, from an engraving.) 25
Impact of the Council of Trent
-- a watershed in the history of Christianity

-- the schism between Protestant and Catholic


was made permanent
-- all hopes of reconciliation
faded

-- Catholic church now


started to roll back the tide
of dissent
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Catholic Church after the
Council of Trent
-- founding new religious orders
-- most important of them: the Society of Jesus
– Jesuits
Established
by Spanish
nobleman, -- Jesuits
Ignatius of
Loyola missionaries
(1491-1556)
– a man who
played a key
turned from role in the global
favoring
quest for Portuguese
military glory
to serving the
maritime empire
church
A painting of St Ignatius Loyola (kneeling), founder of the
Society of Jesus, with Pope Paul III in 1534. 27
Controversial Missionary Zeal
-- set sail throughout the globe
-- message to indigenous peoples were conflict
- for some, a repressive and coercive alien
religion
- for others, a sweet sign of reason and faith

-- In Africa and America, relied


more on swords to win
converts

-- In East Asia, mainly sermon


rather than the sword
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Mapping the
West:
Reformation
Europe, c.
1560

Approximate spread of
Protestantism during the
Reformation and after the
Counter Reformation in Europe
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Summary and Conclusion
 Europe: undergoing new changes, at the same
time, struggling with the past
 Both combined, shaped the development of
western civilization since the 16th century
 Protestant permanently broke from the Roman
Catholic Church
 Unfortunately, Catholics and Protestants would
continue to fight for the restoration of a SINGLE
faith for many generations
 These fighting took the form of civil war as well as
international conflict

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The End

Spring 2016
(Insertion)
– Holy Roman Empire (962 – 1806)
• The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges
Römisches Reich) was a union of territories in
Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the Early
Modern period under a Holy Roman Emperor.
• The first Holy Roman Emperor was Otto the Great
in 962
• The last was Francis II, who abdicated and
dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic
Wars.
• It was officially known as the Holy
Roman Empire of the German from the
16th century onwards.
Banners of the Holy Roman Emperor 32
• The Empire's territorial extent varied over its
history, but at its peak it encompassed the
following:

-- Kingdom of Germany
-- the Kingdom of Italy
-- the Kingdom of Burgundy
-- territories embracing the present-day
Germany (except Southern Schleswig)
-- Austria (except Burgenland)
-- Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Belgium, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic,
Slovenia (except Prekmurje)
-- significant parts of modern France, Italy, and
Poland

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• For much of its history the Empire consisted of
hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities,
duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, as well as
other domains. Despite its name, for much of its
history the Empire did not include Rome within its
borders.

The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1600,


superimposed over modern European state borders. 34
Map 14.4 Habsburg-Valois-Ottoman Wars,
1494–1559 35