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RELATIONAL DATABASES AND ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS By: Meschell P. Vergara

RELATIONAL DATABASES

AND ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS
AND ENTERPRISE
SYSTEMS

By: Meschell P. Vergara

 
DATABASE
DATABASE

A database is a collection of related data for various uses.

Used to maintain

information about

various types of objects (inventory), events (sales), people(customer) and places (retail store).

DATABASE 3 types of Data Models a) Hierarchical data model- organized data into tree- like structure
DATABASE
DATABASE

3 types of Data Models

DATABASE 3 types of Data Models a) Hierarchical data model- organized data into tree- like structure
  • a) Hierarchical data model- organized data into tree-

like structure that allows repeating information using

defined parent/child relationship. The mapping from parent

to child is (1:N), also known as one-to-many relationships.

  • b) Network Data Model- allows each record to have

multiple parent and child (M:N) also known as many-to-

many relationships.

  • c) Relational Data Model

RELATIONAL DATA MODEL
RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

Is a data model that stores information in the form of related two-dimentional tables. It allows designers and users

to identify relationships at the time the database is created.

Are the dominant data model form in use today.

RELATIONAL DATA MODEL Is a data model that stores information in the form of related two-dimentional
 
RELATIONAL DATA MODEL
RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

Advantages:

RELATIONAL DATA MODEL Advantages: a) Flexibility and scalability- able to handle changes in business and informational

a) Flexibility and scalability- able to handle changes in business and informational requirement quickly and easily. SAP, Oracle, Microsoft use this model as their foundation.

b) Simplicity- easy to communicate to both database users and database developers.

c) Reduced Information redundancy- requires each data to be recorded in one place which helps keep the information updated because it only has to be updated

once in a database, which can help avoid data

inconsistency.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Is defined as a computer program that creates, modifies and queries the database. Specifically, it is designed to

manage a database’s storage and retrieval of information.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Is defined as a computer program that creates, modifies and queries the database.

Data Dictionary

Describes the data fields in each database record such as field description, field length, field type (e.g., alphanumeric,

numeric), etc.

Data Dictionary Describes the data fields in each database record such as field description, field length,

Data Administrator

The person responsible for the design, implementation,

repair and security of a firm’s database. Manages the

complete database of an organization.

Data Administrator The person responsible for the design, implementation, repair and security of a firm’s database.
Progress Checks organization:
Progress Checks
organization:
Progress Checks organization: Name at least 3 uses of Sales Database in an 1. Which products

Name at least 3 uses of Sales Database in an

  • 1. Which products are selling the best.

  • 2. Which products needs to advertise or which needs to lower the price of.

  • 3. How many of which product to order for tomorrow, next week, and next month from its suppliers.

Fundamentals of Relational Databases
Fundamentals of Relational
Databases
Fundamentals of Relational Databases Entities and Attributes: Class in the relational database model could be a

Entities and Attributes:

Class in the relational database model could be a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.

(Person- e.g., customers and employees) ( Event- e.g., cash receipt, sales, and purchases) (Thing- e.g., product) Attributes are characteristics, properties, or adjectives that describe each class. (Customer- e.g. Customer ID, Customer last name, first name and address) (Sales- e.g., Invoice No. Customer ID, Date and Product No.) (Product- e.g., Product No., Product Name and Product price)

Fundamentals of Relational Databases
Fundamentals of Relational
Databases
Fundamentals of Relational Databases Three Main Constructs: Table/Relation The primary construct, used for data storage with

Three Main Constructs:

Table/Relation The primary construct, used for data storage with rows and columns much like a spreadsheet. Each table in a database represents either a class or a relationship between classes. Tables need to be properly linked to make a relational database. Column The columns in a table are called fields that represent the attributes or characteristics of the class relationship. Rows The rows in a table are called records or tuples. The records represent all the specific data values that are associated with one instance.

Three Main Constructs:
Three Main Constructs:
CUSTOMER TABLE Customer ID Customer Last Name Customer First Name Customer Address 602-966-1238 Wagstaff Mark 168
CUSTOMER TABLE
Customer ID
Customer Last
Name
Customer First
Name
Customer
Address
602-966-1238
Wagstaff
Mark
168 Apple Rd.,
Rockville, MD 20952
602-252-7513
Waite
Seth
2500 Campanile Dr.,
NY 10001
 

SALES TABLE

 

Invoice No.

Customer ID

Date

Product No.

  • 13131 602-966-1238

 

10/17/13

1233

  • 13945 602-252-7513

 

12/28/13

1334

  • 11995 602-966-1238

 

2/21/14

1233

Fundamentals of Relational Databases
Fundamentals of Relational
Databases
Fundamentals of Relational Databases Keys and Relationships: Primary key is an attribute or combination of attributes

Keys and Relationships:

Primary key is an attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identify a specific row in a table.

Foreign key in the relational database model serves as an attribute in one table that is a primary key in another table. A

foreign key provides a logical relationship, or a link between two tables.

Fundamentals of Relational Databases Keys and Relationships: Primary key is an attribute or combination of attributes
CUSTOMER TABLE Customer ID Customer Last Name Customer First Name Customer Address 602-966-1238 Wagstaff Mark 168
CUSTOMER TABLE
Customer ID
Customer Last
Name
Customer First
Name
Customer
Address
602-966-1238
Wagstaff
Mark
168 Apple Rd.,
Rockville, MD 20952
602-252-7513
Waite
Seth
2500 Campanile Dr.,
NY 10001
Primary Key

Foreign Key

SALES TABLE

Invoice No.

Customer ID

Date

Product No.

  • 13131 602-966-1238

 

10/17/13

1233

  • 13945 602-252-7513

 

12/28/13

1334

  • 11995 602-966-1238

 

2/21/14

1233

SALES TABLE Invoice No. Customer ID Date Product No. 13131 602-966-1238 10/17/13 1233 13945 602-252-7513 12/28/13
SALES TABLE
Invoice No.
Customer ID
Date
Product No.
13131
602-966-1238
10/17/13
1233
13945
602-252-7513
12/28/13
1334
11995
602-251-7513
2/21/14
1233
Foreign Key
Primary Key
Primary Key

PRODUCT TABLE

Product No.

Product Name

Product Price

1233

Apple iPhone 5g

399

1334

Motorola Droid

299

1233

Apple iPhone 5g

399

Gizmos and Gadgets Sales Invoice Inv No. 13131

Gizmos and Gadgets Sales Invoice Inv No. 13131 To: Mark Wagstaff 168 Apple Rd., Rockville, MD

To: Mark Wagstaff 168 Apple Rd., Rockville, MD 20952

602-966-1238

June 17, 2014

Product No.

Description

Price

Amount

1233

Apple iPhone 5g

399.00

399.00

 

Total

399.00

Basic Requirements of Tables
Basic Requirements of Tables
Basic Requirements of Tables  The Entity Integrity Rule : the primary key of a table

The Entity Integrity Rule: the primary key of a table must have data values (cannot be null).

The Referential Integrity Rule: the data value for a foreign key must either be null or match one of the data values that already exist in the corresponding table.

Each attribute in a table must have a unique name.

Values of a specific attribute must be of the same type. Each attribute (column) of a record (row) must be single-valued. This requirement forces us to create a relationship table for each

many-to-many relationship.

All other non-key attributes in a table must describe a characteristic of the class (table) identified by the primary key.

Microsoft Access to Implement a Relational Database Microsoft access is a program in the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Access to Implement a
Relational Database
Microsoft access is a program
in the Microsoft Office Suite.
Access is a simple database

management system that can be used to run databases for

individuals and small firms.

The basic building block of a database is the table. It is linked by the foreign keys, forming an

interconnected network of

records that taken together are relational database.

Microsoft Access to Implement a Relational Database
Microsoft Access to
Implement a Relational
Database
Microsoft Access to Implement a Relational Database The Access system is composed of 7 objects that

The Access system is composed of 7 objects that are used to implement relational databases.

1.Tables are used to store data which consists of a series of rows (records) and columns (attributes) connected by relationships (links between tables).

2.Queries are a tool used to retrieve and display data derived from records stored within the database.

3.Forms are utilized by users to enter data into tables and view existing records.

4. Reports are used to integrate data from one or more queries and tables to provide
  • 4. Reports are used to integrate data from one or more queries and tables to provide useful information to decision makers.

  • 5. Pages, Web-based forms, allow data to be entered into the database in real time from outside of the database system.

  • 6. Macros are defined by users to automate processes like opening a specific form.

  • 7. Access’s code can be altered by the use of modules.

DATA MODEL FOR SALES PROCESS (1 .. *) (0 .. 1) (0 *) .. (1 1)
DATA MODEL FOR SALES PROCESS
(1
..
*)
(0
..
1)
(0 *) ..
(1 1)
..
(1 *) ..
(1 1)
..
(1 1)
..
(1 1)
..
(1 *) ..
(1 1)
..
(0 *) ..
(1 *) ..
(0 *) ..
(1 1)
..

SALES EVENT

(1 .. *) (0 .. 1) (0 *) .. (1 1) .. (1 *) ..
(1
..
*)
(0
..
1)
(0 *) ..
(1 1)
..
(1 *) ..
(1 1) ..
(1 1)
..
SALES EVENT (1 .. *) (0 .. 1) (0 *) .. (1 1) .. (1 *)

CASH RECEIPT EVENT

(1 1) .. (1 *) .. (1 1) .. (0 *) .. (0 *) .. (1
(1 1)
..
(1 *) ..
(1 1)
..
(0 *) ..
(0 *) ..
(1 1)
..

SALES AND CASH RECEIPT EVENT

SALES AND CASH RECEIPT EVENT (1 1) .. (1 *) ..
(1 1) .. (1 *) ..

(1 1)

..

(1 *) ..

(1 1) .. (1 *) ..
 

Assume the following to implement a simple database

using Access.

Customer a)Customer Number b)Customer Zip c)Customer First Name d)Customer Last Name e)Customer Address f)Customer City g)Customer email

Assume the following to implement a simple database using Access. Customer a) Customer Number b) Customer

Cashier a)Cashier Number b)Cashier First Name c)Cashier Last Name d)Cashier SSN

Sales Person a)Salesperson Number b)Salesperson First Name c)Salesperson Last Name d)Salesperson SSN

Sales a)Sale Number b)Sale Date c)Sale Amount d)Payment type e)Customer Number f)Salesperson Number

Assume the following to implement a simple database

using Access.

Assume the following to implement a simple database using Access. Cash Receipt a) Receipt Number b)

Cash Receipt a)Receipt Number b)Receipt Date c)Receipt Amount d)Customer Number e)Salesperson Number

Cash a)Account Number b)Bank Name c)Bank Address d)Bank Contact person e)Balance

Inventory a)Inventory Number b)Description c)Completion Date d)Cost e)Price f)Sale Number

Structured Query Language (SQL)
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Structured Query Language (SQL) SQL (usually pronounced "Sequel") stands for Structured Query Language and is a

SQL (usually pronounced "Sequel") stands for Structured Query Language and is a computer language designed to query data in a relational database.

Structured Query Language (SQL) SQL (usually pronounced "Sequel") stands for Structured Query Language and is a
Structured Query Language (SQL)  SQL is based on relational algebra and allows a user to
Structured Query Language (SQL)
SQL is based on relational algebra and allows a user to
query and update the database.
  • In a database, while queries allow the user to access, read and report on desired data, the responsibility of actually making physical changes to the relational database belongs to the Database Management System (DBMS).

Structured Query Language (SQL)  SQL is based on relational algebra and allows a user to
Structured Query Language (SQL)  The SELECT statement is used to begin a query.  The
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The SELECT statement is used to begin a query.
The SELECT statement tells the query which columns
(or attributes) of a table should be included in the
query

The FROM clause to the SELECT statement indicates the name of table(s) from which to retrieve data.

The WHERE clause states the criteria that must be met to be shown in the query result.

The GROUP BY operator is used with aggregate functions on the query results based on one or more

columns.

Example: FROM

Example: FROM Customer # Name A/R Amount SP# C-1 Bill 345 E-12 C-2 Mick 225 E-10

Customer #

Name

A/R Amount

SP#

C-1

Bill

345

E-12

C-2

Mick

225

E-10

C-3

Keith

718

E-10

C-4

Charlie

828

E-99

C-5

Ron

3,200

E-10

The result is:

 

Customer #

Name

SP#

 

C-1

Bill

E-12

C-2

Mick

E-10

C-3

Keith

E-10

C-4

Charlie

E-99

C-5

Ron

E-10

How is a query used to find

the salesperson for each

customer?

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT Customer#

FROM Customer;

Example: WHERE

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Custom

Cashier

Advice #

Account

er

Number

#

Numbe

r

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-3

72,000

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-1

E-39

RA-4

32,600

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-5

E-39

RA-5

1,699

BA-6

25-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: WHERE Remittance Amount Bank Date Custom Cashier Advice # Account er Number # Numbe r

How is a query used to retrieve information for Customer C-2 from the cash

receipt table?

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT* FROM WHERE Cash Receipt Customer Number
SELECT*
FROM
WHERE
Cash Receipt
Customer Number

=C-2

Asterisk (*) indicates all columns should be selected

The result is: Remittance Amount Bank Date Customer Cashier Advice # Account Number Number # RA-1

The result is:

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Customer

Cashier

Advice #

Account

Number

Number

#

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-4

1,699

BA-6

25-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: WHERE

Customer #

Name

A/R Amount

SP#

C-1

Bill

345

E-12

C-2

Mick

225

E-10

C-3

Keith

718

E-10

C-4

Charlie

828

E-99

C-5

Ron

3,200

E-10

The result is:

 

Customer #

Name

SP#

SP_Name

C-1

Bill

E-12

Pattie

C-2

Mick

E-10

Howard

C-3

Keith

E-10

Howard

C-4

Charlie

E-99

David

C-5

Ron

E-10

Howard

SP#

SP_Name

E-10

Howard

E-12

Pattie

E-34

Stephanie

E-99

David

Example: WHERE Customer # Name A/R Amount SP# C-1 Bill 345 E-12 C-2 Mick 225 E-10

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT Customer#,Name,SP#,SP_Name

FROM Customer, Salesperson

WHERE Customer.SP#=Salesperson.SP#

Example: GROUP BY Remittance Amount Bank Date Customer Cashier Advice # Account Number Number # RA-1
Example: GROUP BY
Remittance
Amount
Bank
Date
Customer
Cashier
Advice #
Account
Number
Number
#
RA-1
1,666
BA-6
25-JUL-2014
C-2
E-39
RA-2
10,000
BA-7
26-JUL-2014
C-2
E-39
RA-3
72,000
BA-7
15-AUG-2014
C-1
E-39
RA-4
32,600
BA-7
15-AUG-2014
C-5
E-39
RA-5
1,699
BA-6
25-AUG-2014
C-2
E-39

How to query for the total cash receipt from each customer?

Example: GROUP BY Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash Receipt

Example: GROUP BY

Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash Receipt GROUP BY Customer
Used the following SQL command:
SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount)
FROM
Cash Receipt
GROUP BY Customer Number :

The result is:

Customer Number

Amount

C-2

13,335

C-1

72,000

C-5

32,600

Structured Query Language (SQL)  The ORDER BY clause identifies which columns are used to sort
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The ORDER BY clause identifies which columns are
used to sort the resulting data. If there is no ORDER

BY clause, the order of rows returned by an SQL query will not be defined.

  • The INSERT INTO operator inserts data into a SQL table.

  • The UPDATE operator is for updating data in a SQL table.

  • The DELETE FROM operator deletes data from SQL table.

  • SELECT DISTINCT clause selects a column without showing repetitive values.

Example: ORDER BY Used the following SQL command: SELECT * FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Customer Number

Example: ORDER BY

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT * FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Customer Number ORDER BY Amount ASC:
SELECT *
FROM
Cash Receipt
WHERE
Customer Number
ORDER BY Amount ASC:

=‘C-2’

How to query the amount of cash receipt in ascending amount (ASC)?

The result is:

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Customer

Cashier

Advice #

Account

Number

Number

#

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-5

1,669

BA-6

25-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: INSERT INTO Used the following SQL command: INSERT INTO Cash Receipt VALUES ( RA- 6’

Example: INSERT INTO

Used the following SQL command:

INSERT INTO Cash Receipt VALUES ( RA-6’ , 5000, ‘BA-7’ , ’28-AUG-2014’, ‘C-2’, ‘E-39’);

The result is:

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Customer

Cashier

Advice #

Account #

Number

Number

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-3

72,000

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-1

E-39

RA-4

32,600

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-5

E-39

RA-5

1,699

BA-6

25-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-6

5,000

BA-7

28-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: UPDATE Used the following SQL command: UPDATE Cash Receipt SET AMOUNT= 6000 WHERE Remittance Advice#

Example: UPDATE

Used the following SQL command:

UPDATE

Cash Receipt

SET AMOUNT= 6000

WHERE

Remittance Advice#

=‘RA-6’;

The result is:

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Customer

Cashier

Advice #

Account #

Number

Number

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-3

72,000

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-1

E-39

RA-4

32,600

BA-7

15-AUG-2014

C-5

E-39

RA-5

1,699

BA-6

25-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-6

6,000

BA-7

28-AUG-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: DELETE FROM

Example: DELETE FROM Used the following SQL command: DELETE FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Remittance Advice# =‘RA-6’;
Used the following SQL command: DELETE FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Remittance Advice# =‘RA-6’;
Used the following SQL command:
DELETE FROM
Cash Receipt
WHERE
Remittance Advice#
=‘RA-6’;

Example: SELECT DISTINCT

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT DISTINCT Customer Number

FROM

Example: DELETE FROM Used the following SQL command: DELETE FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Remittance Advice# =‘RA-6’;

Cash Receipt

The result is:

Customer

Number

C-2

C-1

C-5

Structured Query Language (SQL)  The BETWEEN operator can be used to specify the end points
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The BETWEEN operator can be used to specify the
end points of a range.
  • Membership Operator (IN) allows you to test whether a data value matches the specified target values.

Example: BETWEEN Used the following SQL command: SELECT * FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Date BETWEEN ’01

Example: BETWEEN

Used the following SQL command:

SELECT *

 

FROM

Cash Receipt

WHERE Date BETWEEN ’01-JULY-2014’ AND ‘31-JULY-2014’;

The result is:

Remittance

Amount

Bank

Date

Customer

Cashier

Advice #

Account #

Number

Number

RA-1

1,666

BA-6

25-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

RA-2

10,000

BA-7

26-JUL-2014

C-2

E-39

Example: MEMBERSHIP OPERATOR (IN) Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash

Example: MEMBERSHIP OPERATOR (IN)

Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Customer Number
Used the following SQL command:
SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount)
FROM
Cash Receipt
WHERE Customer Number IN (‘C-1’, ‘C-2’)
GROUP BY
Customer Number

The result is:

Customer

Amount

Number

C-1

72,000

C-2

13,335

How to query the total cash receipt

amount from customer C-1 and C-2?

Structured Query Language (SQL  SQL language provides several convenient aggregate
Structured Query Language (SQL
SQL language provides several convenient aggregate
Structured Query Language (SQL  SQL language provides several convenient aggregate functions to be used in

functions to be used in SQL commands. These aggregate

functions include AVG, SUM, MAX, MIN, and COUNT. Their definitions are as follows:

  • AVG(X): gives the average of column X.

  • SUM(X): gives the summation of all rows the selection criteria for column X.

  • MAX(X): gives the maximum value of column X.

  • MIN(X): gives the minimum value of column X.

  • COUNT(X): gives the number of rows that satisfy the given condition.

Example: MEMBERSHIP OPERATOR (IN) Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash

Example: MEMBERSHIP OPERATOR (IN)

Used the following SQL command: SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount) FROM Cash Receipt WHERE Customer Number
Used the following SQL command:
SELECT Customer Number , SUM(Amount)
FROM
Cash Receipt
WHERE Customer Number IN (‘C-1’, ‘C-2’)
GROUP BY
Customer Number

The result is:

Customer

Amount

Number

C-2

72,000

C-2

13,335

Six relational operators in SQL RELATIONAL OPERATORS MEANING 1. = 2. != or < > 3.
Six relational operators in SQL
RELATIONAL OPERATORS
MEANING
1.
=
2.
!= or < >
3.
<
4.
<=
5.
>
6.
>=
Equal
Not equal
Less than
Less than or equal to
Greater than
Greater than or equal to
Enterprise Systems  Enterprise systems (ES), also known as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, are commercialized
Enterprise Systems
Enterprise systems
(ES), also known as
Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) systems,
are commercialized
information systems that
integrate and automate
business processes
across a firm’s value
chain located within and
across organizations.
Enterprise Systems 
Enterprise Systems
Enterprise Systems  An enterprise system uses relational data model as a basis for the information

An enterprise system uses relational data model as a basis for the information system. The use of primary and

foreign keys links the hundreds of tables that form the basis for the enterprise system.

ES accommodates the integration and support of the various

business processes and information needs of a company.

ES has a higher level of internal transparency compared to the typically isolated legacy systems.

Enterprise Systems  The purported informational benefits of an enterprise system include enhanced completeness, transparency, and
Enterprise Systems
The purported informational benefits of an enterprise
system include enhanced completeness, transparency,
and timeliness of information needed to manage
effectively an organization’s business activities.
The enterprise system serves as the backbone of the

company’s internal business processes and serves as a

connection with the external business processes for

supply chain and customer relationship management systems.

Enterprise Systems  The purported informational benefits of an enterprise system include enhanced completeness, transparency, and

Challenges of

Enterprise System Implementation
Enterprise System
Implementation
Challenges of Enterprise System Implementation 1. integrating various modules within the enterprise system. 2. integrating with
Challenges of Enterprise System Implementation 1. integrating various modules within the enterprise system. 2. integrating with
  • 1. integrating various modules within the enterprise system.

  • 2. integrating with external systems such as the information system of a supplier and/or customer.

  • 3. integrating with the firm’s own existing legacy systems.

  • 4. converting data from existing legacy systems to the enterprise system, and

  • 5. getting any big project implemented at a firm.

Enterprise Systems Computing in a Cloud  Cloud is a set of different types of hardware
Enterprise Systems Computing in a
Cloud
Cloud is a set of different types of hardware and
software that work collectively to deliver many aspects

of computing to the end-users as an online service.

  • Cloud computing is the use of hardware and software to deliver a service over a network (internet).e.g., online banking services, social services, Google’s Gmail

Enterprise Systems Computing in a Cloud  Cloud is a set of different types of hardware
Exercises: 1. a) b) c) d) 2. a) b) Low Cost c) d) Most reliable 3.
Exercises:
1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
2.
a)
b)
Low Cost
c)
d)
Most reliable
3.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Exercises: 1. a) b) c) d) 2. a) b) Low Cost c) d) Most reliable 3.

1:1 (one-to-one)

The hierarchical data model, the mapping from parent to child is

1:N (one-to-many)

N:N (many-to-many)

N:1 (many-to-one)

Advantages of relational data model generally include:

Flexibility and Scalability

Ease of Implementation

A class in a relational database model is defined as

The sum of a whole

Characteristics or properties of a table

Person, place, thing, transaction or event about which info is stored

Being or existence especially when considered as distinct, independent, or self-contained

  • 4. Which statement about enterprise system is correct?

4. Which statement about enterprise system is correct? a) Most of the enterprise systems are designed
  • a) Most of the enterprise systems are designed mainly for accounting and finance functions.

  • b) SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft all offer products for enterprise system

  • c) Most enterprise systems are designed for the service industry

  • d) Small companies do not use enterprise systems at all

  • 5. Refer to figure 4.2 if Steve’s Stylin Sunglasses accepts installments without

requiring a down payment, the multiplicities between Sales and Cash Receipts should be charged to

*)

  • a) Cash Receipts

Sales (0

..

1)-

(1

..

*)

  • b) Cash Receipts

Sales (1

..

1)-

(0

..

  • c) Cash Receipts

Sales (1

..

1)-

(1

..

1)

*)-

  • d) Cash Receipts

Sales (0

..

(1

..

1)

  • 6. The FROM clause to the select statement used in SQL indicates:

    • a) The name of the tables from which to retrieve data

    • b) The name of the columns from which to retrieve data

    • c) The name of the database from which to retrieve data

    • d) The name of the query from which to retrieve data

7.

The WHERE clause to the SELECT table used in SQL states the criteria

7. The WHERE clause to the SELECT table used in SQL states the criteria that must

that must be met

  • a) To run a query

  • b) To be included as an attribute in the table

  • c) To be included in the database

  • d) To be shown in the query result

  • 8. The ORDER BY amount ASC clause to the SELECT statement used in SQL suggests that the:

    • a) Amount of the query result will be listed in ascending order

    • b) Amount of the query result will be listed in descending order

    • c) The data attribute ASC be shown in order

    • d) None of the above

  • 9. SAP modules available for implementation include:

    • a) Payroll, Personnel Time Management and Enterprise Management

    • b) Payroll, Financial Accounting and Enterprise Management

    • c) Financial Accounting, Payroll, Sales and Distribution

    • d) Sales and Distribution, Financial Accounting and Procurement

  • 10. Cloud computing a) Takes energy from the sun and clouds b) Is internet based computing

    10. Cloud computing

    • a) Takes energy from the sun and clouds

    • b) Is internet based computing where shared resources, software and information are provided to firms on demand

    • c) Requires firm to make an extensive investment in hardware and software to meet firm needs

    • d) Can meet computing needs today but is not expected to meet tomorrow’s computing needs

    Answers:

    1.

    B

    • 2. A

    • 3. C

    • 4. B

    • 5. D

    Answers:

    • 6. A

    • 7. D

    • 8. A

    • 9. C

    10.

    B