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Brazing

• It is defined as the process to join two metal


pieces heated to suitable temperature by
using a filler metal having a liquidus above
427° C and below the solidus of the base
metals
• The filler metal is distributed between the
closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary
attraction
Brazing
Figure 30.1 (a) Brazing and (b) braze welding operations.
• During brazing the base metal is not melted
• The greater the degree of adhesion the higher
the mechanical strength
• The surfaces (to be wet) are cleaned throughly by
emery sheet, wire brushes, acid pickling, hot
alkaline solutions
• The oxide formation is overcome by
– Performing in vacuum or at an appropriate (neutral or
reducing) atmosphere
– Wetting of the surfaces is also ensured by the
application of fluxes
Steps in brazing
• The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and
fitted closely together
• A flux is applied to all surfaces where the filler
metal is to flow
• The joint is heated to the proper brazing
temperature
• Solid filler metal preplaced on the metal
pieces thus melted and applied to the metal
pieces
Fluxes
• Used to prevent oxidation of the base metal
and the filler metal during brazing
• During brazing form a fusible slag of any
oxides which may present or formed
• Promote the free flowing of the filler metal by
capillary attraction
Filler materials
• Must wet the surfaces of the base metals at the joint
• Have high fluidity to penetrate
• For capillary attraction the clearance between the
parts being joined must be quite small (0.03 to
0.05mm) otherwise the filler metal would runout of
the joint. Wider clearance reduces strength
• Preferably have narrow melting range
• Not lead to galvanic corrosion during service
• Applied in the form of wire, strip, preforms. Powder or
paste
Commonly used filler materials
• Brazing brass
• Manganeze bronze
• Nickel silver
• Copper silicon
• Silver alloys
• Copper phosphorus
Brazing methods
• Torch brazing
• Furnace brazing
• Induction brazing
• Dip brazing
• Resistance brazing
• Laser brazing and electron beam brazing
Furnace Brazing

Figure 30.2 An example of furnace brazing: (a) before, (b) after. Note that
the filler metal is a shaped wire.
• Braze welding
– Much wider gap is filled with brazing brass with the help of
torch
– Capillary action play no part in making the joint
– Used for repair of iron and steel castings
• Silver brazing
– Silver alloys are used for brazing
– More expensive than plain brazing because of the filler
material
– It is preferred when the superior joint is needed and
where the quantity of filler metal required is small
– Widely used in the electrical and refrigeration industries
Advantages of brazing
• Lower temperatures – minimizes distortion and
metallurgical damage to the base metal may be
avoided
• In accessible joint areas which could not be made
by MIG or TIG processes and spot or seam
welding can be formed
• Thin walled tubes and light gauge sheet metal
assemblies not joinable by welding can be joined
by brazing
• Can join dissimilar metals such as brass to SS and
carbon steels to alloy steels
• Multiple joints can be made at one time
(furnace brazing)
• Neat appearing joint with the minimum of
cleaning
• Quick and economical
• Can be mechanized
Limitations
• Limited size of parts
• Machining of the joint edges for getting the
desired fit is costly
• Degree of skill required to perform the brazing
operations is high
Applications (uses)
• Assembly of pipes to fittings
• Carbide tips to tools
• Radiators
• Heat exchangers
• Electrical parts and repair of castings
• Leak tight joints for pressurized and vacuum systems
• For high temp service, chemical industries with
corrosive service (nickel alloy brazed joints in stainless
steel)
• Infood service equipment (silver brazing alloys – for
corrosion resistance)
Joint Designs Used in
Brazing

Figure 30.4 Joint designs commonly used in brazing operations. The clearance
between the two parts being brazed is an important factor in joint strength. If
the clearance is too small, the molten braze metal will not fully penetrate the
interface. If it is too large, there will be insufficient capillary action for the
molten metal to fill the interface.
Soldering
• Two parts joined by the use of a molten filler
metal whose melting point is below the
solidus (melting point of the base metals) and
in all cases below 427° C
• Soldered joints are weaker than brazed joints
• Soldering process is same as the brazing
process
• Because of lower working temperature good
wetting is more critical than in brazing