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Pengolahan Minyak Bumi

Nelson Saksono & Yuliusman

Ref :
1. Speight, James G. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 2nd edition. Marcel
Dekker Inc. New York. 1991.

2. James H . Gary. “ Petroleum Refining, Technology and Economic”, Marcel Dekker,Inc,


New York, 1975
World Proven Reserves of Crude Oil

20.6 65.4
63.7 44.0
675.7
74.9
89.5

Billion barrels
World Proven Crude Oil Reserves

South & Central


North America
America
6%
9%
Europe
2%
Africa
7%
Middle East Former Soviet Union
66% 6%
Asia & Pacific
4%

as percent of 1296 billion barrel total


Composition of Crude Oil

CRUDE OIL

HYDROCARBONS NON-HYDROCARBONS

ALIPHATICS AROMATICS NAPHTHENES SULFURS NITROGENS OXYGENS METALLICS


25% 17% 50% <8% <1% <3% <100PPM

C1 - C60 (C6H5)n O
CYCLOALKANES
SH

N
H COOH
S
Crude Oil Classification

PETROLEUM
Saturates Asphaltics
n-alkanes C5 - C44 nitrogen
branched alkanes
Aromatics oxygen containing compounds
cycloalkanes (napthenes) single ring sulfur
condensed ring

Ot he r
10% S a t ur a t e s
A spha l t i c s
25%
8%

A r om a t i c s
7%

API Gravity = 35o


N a pht he ne s
50%
The Uses of Crude Oil
Uses of Crude Oil

Uses of Crude Oil

Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil


Kerosene Jet Fuel Residual Fuel Oil
Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil
Liquefied Refinery Gases Still Gas
Kerosene Jet Fuel Residual Fuel Oil
Coke Asphalt and Road Oil
Liquefied Refinery Gases Still Gas
Coke PETROCHEM ICAL FEEDSTOCKS Lubricants
Asphalt and Road Oil
Kerosene
PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS Other
Lubricants
Kerosene Other
The Xylenes

CH3 CH3 CH3


CH3

CH3
CH3
ortho meta para
Boiling Point 144oC 139.3oC 137-138oC
Melting Point -25oC -47.4oC 13-14oC
CRUDE Petroleum delivered from well field

DESALTING Water washing to remove impurities

Distillation to separate by boiling point


REFINING
ranges

REFORMING Conversion reactions to alter


molecular structures

Mixing to obtain maximum commercial


BLENDING
characteristics
Petroleum Refining
C1-C4
GAS bp < 50 oF

C5 - C?
T LIGHT NAPHTHA
bp 50-200oF

O HEAVY NAPHTHA
C? - C12
bp 200-400oF
W
C12 - C16
E KEROSENE
bp 400-500oF
CRUDE DESALTER FURNACE
R ATM. GAS OIL C15 - C18
bp 500-650oC

> C20
RESIDUUM
bp >650oF

Distillation – separation by boiling point


Petroleum Reforming
GAS FUEL GAS

T LIGHT NAPHTHA TREATER


GASOLINE
O HEAVY NAPHTHA HYDROTREATER REFORMER AROMATIC

W EXTRACTION
AROMATICS
E KEROSENE HYDROTREATER
JET FUELS/KEROSENE

R ATM. GAS OIL HYDROTREATER CATALYTIC


CRACKER DIESEL & FUEL OILS

RESIDUUM
CATALYTIC
VACUUM GAS OIL CRACKER
Vacuum LUBRICATING OIL
Distillation
ASPHALT

COKER COKE
Conversion Reactions
THERMAL
C7H15.C15H30.C7H15 C7H16 + C7H14 + C15H30
CRACK gasoline gasoline additive recycle

CATALYTIC

ALKYLATION CH3CH2CH3 CH2 CH CH2 CH3 CH3CH2CH2 CH2CH2CH2CH3

COMBINE
82% 18%

CH3 H CH3
POLYMERIZATION H3C C CH2 H3C C CH2 H3C C CH2 C CH2 H3C C CH C
CH3

CH3 CH3
CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

REFORMIING Dehydrogenation
Dehydroisomerization
REARRANGE
Isomerization
ISOMERIZATION Dehydrocyclization
Hydrocracking
Catalytic Reforming – Conversion Reactions
Dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to aromatics

CH3 CH3

3H2

Dehydroisomerization of cyclopentanes to aromatics

CH3

3H2

Isomerization of alkanes

CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 H3C CH CH2 CH3

Dehdrocyclization of alkanes
CH3

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 4 H2

Hydrocracking of alkanes

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3