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2 Year

Chapter 13

Electromagnetism

Outline

• Magnetic Field

• Force on a current Carrying Conductor

• Magnetic Flux

• Ampere’s LAW

• Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Solenoid

• Application of Magnetic Field

• Motion of a Charged Particle in Uniform Magnetic Field

• Torque on a Current Carrying Loop/Coil

• Galvanometer

• Conversion of Galvanometer into Ammeter

• Conversion of Galvanometer to Voltmeter

• Avometer-Multimeter

Electromagnetism

• Material that produce Magnetic Field

• Field is Invisible but main property of magnet (Force that pulls other

Ferromagnetic items like iron and attracts/repels other magnets)

• Permanent magnet is an object made from a material that magnetize and

creates its own persistent magnetic field

13.1 Magnetic Field

• Study of magnetism was started with the discovery of mineral called

Loadstone, which attract iron and other magnetic materials

• Now a days also called Magnetic iron ore/iron oxide

• By end of 19th century scientists had tested known

elements and compounds for magnetic properties and

were grouped by its

magnetic behavior

• With discovery of electricity soon was realized that a steady current through

a conducting wire creates a magnetic field around the wire.

This rule known as RIGHT HAND RULE

• Curl of finger show direction of magnetic field while thumb

Indicates direction of current “i”.

Cons….

near a wire carrying current and observe the direction

• Magnetic field is a region around a magnet/current carrying wire which can

attract/repels other magnetic materials

• Is a vector quantity and represented by a

vector “B” called magnetic induction

13.2 Force on a Current Carrying Conductor

• When current carrying wire placed at right angles to a uniform magnetic field,

magnetic filed of wire and external uniform filed interact a result force “F” on wire

• The force depends on current “I” in wire and Length “L” of wire that lies in field

F∝ iL

• Strength of uniform field called , magnetic induction(or magnetic flux density will

be defined later) B, is constant proportionality

F=BiL

• If the wire is place in field B at some angle θ with it

then force is given by relation

F=BiL sin θ………...(13.1)

• Or in vector form

F=i(L×B)…………..(13.2)

Cons….

• Equation 13.1 shows magnitude of Force “F” on current carrying wire of

Length “L” depends on following

B: Magnitude of magnetic induction

i: Amount of current flowing in the wire

L: Length of wire in field

θ: Angle between B and L

• This Force “F” is maximum when θ is 90 and is

minimum when θ is 0, if we keep B, i and L constant

• As Force is a vector quantity so its direction should be determined

• The direction of “F” is determined by “Fleming’s Left Hand Rule”

Cons….

• The thumb and first two finger of left hand are set at right angle to each other

• With first finger pointing in the direction of field an second finger pointing in the

direction of current the thumb gives direction of force

• The S.I unit for magnetic induction B is telsa “T” and it can defined as

𝐹

B=

𝑖𝐿

1T=1N 𝐴−1 𝑚−1

If force experienced by 1 m of wire carrying 1 A current placed

perpendicularly in magnetic field is one Newton

then magnetic induction is 1 Telsa

Another unit used for B is Gauss which is given by

1G= 10−4 T

Or 1T= 104 G

Magnetic Flux

• Magnetic induction tells us how to close together magnetic field line are, as

it tells the strength of the magnetic field

• Now we define another quantity of magnetic flux that is Dot Product of

magnetic induction B and vector area element ∆A

• Magnetic Flux denoted by symbol θ is given by

∆Φ=B. ∆A…………………..(13.3)

=B ∆A cosθ

Where ∆ Φ represents magnetic field lines passing through vector area

element ∆A placed perpendicular to field. Direction of vector area element ∆A

is normal to surface area

Cons….

Φ=∑B. ∆A

=B.A =BA cosθ

• The Flux Φ through area A will be maximum if surface is perpendicular to

field because in this case normal to surface will be parallel to B

• Similarly, the Flux will be Zero when normal to the surface become

Perpendicular to B

• Unit of magnetic flux is “Webber”. One Webber is given by

1Wb=1 N m 𝐴−1

13.3 Magnetic Flux Density

𝝫

• Using 13.3 we can see that B=

𝑨

• So magnetic induction B can also be defined as magnetic flux per unit area

and is called magnetic flux density

• So, 1T=1Wb 𝑚−2

13.4 Ampere’s LAW

• Ampere’s circuital Law was discovered by Andre Marie Ampere in 1826

• Relates integrated magnetic field in a loop around a current carrying wire to

current passing through wire

• As we know that there is magnetic field around current carrying wire. If we

consider a closed path around the wire in the form of a circle having wire at

the center, then magnitude of magnetic flux density B changes with the

current I in the wire and distance “r” from the wire.

• So, B∝i

1

and B∝

𝑟

𝑖

or B∝

𝑟

Cons…

Summing up all around the circular path

𝑖

B=µο πr

2

B 2 πr=µο i………………….(13.4)

• Now consider a closed path around the wire figure 13.8. For any path

element ΔL we can write

B ΔL =µο i

• As B and ΔL are parallel, so B. ΔL=B ΔL=µο i

Now summing over the entire closed path

ΣB. ΔL =µο i………………..(13.5)

Which is Ampere’s Law.

13.5 Magnetic Field Due to Current Carrying

Solenoid

• A solenoid is a long spring like coil of length many times its diameter with

many turns every centimeter

• A current “i” in the solenoid produce a magnetic field “B” along its axis

• The magnetic field of the solenoid is strong along its axis

and weaker rather negligible outside

• To determine the value of “B” of a solenoid let

us consider an ampere path “abcd” with length l1

and l2 much longer as compare to other two lengths.

• Now applying Ampere’s LAW

Cons…

• ΣB.ΔL= µο i

• B.l1+ B.l2+ B.l3+ B.l4=µο I

• Now inside the Solenoid B and i1 are perpendicular, so B.l2=0 and B.l4=0

• Therefore the field for Solenoid is given by

ΣB.ΔL=B.l1=µο I

Now if L=length of Solenoid

and N=total number of turns in Solenoid

then ΣB.ΔL=B.L=Nµο I

So B=n µο i………………….(13.6)

• Where n=N/L number of turns per unit length

13.5.1 Applications of Magnetic Field

• The magnetic strength of an electromagnet depends on the number of turns

of wire around the electromagnet’s core, the current through wire and size

of iron core.

• Increasing these factors can result in an electromagnet that is much larger

and stronger than a natural magnet.

• For example there is no known natural magnet that is able to pick up a large

steel object such as a car, but industrial electromagnets are capable of such a

task.

• Also if the core of the electromagnet is made of soft iron its magnet force

can be turned off by turning off the electricity to electromagnet.

• e.g: Cranes

Electromagnetic Lock

Doorbell Ringer

13.6 Motion of a charged Particle in Uniform

Magnetic Field

• In our study of electrostatics, we saw that a charged particle in an electric

field experiences a force in the direction of the field or against field

depending on sign of charge.

• Similarly, a charged particle in magnetic field would experience a force. In

case of magnetic field, however charge must be moving.

• The force acting on charged particle results from interaction of external

magnetic field and magnetic field created by moving charge.

• For a positive charge “q” moving with velocity “v” in a magnetic field of flux

density “B” the force acting on the charge is given by expression.

Ԧ 𝑣Ԧ × 𝐵)……………………………..(13.7)

𝐹=q(

=q v B sin𝜃 𝑛ො where 𝜃 is angle between velocity and magnetic field

• This is very obvious that this force is maximum when charge particle moves

perpendicularly to magnetic field minimum when charge moves parallel to

field

Cons…

𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑥 =qvB 𝜃=900

𝐹𝑚𝑖𝑛 =0 𝜃=00

• The direction of this force is determined by Fleming’s left hand rule

• Thumb and first two fingers of the left hand are set at right angles to each

other. With the first finger pointing in direction of field and second finger

pointing in direction of velocity of charged particle and thumb gives

direction of force.

• When charge move along a magnetic field line then charges move sprint on

a spiral path and direction of force will be opposite to case of negative

charge

• Now as force is always perpendicular to direction of velocity so charged

particle follows a circular path

• The symbol ⊗ shows that magnetic field is acting into plane of paper.

Cons…

• Fig: 13.10 shows that charge particle move on spiral path when angle 𝜃 is

between “0” and “90”. So the centripetal force provided for this motion of

charged particle entering perpendicular to magnetic field is given by

𝑚𝑣 2

= mr 𝞈2 =qvB ∴ 𝐹𝑐 =qvB

𝑟

As v=r 𝞈 so,

𝞈=qB/m…………………………………..(13.8)

and T=2π/ 𝞈

=2πm/qB………………………………..(13.9)

and f=qB/2πm

Where T is time period of charge particle and f is cyclotron frequency in

above equation

Determination of e/m for an Electron

• The circular motion of an electron shot perpendicularly into a magnetic field can be used to

determine its charge to mass ratio.

• Using the equation

𝑚𝑣 2

= evB

𝑟

𝑒 𝑣

= …………………….(13.10)

𝑚 𝐵𝑟

• Practically we shot beam of electrons into a magnetic field of known value so, B is known.

Radius of electrons can be measured by making their path visible bi colliding them by a gas

like Hydrogen or Helium in tube place a uniform magnetic field

• Electrons excite atoms of gas and their de-excitation causes emission of visible blue light.

So the path is visible.

• For this velocity of electrons their kinetic energy is measured by passing them through a

potential difference of known value.

• So

1

2

m 𝑣 2 =eV…………………..(13.11)

Using this equation (13.10) and (13.11)

𝑒 2𝑉

= 2 2……………………….(13.12)

𝑚 𝐵 𝑟

Velocity Selector

magnetic fields are acting such that two forces may balance each other.

𝐹𝐸 =𝐹𝑀

qE=qvB

𝐸

V=

𝐵

• Such arrangement is called velocity selector because charges with velocity

in ratio of E to B will come out un-deflected.

• In a beam all charged particles do not move with same velocity so we can

separate charges with desired velocity.

13.7 Torque on a Current Carrying Loop/Coil

experience force and torque. Let us consider a rectangular coil having N

turns carrying current I in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B. Each

Ԧ

side PS and QR of coil experiences a force 𝐹.

• The effect of these forces is to try to compress coil. Since coil is rigid, no

distortion of coil occurs.

• Force F acting on sides PQ and RS due to magnetic field are in opposite

directions and normal to magnetic field and sides PQ and RS.

Cons…

• Magnitude of this force on sides PQ and RS is

𝐹1 =𝐹2 =F=NBia………………………………(13.13)a

Where ‘a’ is the length of sides PQ and RS. Direction of the two forces as seen from

top. The effect of this pair of forces is a couple which has a torque given by

λ=F(b cos 𝜃)……………………………...(13.13)b

• Where θ=angle between plane of coil and magnetic field and ‘b’ is moment arm of

couple. From equation 13.13 we have

λ=NBi a(b cos 𝜃)

=NBi (ab) cos 𝜃 = NBiA cos 𝜃……………….(13.14)

• Where A=area of coil. Maximum torque is BiNA it occurs when angle 𝜃=0 that is

when plane of coil is parallel to magnetic field or normal to plane is perpendicular

to field.

• When plane coil is perpendicular to magnetic field or normal to it is parallel to field

then torque is zero.

MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

• MRI uses a combination of a strong magnetic field and ratio waves to

produce detailed high resolution images inside of human body.

MRI: Principle

• MRI systems are able to generate high quality diagnostic images through

use of magnetic field. The human body is composed primarily of fat and

water, it is made up mostly of hydrogen atoms.

• By applying short radio frequency (RF) pulses to a specific anatomical slice,

the promotion in slice absorb energy at this resonant frequency causing

them to spin perpendicular to the magnetic field.

Cons…

• As the protons relax back into alignment with magnetic field a signal is received by

an RF coil.

• This signal acts as an antenna and is processed by a computer to produce

diagnostic images of areas of body. The brain consists of two distinct regions:

while matter which is composed of myelinated nerve fiber's and grey matter which

consists of nerve cell bodies.

• These two regions interact to perform critical information processing and damage

to either region causes brain dysfunction. Notably, the white matter is referred to

as being ‘white due to the light color of myelin insulation covering the nerve

fiber's.

• Now magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used widely to study brain function

where damage to white matter is seen as bright areas.

• MRI is also capable of imaging such as movement of the wall of heart and the

injection of fluid into a blood vessel in order to reach an organ or tissue.

• MRI is able to create detailed images to assist in diagnosis of cancer heart disease.

13.8 Galvanometer

• A moving coil galvanometer is an instrument used for detection and

measurement of small electric currents.

• Its principle is that current carrying loop placed in a magnetic field

experiences a torque. A simplified version of a galvanometer is shown

schematically.

• Most modern galvanometer are of moving-coil type and are called

d’Arsonval Galvanometers. It mainly consist of a rectangular coil ABCD of

fine wire wrapped around an aluminum frame is suspended by conducing

ribbons.

• A soft iron core F is fixed between cylindrically concave poles N and S of a

permanent magnet. The suspension wire T1 is used as one current lead to

coil and the other terminal of coil is connected to a loosely wound spiral T2

which serves second current lead.

• A cylinder of soft iron is placed at Centre of coil which intensifies magnetic

field and makes it radial by concentrating magnetic field lines due to high

permeability (and gives more inertia to coil)

Cons…

• When a current ‘i’ flows through coil, a magnetic field B is set up which

interacts with that of permanent magnet producing a torque ‘𝜏’.

=NIAB cos 𝛼

In this expression

N= number of turns in coil, A= area per turns of coil

B= magnetic induction of radial magnetic field

𝛼= angle between plane of coil and direction of 𝐵

Since magnetic field is radial plane of coil is parallel to magnetic field B, so

𝜏= NBiA………………………………..(13.14)

• The torque rotates coil and twists suspension ribbon until it is fully resisted

by suspension. As a result restoring torque comes into play trying to restore

coil back to original position.

Cons…

• If 𝜃 be the twist produced in strip and ‘C’ be the restoring torque per unit twist

then:

Restoring torque= 𝜏=C 𝜃…………………………….(13.15)

• When coil is in equilibrium then deflecting torque is equal to restoring torque.

Then from Eq: (13.14) and (13.15)

𝐶𝜃

NBiA= C 𝜃 or i= ……………………(13.16)

𝑁𝐴𝐵

• From Eq: 13.16 it is clear that galvanometer may be made more sensitive by

making deflecting angle 𝜃 large for a certain small value of current i. It may be

achieved by making C/NAB small. A sensitive galvanometer is one which produce

large deflection for small value of current.

• Where C/NAB is a constant. Angular displacement 𝜃 produced being proportional

to current i.

I=𝜃

• The result is read from a scale onto which a light beam is reflected from a mirror M

carried on suspension ribbons. There are two methods of observing angle of

deflection.

Lamp Scale Method

attached with coil along with lamp and scale arrangement. A beam of light

from lamp is directed towards mirror of galvanometer.

• After reflection from mirror is produces a spot on a translucent scale placed

at a distance of one of light moves along scale. This displacement of spot of

light on scale is proportional to angle of deflection (provided angle of

deflection is small).

Pivoted Coil Galvanometer

less sensitive galvanometer coil is pivoted between two jeweled bearings.

The restoring torque is provided by two hair springs which also serves as

current lead.

• A light aluminum pointer is attached to coil which moves over the scale

thus giving angle of deflection of coil.

13.9 Conversion of Galvanometer into Ammeter

cannot be passed through it , as it may damage coil.

• The conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter is

done by connecting a low resistance in parallel with it.

• As a result when large current flows in a circuit, only a small fraction of

current passes through galvanometer and remaining larger portion of

current passes through low resistance.

• The low resistance connected in parallel with galvanometer is called shunt

resistance. The scale is marked in ampere.

Cons…

• An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure electric current in

a circuit. Value of shunt resistance depends on fraction of total current

required to be passes through galvanometer.

• Let ‘𝑅𝑔 ’ the resistance of galvanometer ‘𝑖𝑔 ’ current which produces full

scale deflection in galvanometer. Since shunt is connected in parallel to

galvanometer the potential difference across galvanometer= potential

difference across shunt.

V=𝑅𝑔 𝑖𝑔 and V= 𝑅𝑠 (i-𝑖𝑔 )…………………..(13.17)

• Therefore 𝑅𝑠 (i-𝑖𝑔 )= 𝑅𝑔 𝑖𝑔

𝑅𝑠 𝑖𝑔

𝑅𝑠 = ………………………..(13.18)

(i−𝑖𝑔 )

13.10 Conversion of Galvanometer into Voltmeter

• Galvanometer can be converted into a Voltmeter by

connecting a high resistance in series with a galvanometer.

• The value of this resistance depends upon range of voltmeter.

• In series connection current through galvanometer is

same as that due to resistance.

• Suppose galvanometer has resistance “𝑅𝑔 ” and current “𝑖𝑔 ” is passing

through if of potential “𝑉𝑔 ” across it. And high resistance also draws same

current “𝑖𝑔 ” and potential “𝑉ℎ ” across resistor “𝑅ℎ ”.

• The desired potential “V” is to determined.

Hence V= 𝑅𝑔 𝑖𝑔 + 𝑅ℎ 𝑖𝑔

• V= 𝑖𝑔 (𝑅𝑔 𝑅ℎ )

Cons…

𝑉

= (𝑅𝑔 𝑅ℎ )

𝑖𝑔

𝑉

𝑅ℎ = - 𝑅𝑔 ……………………………….(13.19)

𝑖𝑔

effective resistance also has a higher value. Voltmeters have a high

resistance.

• The reason is that voltmeter must not draw current from circuit otherwise

the P.D. which voltmeter is requested to measure will change. An ideal

voltmeter has an infinite resistance.

13.11 Avometer-Multimeter

and resistance.

• So it is Amperemeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter (AVO).

• It can measure direct as well as alternating current and voltage.

• It is a galvanometer having a series of combination of

resistors all enclosed in a box.

• It has different scales graduated in such a manner that all the three

quantities can be measured.

• It has its own battery for its function and for operating electrical circuits.

• The quantity to be measured and its range can be selected by a selector

switch which connects particular electrical circuit to galvanometer.

Current Measurement

turned to ‘X’ and the proper scale is selected.

• This circuit is a series combination of shunt resistances

𝑅1 , 𝑅2 and 𝑅3 is called Universal shunt.

• Any one of the shunts can be used for measurement of

current in different ranges.

• This circuit provides a safe method od switching between current ranges

without any damages of excessive current through the meter.

Voltage Measurement

• Measuring voltage the voltage selector switch of AVO meter changes the

circuit to the type.

• This circuit allows selecting any range and the corresponding high

resistance to be connected in series with the galvanometer.

• The added high resistance converts galvanometer to a voltmeter of specific

range.

• For example connections at A and C selected by multiple switch

arrangement gives a range of 10-V.

• Similarly, connections at A and B, D, E, or F give the ranges 2.5V, 50V, 250V,

and 1000V respectively

Resistance Measurement

• For resistance measurement the selector switch uses circuit.

• The leads are connected across the resistance to be measured.

• Battery of the meter supplies current to the meter for deflection which in

turn varies with the external resistance and can be calibrated.

• In this case the Ohmmeter battery supplies current to the galvanometer for

deflecting its coil.

Cons…

• Since the amount of current through the galvanometer depends upon the

external resistance, we can calibrate the scale in ohms.

• The amount of deflection on the ohms scale indicates directly magnitude of

resistance.

• Ohmmeter reads up-scale regardless of the polarity of the leads because

polarity of internal battery determines the direction of the current through

galvanometer.

• Commercial AVO meters provide resistance measurement from less than

one ohm up to many mega ohms.

Digital Multi-meters

• Modern multi-meters are often digital due to their accuracy, durability and

extra features.

• In a digital multi-meter the signal under test is converted to a voltage and

an amplifier with electronically controlled gain preconditions the signal.

• A digital multi-meter displays the quantity measured as a number which

eliminates parallax errors.

• Modern digital multi-meters may have an embedded computer which

provides a variety of convenience features.

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