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SCOPE OF

PRESENTATION
• Foundation Engineering
• Piles Classifications
• Pile Driving System
• Pile Driving Process
• Pile Driving Inspector
• Pile Testing
• Pile Acceptance
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

LCDR LAMOSTE PN

Lesson 1
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING is a
branch of GEOTECHNICAL ENGG
which deals with the study, design
& construction of the elements
that transfer the weight of the
structure to the underlying rock or
soil.

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
FOUNDATION is the element of a
structure that serves to
support the loads super-imposed
to it through the
transmitting elements (such as
columns).

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Lotus
Riverside
Collapse
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
LEANING TOWER OF PIZZA

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
THE SCHOHARIE CREEK
BRIDGE DISASTER

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
FOUNDATION can be classified
under two groups:

 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
 DEEP FOUNDATIONS

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Shallow Foundations
This type of foundation usually refers
to those being rested on stratum
with adequate bearing
capacity and laid less
than 3m below
ground
level.
firm
ground

10 bed rock

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Deep Foundations A deep foundation
is a foundation unit
that provides
support for a
structure by toe
resistance in a
P
I
competent soil or
L rock at some depth
E
below the structure,
weak soil
and/or by shaft
resistance in the
soil or rock in which
bed rock
11 it is placed.

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
TYPES OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
 Spread (isolated) footings: supporting a
concentrated load, such as a loading delivered by
a column.
 Strip (wall) footings: supporting a line load, such as
a loading delivered by a bearing wall.
 Grade beams: supporting a repetitive series of
concentrated loads, such as a loading delivered by
a line of several columns.
 Slabs, rafts, and mats.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Shallow foundations

Spread (isolated) footings Strip (wall) footings

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Shallow foundations

Grade Beam or Tie Beam

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Shallow foundations

Raft or Mat
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
TYPES OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS
 Driven Piles: A Driven Pile is a deep foundation
that is constructed by driving a concrete, steel
or timber pile to support the anticipated loads in
competent subsurface material.
 Drilled Shafts: A Drilled Shaft is a deep
foundation that is constructed by placing fluid
concrete in a drilled hole.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS
DRIVEN PILES

Piles derive their support from a


combination of skin friction along the
embedded lengths and end bearing at
the tips or bottoms. DEEP FOUNDATIONS
DRILLED SHAFT

CAISSON

Forming a cofferdam down to bedrock and construct a


raft foundation without using piles
DEEP FOUNDATIONS
DRILLED SHAFT
Placing
reinforcement &
concreting to
bored pile

DEEP FOUNDATIONS
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS

LCDR LAMOSTE PN
Lesson 2
Classifications of Piles
• With respect to Material
• With respect to Load Transition
• With respect to Purpose & Use
• With respect to Effect on the Soil

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Timber

Timber piles are made from the trunks of trees. Such piles are
available in most sections of the country and the world.
Ordinary lengths are 15 to 45 ft.
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Timber
Timber piles should be treated per AWPA C3 when cut-off
elevation is above groundwater elevation. Untreated timber piles
are acceptable only when the entire pile length will be
permanently below the water table.

If the piles are treated, then the Inspector should


check treatment certificates. Treatment is typically
eigther:
 Waterborne
 Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate (ACZA)
 Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
 Creosoted
PILES
REFERENCE: INSPECTORS MANUAL FOR DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Steel

Load-bearing steel piles can be H-


sections, hollow box or tubular
sections, or pipes.
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Steel
For H-sections piles, orientation of the section must be as
shown on the plan, since the pile is stronger in one direction
than the other.

Pipe piles when filled with concrete, are treated


as Cast-in-place concrete piles. When left
unconcreted, it is designed as steel pile.

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Concrete

Concrete piles may be either precast


or cast-in-place.
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES
WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL
Composite
Combination of different
materials in the same of pile.
As indicated earlier, part of
a timber pile which is
installed above ground water
could be vulnerable to insect
attack and decay. To avoid
this, concrete or steel pile is
used above the ground
water level, whilst wood pile
is installed under the ground
water level.
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO LOAD TRANSMISSION
Friction Piles
A pile embedded in soil
with no pronounced
bearing stratum at the
tip is a friction pile.

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO LOAD TRANSMISSION
End-Bearing Piles

A pile driven through


relatively weak or
compressible soils into
rock or an underlying
stronger material is an
end-bearing pile

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Piers
piles used to support a horizontal supporting
span such as a bridge or archway

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PILES W/ RESPECT
TO PURPOSE & USE
Piers

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Sheet Piles
Sheet piles are generally
prefabricated or precast
members driven vertically into
the ground to form a
continuous vertical wall.
Sheet piles protect bearing
piles against scour and the
danger of undermining a pier
foundation. They form
retaining walls (bulkheads) for
waterfront structures
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PILES W/ RESPECT
TO PURPOSE & USE
Sheet Piles

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Batter Piles

Piles driven at an angle are


batter piles. They are used to
resist heavy lateral or inclined
loads or where the foundation
material immediately beneath
the structure offers little or
no resistance to the lateral
movement of vertical piles.

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PILES W/ RESPECT
TO PURPOSE & USE
Batter Piles

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Anchor Piles
Anchor piles are driven to
resist tension loads. In
hydraulic structures, there
may be a hydrostatic uplift
load that is greater than the
downward load on the
structure. Anchor piles may be
used to anchor bulkheads,
retaining walls, and guy wires.

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Fender Piles
Fender piles. Fender piles are
driven to protect piers, docks,
and bridges from the wear
and shock of approaching
ships and floating objects
such as ice and debris

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PILES W/ RESPECT
TO PURPOSE & USE
Fender Piles

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO PURPOSE & USE
Dolphins

A dolphin is a group of piles


driven in clusters to aid in
manoeuvring ships in docking
operations. These dolphins
serve the same protective
functions as fender piles

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
PILES W/ RESPECT
TO PURPOSE & USE
Dolphins

PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
TYPES OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO EFFECT
ON SOIL
Displacement Piles
displacement (generally driven) pile, soil is
displaced radially as the pile shaft
penetrates the ground. There may also be
a component of movement of the soil in
the vertical direction. Granular soils tend
to become compacted by the displacement
process, and clay soils may heave, with
little immediate volume change as the clay
is displaced.
PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
TYPES OF PILES WITH
RESPECT TO EFFECT
ON SOIL
Non-displacement Piles
In the non-displacement (generally
bored) pile, lateral stresses in the ground
are reduced during excavation and only
partly reinstated by concreting. Problems
resulting from soil displacement are
therefore eliminated, but the benefit of
compaction in granular soils is lost and in
all soils spoil is produced which may be
costly to remove from a site, especially if
it is contaminated. PILES
CLASSIFICATIONS
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM

LCDR LAMOSTE PN
Lesson 3
TYPICAL PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
The goal of this topic is to
familiarize you with the
various parts of the Pile
Driving System. It is
important that you know
and recognize the various
components as in many
cases it is part of your
responsibility to verify
that the proper equipment
is on site, operates
properly or is not
damaged.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
HAMMERS

Variable subsurface conditions can dictate the


use of different pile hammers. The function of a
pile hammer is to furnish the energy required to
drive a pile.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
TYPES OF HAMMERS
1. Drop Hammers
2. Diesel Hammers
3. Air / Steam Hammers
4. Hydraulic Hammers
5. Vibratory Hammers

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


DROP HAMMERS
A drop hammer is a
heavy metal weight that
is lifted by a hoist line,
then released and
allowed to fall onto the
top of the pile. Because
of the high dynamic
forces, a pile cap is
positioned between the
hammer and the pile
head.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
DROP HAMMERS

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


DEISEL HAMMERS
A diesel pile-driving hammer is
a self-contained driving unit
that does not require an
external source of energy such
as an air compressor or steam
boiler.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


DEISEL HAMMERS
(OPEN END)
The term "open end" comes from the top
of the hammer being open, therefore you
can actually observe the ram going up and
coming down as it delivers the blow.
These are impact hammers and the
recording of blow counts is the general
method of inspection.

Fuel is introduced into the cylinder, the


ram drops (gravity) setting off an
explosion, which thrusts the ram up and
the process is repeated over and over.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


PARTS OF THE OPEN END DEISEL HAMMER

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


DEISEL HAMMERS
(CLOSED END)
These impact hammers operate
differently from the open end in
that the top is enclosed and the
pressure build up in the bounce
pressure chamber literally
throws the ram back down.

These are losing popularity due to their low


efficiency rating and the difficulties in
spotting operation problems.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


AIR/STREAM
HAMMERS
Air hammers are the second most
common hammers used. Steam
hammers have all but disappeared
from use. Both are impact hammers
and unlike the diesel hammers, much
cleaner while operating. However,
while cleaner than diesel, it requires
support equipment, such as a
compressor to produce the air
pressure. They are comparatively
much heavier than the diesel
hammers

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


HYDRAULIC
HAMMERS
The hydraulic hammers are probably
the third most common used and
are impact hammers. The hammer
energy on these can be controlled
with precise pressure settings. In
fact, rather than recording stroke
height during driving, the Inspector
records the pressure introduced on
pressure gauges, on the hydraulic
pump. The Inspector can also record
stroke height by marking increments
on the slide bar.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


VIBRATORY
HAMMERS
Unlike the other hammers,
these operate by vibrating
piling into the ground. There is
no requirement in the
specifications relating to the
inspection of these hammers.
However, these hammers are
typically used to install sheet
piles.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


VIBRATORY
HAMMERS Vibratory pile drivers are
especially effective when
the piles are driven into
water-saturated
noncohesive soils.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


CUSHIONS

Cushions are used to protect both the hammer and


the pile. Cushions that protect the hammer are called
CAPBLOCK cushions or hammer cushions. Cushions
used to protect the pile are called pile cushions.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
HAMMER CUSHIONS
CAPBLOCK
Hammer cushions are constructed
of man-made materials that are
heat resistant, durable and absorb a
certain amount of shock. Common
types of materials are aluminum,
micarta and polymer which are in
the form of disks. Aluminum is
usually 1/2 inch thick. Micarta is
usually 1 inch thick and are used in
sandwich form. Polymer is typically
used alone. Another less common
Hammer
hammer cushion material is
cushion set in
Hamortex pile cap.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


HAMMER CUSHIONS
CAPBLOCK
Hammer cushions are located
between the point of the ram or
anvil and the pile cap.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


PILE CUSHIONS
Pile cushions are
placed between the
pile top and the pile
cap on concrete piles.
Pile cushions are not
used on steel piles or
timber piles. Pile
cushions consist of
plywood. Pile cushions
are generally replaced
for each pile or as
directed by the Pile cushions are located between the
Engineer. top of the pile and the bottom of the
pile cap.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
LEADS
Leads are used to
align the pile and
hammer during
driving. There are
numerous different
lead designs and box
leads have been the
most common in the
past. Lead systems
include three main
types: swinging, semi-
fixed, and fixed leads.
Think of a roller
The roller coaster is the hammer assembly and the
coaster. tracks are the leads.

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


LEADS
The leads are suspended
from the boom by the cable
and are not attached to the
boom.

A template is
required when
swinging leads are
used to maintain
the pile in proper
position and
alignment.

Swinging Leads PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


LEADS
If the leads are attached to
the boom at the top, then
they are not attached at
the bottom. If they are
attached at the bottom,
then they are not attached
at the top.
A template is required
when semi-fixed leads are
used to maintain the
hammer and pile in
proper position and
alignment.

Semi Fixed Leads PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


LEADS
The leads are attached at
the top of the boom and to
the crane at the bottom
with a brace.

A template is not
required when fixed
leads are used to
maintain the hammer
and pile in proper
position and
alignment.

Fixed Leads PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


TEMPLATES
Templates are required
when driving piles with
swinging leads or with
semi-fixed leads. The
templates are to be fixed
in place and rigid enough
to support the pile. Flimsy
wood templates are not
considered adequate. Do
not use floating templates
(attached to a barge).
This template, constructed of 2"x4" lumber, is
obviously not fixed in place or rigid enough to
support a pile, therefore it would not be acceptable

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


TEMPLATES

PILE DRIVING SYSTEM


Templates attached to a Notice how this template is
floating barge are also not made with H beams and is
acceptable. fixed and very sturdy.
CRANES
The crane must be large enough
to handle the leads, hammer and
the pile. Cranes are usually rated
based on their lifting capacity. For
example, for a small pile driving
job, a 50 to 100 ton crane is
commonly used. Larger jobs and
over water jobs usually use
heavier capacity cranes up to 250
tons or more.

It is not the responsibility of the Inspector to


inspect the crane. The crane and leads
should be the ones indicated in the Pile
Installation Plan submitted by the Contractor.
PILE DRIVING SYSTEM
PILE DRIVING
PROCESS

Lesson 4 LCDR LAMOSTE PN


THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST GEOTECHNICAL
ENGINEERING
DESIGN OF PILE. CONSULTANT
SUBMISSION OF PILE
INSTALLATION PLAN  Standard Penetration Test
(SPT)
TEST PILE  Cone Penetration Test

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA 1. To determine soil


/ AUTHORIZED PILE characteristics.
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED 2. It will be the basis for the
design of Piles.
DRIVING OF 3. Required by R.A. 9184.
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE
PILE DRIVING PROCESS
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST STRUCTURAL
DESIGNER
DESIGN OF PILE.
SUBMISSION OF PILE N Values from Boring Log
INSTALLATION PLAN
Initial Length of Pile.
TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA a


/ AUTHORIZED PILE 10
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED L
30
b
DRIVING OF 40
PRODUCTION PILES
50
ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST STRUCTURAL
DESIGNER
DESIGN OF PILE.
SUBMISSION OF PILE STAAD
INSTALLATION PLAN
Reinforcement
TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


/ AUTHORIZED PILE 10
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED
30

DRIVING OF 40
PRODUCTION PILES
50
ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST CONTRACTOR

DESIGN OF PILE. BID DOCS or TOR


SUBMISSION OF PILE
INSTALLATION PLAN Recommended Pile Driving
Equipment
TEST PILE  Type of Hammer
 Wt. of Ram
PILE DRIVING CRITERIA  Stroke Height
/ AUTHORIZED PILE  Rated Energy of Hammer
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED  Efficiency
 Schedule/Sequence of Pile
DRIVING OF
Driving
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE
PILE DRIVING PROCESS
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST CONTRACTOR W/ END
USER INSPECTOR &
DESIGN OF PILE. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER
SUBMISSION OF PILE  Static Load Test
INSTALLATION PLAN  Dynamic Load Test
 Statnamic Test
TEST PILE
1. To determine efficiency of
PILE DRIVING CRITERIA
Pile Driving Equipment.
/ AUTHORIZED PILE
2. To determine drivability of
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED
Piles.
DRIVING OF 3. To determine final length
PRODUCTION PILES of Production Piles

ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST CONTRACTOR W/ END
USER INSPECTOR &
DESIGN OF PILE. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER
SUBMISSION OF PILE  Static Load Test
INSTALLATION PLAN  Dynamic Load Test
 Statnamic Test
TEST PILE
1. To determine efficiency of
PILE DRIVING CRITERIA
Pile Driving Equipment.
/ AUTHORIZED PILE
2. To determine drivability of
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED
Piles.
DRIVING OF 3. To determine final length
PRODUCTION PILES of Production Piles

ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER

DESIGN OF PILE. PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


 Practical Refusal
SUBMISSION OF PILE
 Required minimum
INSTALLATION PLAN
penetration
TEST PILE  Stroke Height vs Blow
Count
PILE DRIVING CRITERIA  Beginning Stroke Height
/ AUTHORIZED PILE  Max Stroke allowed
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED  Pile cushion data
 Hammer & hammer cushion
DRIVING OF data
PRODUCTION PILES  Auger & Jetting Data
ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER

DESIGN OF PILE. AUTHORIZED PILE LENGTH


 Project Data
SUBMISSION OF PILE
 Authorized Pile Length for
INSTALLATION PLAN
Production Pile
TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


/ AUTHORIZED PILE
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED

DRIVING OF
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER

DESIGN OF PILE. AUTHORIZED PILE LENGTH


 Project Data
SUBMISSION OF PILE
 Authorized Pile Length for
INSTALLATION PLAN
Production Pile
TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


/ AUTHORIZED PILE
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED

DRIVING OF
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST PILE DRIVING
INSPECTOR
DESIGN OF PILE.
Pile Driving Record
SUBMISSION OF PILE
INSTALLATION PLAN

TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


/ AUTHORIZED PILE
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED

DRIVING OF
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE PILE DRIVING PROCESS
THE PROCESS
SOIL BORING TEST

DESIGN OF PILE.
SUBMISSION OF PILE
INSTALLATION PLAN

TEST PILE

PILE DRIVING CRITERIA


/ AUTHORIZED PILE
LENGTH LETTER ISSUED

DRIVING OF
PRODUCTION PILES
ACCEPTANCE
PILE DRIVING PROCESS
THE PILE DRIVING
INSPECTOR

Lesson 5 PILE DRIVING PROCESS


FUNCTIONS OF A
PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR
 To know the specifications, both the State Standard
Specifications and the job Plans and Specifications.
 To record and document activity relative to the Plans
and Specifications. Be a “Recorder”
 Raise a red flag soon enough to make a difference if
work is performed outside of those specifications. Be a
“Reporter”
 Keep the Project Administrator informed. Call him/her
when judgment is needed to interpret a Specification.

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


FUNCTIONS OF A
PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


FUNCTIONS OF A
PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR
Be a “Recorder”
• Make accurate and unbiased observations
• Document events: complete & consistent
• Perform your duties promptly

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


FUNCTIONS OF A
PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR
Be a “Reporter”
• Complete reports & forms accurately
• Keep forms and diary up-to-date
• Keep Project Administrator informed

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


MINDSET OF A
PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR
 Remember who he represents
 Not delay or interfere with the
Contractor Unnecessarily
 Remember the Goal- Constructing a
project in accordance with the
approved documents

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


INSPECTORS TOOLS &
DOCUMENTS CHECKLIST

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


INSPECTOR’S TOOLS & DOCUMENTS CHECKLIST
Approved Job Information
Project Plans & Specification
w/ Revisions
Special Provisions & Technical
Special Provisions
Pile Installation Plan

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


Driving Criteria Letter
Authorized Pile Length Letter

References
Standard Specification
Pile Driving Inspection Checklist
Bearing Conversion Charts
Pile Inspector’s Qualification
Course Manual
INSPECTOR’S TOOLS & DOCUMENTS CHECKLIST

Testing Equipment
Saximeter
Spare Batteries

Documentation Material

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


Pile Driving Record Log Book
Saximeter Blowcount Record
Construction Daily Report

Daily Essentials
Hard Hat
Boots
Eye & Ear Protection
Pen / Pencil (w/ spare)
INSPECTOR’S TOOLS & DOCUMENTS CHECKLIST

Daily Essentials (contn)

12” Tape (Preferably 25’


150’ Tape
Builder’s Square

PILE DRIVING INSPECTOR


Life Jacket or reflective jacket
Watch
Calculator
Camera
Scale
Level
Weigted Tape (100’)
Plumb Bob
PILE TEST

Lesson 6 LCDR LAMOSTE PN


PURPOSE OF PILE TESTING

• To develop criteria to be used for the


design and installation of the Pile
Foundation.
• To prove the adequacy of the pile-soil
system for the proposed pile design load.

PILE TEST
PILE TEST METHODS

• Static Load Test


 Maintained Load (MLT) Test
 Constant Rate of Penetration
(CRP) Test
 Bi-directional Load Cell
 Rapid Load Test

• Dynamic Load Test


PILE TEST
STATIC LOAD TEST
ADVANTAGES
 Pile is tested w/ a load
similar to that imposed by
structure
 Extensive instrumentation
possibilities
 Repeatable
STATIC LOAD TEST
DISADVANTAGES
 Time Consuming
 Extensive setup & teardown
 Manpower requirements
STATIC LOAD TEST
METHODS OF LOAD
APPLICATION
 Compression Load Test
 Tension Load Test
 Lateral Load Test
STATIC LOAD TEST
METHODS OF LOAD
APPLICATION
 Compression Load Test
 Tension Load Test
 Lateral Load Test
STATIC LOAD TEST
METHODS OF LOAD
APPLICATION
 Compression Load Test
 Tension Load Test
 Lateral Load Test
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS
These methods are based on
monitoring the response of a pile
subjected to hammer blows
applied at the pile head. The
measured response parameters
are subsequently analysed to give
predictions of the soil resistance
that would be mobilised by the
pile under static load conditions,
based on stress wave theory.

PILE TEST
GRL
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS
History
18th Century: Closed Form Solutions
Late 19th Century: Engineering News Formula
1920’s: First Strain Measurements
1950: Smith’s Wave Equation Program
1964: Case Project began under Dr. G.G. Goble
1968: Pile Driving Analyzer ® (PDA)
1970: CAPWAP ®
1972: Pile Dynamics, Inc. founded
1976: WEAP program
1977: Saximeter
1982: Hammer Performance Analyzer
1986: Hammer Performance Study
1989: Pile Integrity Testing (PIT)
1996: FHWA Manual
1998: Pile Installation Recorders (PIR)
1999: Remote PDA
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS

Using Pile Driving Analyzer to


measure pile top velocity
during pile installation;
monitoring results include
 Stresses
 Integrity
 Hammer performance
 Capacity estimate
Perform signal matching with
CAPWAP® to calculate capacity
plus resistance distribution
PILE TEST
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS

PDA DATA
SCREEN
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS

Strain Transducers
Accelerometers
DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS

PILE TEST
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
• Perform Pile Tip, Penetration and
Length Driven calculations
• Identify when to stop driving and
Accept pile
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION

How to compute for Depth


of Penetration & Cut-Off
Elevation
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
 Tip Elevation
The elevation of the bottom (or Tip) of the pile.

 Penetration
the length of pile below the Ground Surface

 Length Driven
length of pile between the Cut-off elevation and
the Tip elevation
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
TYPICAL PARTS OF A PIER

Slabs

Sheet Piles
Beams
Piles

Pile Caps
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
PILE CAPS

TEMPLATE

STRATA
PILE TIP
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
CUT-OFF ELEVATION
(BOTTOM OF PILE CAP)
REFERENCE ELEVATION
(TOP OF TEMPLATE)
SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

Length Driven
GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

Penetration

PILE TIP ELEVATION


ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 12 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 6 m
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
 Tip Elevation
Tip Elev.= Ref. Elev. - Length below Ref. Elev.

 Penetration
Penetration= Ground Elev. - Tip Elevation

 Length Driven
Length Driven = Cutoff Elev. - Tip Elev .
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 1
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 12 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 6 m

PILE TIP ELEVATION


DETERMINE = REF
THE PILE 6
- 8.5
–- LENGTH
TIP 14.5
m - LENGTH
ELEV. BELOW
ELEVATION,
BELOW
REFERENCE
REFERENCE
PENETRATION,ELEV. ELEV. OF PILE DRIVEN.
& LENGTH
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 1
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 12 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 6 m

PENETRATION= 0
GROUND
–- TIP
8.5 (-8.5)
m ELEVATION
ELEV. - TIP ELEVATION
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 1
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 12 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 6 m

LENGTH DRIVEN = 12
20.5
–- TIP
CUTOFF(-8.5)
m ELEV
ELEV.. - TIP ELEV .
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 2
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 14.5 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 8.5 m

PILE TIP ELEVATION


DETERMINE = REF
THE PILE 8.5
- 6.0
TIP –-ELEV.
m14.5- LENGTH
LENGTH
ELEVATION, BELOW
BELOW
REFERENCE
REFERENCE
PENETRATION,ELEV. ELEV. OF PILE DRIVEN.
& LENGTH
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 2
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 14.5 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 8.5 m

PENETRATION= 6.0
GROUND
0 –- TIP
(-6)
m ELEVATION
ELEV. - TIP ELEVATION
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
EXERCISE # 2
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

TOP OF TEMPLATE

SEA LEVEL
(MLLW)

GROUND ELEVATION
(SEA BED)

GROUND ELEV = 0 m CUTOFFE ELEV = 14.5 m


REFERENCE ELEV = 8.5 m

LENGTH DRIVEN = 20.5


14.5 –-mTIP
CUTOFF (-6.0)
ELEV- .TIP ELEV .
ELEV.
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
BATTER PILES COMPUTATIONS

Tip Elev. = Ref. Elev. - [Length


Ref. Elev, Below Ref. Elev. x Corr. Factor]

1
Batter Ratio 5:1
ELEVATIONS & PENETRATION
BATTER PILES COMPUTATIONS
Ground Elev. - Tip Elev
Penetration=
Corr. Factor
Ref. Elev,

1
Batter Ratio 5:1
Pile Acceptance Determination Chart
Is there a minimum Tip
Elevation specified in the plans?

Have you reached Have you reached the


the Specified Minimum Penetration
Minimum Tip? Requirements of 455-5.8?

Have You Met the Driving Criteria Have You Reached


Specified by the Practical Refusal as
Geotechnical Engineer With Described in 455-5.10.3
Blow Counts Increasing for 2 ft. (20 Blows/1”)

Stop Have You Reached Is the Pile 1 ft. Stop- Contact


Accept Practical Refusal as Or less of the Pile PA
Pile Described in 455-5.10.3 Cutoff Elevation
(20 Blows/1”)
Keep
Stop for Setcheck As Driving
Described in 455-5.10.4
Contact PA
PILE DRIVING PROCESS
END OF PRESENTATION

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