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All-Ceramic System

What is All-Ceramic System ?

All Ceramic system is the foundation cap
that supports final dental crown. A dental
restorative material used artificially to restore the
function, integrity and morphology of missing
tooth structure. The structural loss typically results
from caries or external trauma. It is also lost
intentionally during tooth preparation to improve
the aesthetics or the physical integrity of the
intended restorative material. Dental restoration
also refers to the replacement of missing tooth
structure by restoring dental implants.
Advantages of All-Ceramic
 The secret behind All Ceramic is its unique
combination of strength and beauty
 All Ceramic is a coping made extremely densely-
sintered aluminum oxide
 All Ceramic can be recommended for prosthetic
reconstructions anywhere in your mouth
 All Ceramic is made of a bio-compatible material
(comparable to Titanium) which minimizes the
risk of allergic reactions
 All Ceramic Porcelain opens an entirely new era
in history using porcelain in dentistry
Objective of this seminar
 Discern between the different methods of
fabrication of porcelain veneers
 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
of various techniques for fabricating
porcelain veneers
 Explain which clinical indications would
be most appropriate for each type of
porcelain restoration
Various all ceramic systems
 Aluminous core ceramics
 Slip cast ceramics

 Heat pressed ceramics

 Machined ceramics

 Machined and sintered ceramics

 Metal reinforced system

Aluminous core ceramics
 Introduced by Mc Lean and Hughes
 They advocated using aluminous porcelain, which is
composed of aluminium oxide crystals dispersed in a
glassy matrix
 It contains an opaque inner core containing 50% by
weight alumina for high strength
 Core is veneered by a combination of esthetic body and
enamel porcelain with 15% and 5% crystalline alumina
 40% stronger than traditional feldspathic porcelain
Slip cast ceramics
In ceram
It is a traditional technique
Starting medium is slip that is an aqueous
suspension of fine ceramic particles in water
with a dispersing agent
The slip is applied on to a porous refractory die
which absorbs water from the slip and leads to
condensation of slip on the die
 The die is then fired at high temperature(1150 degree
 The die shrinks more than the condensed slip which
allows easy separation after firing
 The fired porous core is then glass infiltrated
-Lower porosity
-Fewer processing defect
-Better strength
 Two modified porcelain composition for in
ceram technique have been introduced
1, In ceram spinell- contain Magnesium
spinel- improved translucency
2, In ceram Zirconia – Zirconium oxide
-better strength
Heat pressed ceramics
Heat pressing improves the marginal adaptation
- Leucite based
-Lithium silicate based
Leucite based
-contain leucite as a major reinforcing
crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy matrix
-ceramic ingots are pressed at a higher
temperature (1165 degree Celsius ) into a
refractory mold made by lost wax technique
Two finishing techniques can be used for application of
veneering porcelain
1 characterization technique (surface stain only)
2 layering technique
Currently available leucite containing materials
-IPS Empress
-Optimal pressable ceramic
-Cerpress Lower fusing material
Lithium silicate based
eg – IPS Empress-2
-The major crystalline phase of the core
material is Lithium disilicate
-The material is pressed at 920 degree Celsius
and layered with a glass containing some
dispersed apatite crystals
Machined ceramics

 The evolution of computer aided design / computer

assisted machining [CAD/CAM] systems led to the
development of new generation ceramics that are
 Cerec system:
-The equipment consists of a computer integrated
imaging and milling system,with the restorations
designed on the computer screen
-Tooth preparation follows typical all ceramic
-Coat the preparation with opaque powder
-Image the preparation with the optical scanner
-Identify and mark the margins and contour on
the computer screen
-Insert the appropriate shade of ceramic block
in the milling machine. The fabrication time for
a crown is about 20 minutes
-Try the restoration back in the mouth
Machined and sintered ceramics
 Extensive research in the field of Zirconia
ceramics and CAD/CAM technology has led to
the development of Zirconia ceramics for dental
 The material used is tetragonal Zirconia
stabilized with 3 mole percent yttrium oxide
 Enlarged Zirconia copings are machined from
pre -sintered Zirconia blocks to compensate for
the sintering shrinkage
 The restorations are later sintered at a high
 Two systems:

-Procera All ceram system

-Lava system
Practical Example of All-Ceramic restoration

A conservative All-Ceramic restoration was used to restore the tooth

without pasting a post and core and devitalizing the tooth

A facial veneer that placed on tooth no

9 instead of full coverage restoration.
No post and core was necessary in this
Practical Example of All-Ceramic restoration

Using opaque layer of porcelain

1. Pressable Ceramic Restorations
1. Pressable Ceramic Restorations
1. Pressable Ceramic Restorations
2. Stacked Feldspathic Restorations
1. CAD/CAM Technique