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Fatigue Analysis

in ASME B31.3 Piping

Nigel Marsh
Chief Pipe Stress Analysis Engineer
Worley Parsons Australia

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Fatigue Analysis in ASME B31.3 Piping

Content
 ASME B31.3
 Typical Fatigue – Offshore Oil and Gas
 Fatigue approach using pressure vessel code
 Fatigue evaluation example

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ASME B31.3

 Stresses Types
 Sustained
 Occasional
 Displacement stress range
 At fittings and discontinuities SIF’s increase stresses for weld system

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ASME B31.3

 Stress range factor corrects for cycles


 ASME B31.3 now limits Sc, Sh to 138MPa

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Typical Fatigue – Offshore Oil & Gas

 Conductors and Risers


 Wave and current move conductor relative to the platform
 Conductor guide gaps limit relative movement
 Wave motion causes high cycle fatigue loading in piping
 Wellhead vertical growth low cycle fatigue loading in piping

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Typical Fatigue – Offshore Oil & Gas

 Bridge piping
 Platforms can move relative to each other
 Bridge pinned one end, sliding other
 Piping must absorb relative movement
 Variable amplitude high cycle fatigue
 Thermal expansion low cycle fatigue

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Typical Fatigue – Offshore Oil & Gas

 FPSO’s
 Ship hull motion and acceleration causes high cycle fatigue loading in
piping
 Many permutations of the different motions and accelerations
 Variable amplitude high cycle fatigue
 Thermal expansion low cycle fatigue

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Fatigue approach using pressure
vessel code

 This discussion is limited to static analysis only, not dynamic


analysis
 Identify fatigue loadings on piping.
 Thermal
 Pressure
 Wave loading
 Movements
 Accelerations
 FPSO cargo loading/unloading
 Operational / Transport
 Identify cycles for each load.
 Wave induced loading may be defined for a design condition with
the majority of cycles at a significantly less load

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Fatigue approach using pressure
vessel code

 Build CAESAR II model including fatigue loadings


 Build load cases in CAESAR II to reflect loads
 Decide which pressure vessel code to use to evaluate fatigue
 Select fatigue curve for welded system
 Design Fatigue Factor
 Factor of safety for uncertainties in fatigue analysis
 Some operating companies specify
 EN13445 requires inspection at 20% of fatigue life, DFF 5.0
 DNV offshore structural code has requirements that are sometimes
used

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Pressure vessel codes

 EN13445 Unfired pressure vessels - Part 3: Design


 EN13445 uses equivalent stress range ( 2 x shear stress )
 Load cases in CAESAR II must be the stress range

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CAESAR II fatigue load case

 Fatigue load (FAT) cases in CAESAR II calculate the “Stress


Intensity”
 CAESAR II Config file, “SIFs and Stresses”
 Max 3D Shear – Tresca
 VonMises – Maximum distortion energy theory
 Removes corrosion allowance to calculate stresses
 Refer to CAESAR II users guide stress formulation.

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CAESAR II fatigue load case

 Refer to CAESAR II users guide stress formulation.

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EN13445

 18.10.1.2 Classification of weld details to be assessed using


equivalent stress range - Table 18-4.

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EN13445

 Classification of weld
details for supports

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EN13445

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EN13445

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EN13445

 Correction factors
 Deviations from design shape (Ovality, weld misalignment)
 Material thickness (typically > 25 mm)
 Temperature
 Corrosion
 NDT
 Elastic / plastic behaviour

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EN13445

 Simplified counting method

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EN13445

 Simplified counting method

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EN13445

 Simplified counting method

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Cumulative Fatigue Damage

 ASME B31.3 and vessel codes evaluate cumulative damage in the


same way
 Each Di = ni/Ni is the damage from a fatigue load
Where; n = number of applied cycles
N = allowed cycles at a given stress

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Fatigue Evaluation Example

Example – typical bridge piping connecting two offshore platforms


 Identify loads
 Build CAESAR II model
 Build load cases to calculate fatigue stress ranges
 Constant amplitude – Thermal, Pressure
 Variable amplitude – platform movements due to waves.
 Use relationship between stress and loading
 Assume to be linear in this example.
 Consider nonlinear affects in CAESAR II model
 Elastic - plastic check
 Cumulative fatigue damage

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Bridge Piping Example

 Loadings
 Thermal expansion; -10° to 100°C, 1560 cycles
 Relative platform movement; 100 year return period storm, movements
in various directions

 Wave induced loading simplified in this example


 Pressure vessel code ; EN13445
 Design Fatigue Factor 3.0 as the piping is difficult to inspect

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Bridge Piping Example

CAESAR II model
 Temperature T3 -10°, T2 100°C
 Displacements D1 North/South ±350mm, D2 East/West ±700mm
 Apply displacements to support CNodes
 Consider nonlinear aspects of model, include friction, exclude
guide gaps

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Bridge Piping Example

CAESAR II model

North

Fixed point
in model

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Bridge Piping Example

 CAESAR II fatigue allowable stress


 Fatigue data to include correct factors

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Bridge Piping Example

CAESAR II load cases


 Load case for full fatigue stress range
 D1 & D2 are half the displacement stress range from movements

1 (OPE) W+T1+P1 - Operating temp


2 (OPE) W+T2+P1 - Max design temp
3 (OPE) W+T3 - Min design temp

4 (OPE) W+D1+T1+P1
5 (OPE) W-D1+T1+P1
6 (OPE) W+D2+T1+P1
7 (OPE) W-D2+T1+P1

8 (SUS) W+P1
9 (EXP) L9=L2-L3

10 (FAT) L10=L2-L3 (1560 cycles)


11 (FAT) L11=L4-L5 (3.28E7 cycles)
12 (FAT) L12=L6-L7 (1.12E8 cycles)

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CAESAR II output reports

 Single fatigue load case

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CAESAR II output reports

 Cumulative damage report

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Bridge Piping Example

 Fatigue assessment including wave height distribution


 Start with assumption that max stress in all fatigue load cases are at
same location for all fatigue loads.

 The following example is simplified

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Bridge Piping Example

CAESAR II results

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Bridge Piping Example

 Elastic - Plastic check


 ASME B31.3 displacement stress range check
 EN13445

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Summary

 ASME B31.3 has limitations for high cycle fatigue analysis


 Define fatigue loadings and associated cycles
 Select fatigue approach / code
 Select fatigue curve for piping butt weld
 Apply fatigue curve correction factors
 Use CAESAR II to calculate stresses required
 Evaluate cumulative damage
 Document, method, assumptions and results

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Fatigue Analysis in ASME B31.3 Piping

Thank You

Nigel Marsh
Chief Pipe Stress Analysis Engineer
Worley Parsons Australia

© Intergraph 2014