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Residual Deposits

GENESA ENDAPAN LATERIT


NIKEL

TAS7302
Hendro Purnomo, 2017

TEKNIK PERTAMBANGAN STTNAS


Konsep Industri Pertambangan
Klasifikasi Genesa Endapan Mineral
Klasifikasi Genesa Endapan Mineral (Lanjutan..)
Tipe Endapan Nikel
• Sulphide nickel deposits (sulfida magma)
– Nickel as nickel sulphide  pentlandite, millerite
– Nickel ores processed through milling and smelting

• Laterite nickel deposits (laterit nikel)


– Oxide Ni deposits: Ni as hydroxide in the ferruginous zone
– Clay silicate deposits: Ni as clay silicate
– Hydrous silicate deposits: Ni as hydrous-silicate in saprolite

– Nickel ores processed through pyro-metallurgy (smelting) or hydro-


metallurgy (leaching)
PRODUKSI NIKEL DUNIA & SUMBERDAYA

PRIMARY Ni PRODUCTION WORLD Ni RESOURCES

60% 70%

SULPHIDE LATERITE

LATERITE SULPHIDE

40% 30%
Bagaimana Proses Pembentukan Endapan Nikel?
Magmatic Sulfide Deposits

pentlandite, millerite
Laterit Nikel

• Nickel laterites are:


– Residual soils
– Have developed over mafic/ultramafic rocks
– Through processes of chemical weathering and
supergene enrichment
– Under tropical climatic conditions

• Laterites are source of metals:


– Ni, Co, Cr, Fe (from laterites derived from
ultramafic rocks)
What is Ultramafic rock / Peridotite?

1400 C
1200

1000

800

600 C
Peridotite

Kadar unsur Ni pada mineral : Olivin > Ortho Piroksin > Klino Piroksin
Kadar unsur Ni pada batuan ultra basa : Dunit > Peridotit > Piroksinit.
Skema Pembentukan Laterit Nikel (Darijanto, 1986)

Evaporation

Leaching
Decreasing
Increasing Solution

Precipitation

goethite, hematite, smectite, garnierite, chlorite


Pembentukan Endapan Laterit Nikel (Darijanto, 1986)

Proses pembentukan laterit nikel diawali dari proses pelapukan batuan ultrabasa
yang banyak mengandung Olivin, Mg silikat dan Fe silikat.

Air tanah yang kaya CO2 akan mengurai Olivin, Mg, Fe, Ni dan Si ke dalam
larutan dan cenderung membentuk suspensi koloid dari partikel-partikel silikat.
Larutan Fe akan bersenyawa dengan oksida dan mengendap sebagai Ferri
hidroksida, endapan ini akan menghilangkan air membentuk mineral Goetite
(FeO(OH)), Hematite (Fe2O3) dan kobalt (Co) sehingga besi oksida mengendap
dekat permukaan air tanah.

Mg dan Ni tertinggal dalam larutan selama air tanah bersifat asam, jika bereaksi
dengan batuan dan tanah maka zat tersebut mengendap sebagai hidrosilikat.
Adanya erosi air tanah asam dan erosi di permukaan akan melarutkan mineral-
mineral yang telah terendapkan dan terbawa ke tempat yang lebih dalam, sehingga
terjadi pengayakan bijih nikel.

Proses pengayakan bersifat komulatif, dimana proses dimulai dari batuan yang
mengandung 0,3% Ni hingga menghasilkan >1% bijih nikel.
Nickel Laterite profile and chemistry
Nickel Laterite Profile & Extraction Process

Laterite profiles and related chemistries (Elias, 2013)


Main nickel-bearing minerals
Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi
Pembentukan Endapan Laterit Nikel

• Jenis batuan asal (Lithology)


• Setting tektonik dan struktur geologi (Tectonic/ structure geology)
• Iklim (Climate)
• Morphology
Laterite thickness in various type of morphology
Morfologi Daerah Endapan Laterit Nikel
Panoramic view of Agatha Nickel showing the main area of laterite development
Profile Laterit Nikel

Red Laterite (Hematite)

Yellow Laterite (Limonite)

Saprolite zone

Bedrock pinnacle
Dimana Endapan Nikel Ditemukan?
LATERITE vs. SULPHIDE DEPOSITS

CUBA
PHILIPPINES

INDONESIA

NEW CALEDONIA

AUSTRALIA

LATERITES SULPHIDES
Potensi Endapan Laterit Nikel di Indonesia
World Nickel Laterite Resources
World Nickel Laterite Resources
(Distribution by Contained Nickel)

America Other
4% Caribbean
Africa 8% 25%
8%
Australia
8%

Philippines
New
11%
Indonesia Caledonia
16% 20%
How to explore them
The formation, distribution and grade are influenced by:

• Lithology
• Tectonic/ structure geology
• Climate
• Morphology
Prospecting Stage
GPR survey

Jan Francke, 2013


General Exploration Detail Exploration
Core drilling
Drill Core

Red Limonite
(Hematite zone)

Gradational change
To Yellow Limonite
(Goethite zone)
Drill Core (continued)

Transition zone from


Red Limonite to
Yellow Limonite

Yellow Limonite
Drill Core (continued)

Saprolite zone
with protolith texture
And boulders
Drill Core (continued)

Saprolite zone

Bedrock zone

Ore Type “WT 1”


Bagaimana Cara Menambang Endapan Laterit Nikel?
References
• Butt, C.R.M., Cluzel, D., 2013, Nickel Laterite Ore Deposits: Weathered
Serpentinites, Elements Vol.9, pp.123-128.
• CoW General Nickel Geology, 2013, Pt Weda Bay Nickel
• Elias, M., 2013, Nickel laterite in SE Asia., East Asia geology exploration
Technologies and Mine.
• Gifford, M.G, 2013., Independent Report on The Nickel Laterite Resource-Agata
North, Philippines.
• Goro Nickel Project.
• Idrus, A., 2014, Kegiatan Eksplorasi Endapan Nikel Laterit, Magister Teknik
Pertambangan UPN Yogyakarta.
• Kadarusman, A., 2013, Ultramafic Rocks and Their Nickel Deposit Occurences
in Maluku and West Papua Indonesia, Pt Bahana Selaras Alam, Presented in
Papua Maluku Resources 2 December 2013 Bali.
• Marjoribanks, R.W., 1997, Geological Methods In Mineral Exploration and
Mining, Chapman & Hall
• www.geologyforinvestors.com/mining-techniques
• www.geologyforinvestor.com/nickel-laterites
TERIMAKASIH