Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 42

Gas Turbine Technology Update

 Presentation to EEI Loss Prevention / Risk Mgt Committee

Gas Turbine Issues Fall 2006

 EEI Task Force Committee


Bob Edel, Jim Mintel

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 1


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
Outline:
 Gas Turbines

* GE Frame 7F Compressors

* R-0 Blades

* P Cut Blades
 Summary

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 2


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

INTRODUCTION

 Technical issues are not uncommon in the world of Gas


Turbines.
 All units of all manufacturers have undergone improvements to
their original design.
 The push for higher efficiencies and advances in technologies
and metallurgy keep this industry on the cutting edge.
 Proper “Management of Change” is generally the key to
successful, reliable, loss free operation.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 3


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

 Goal: To raise awareness of Utility Loss


Prevention professionals to Machinery
Breakdown perils.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 4


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

* It should be duly noted that the insurance


community recognizes OEM’s as the technical
subject matter experts for their units and that
they are diligent in developing any necessary
improvements as units evolve.

 Furthermore, the insurance community does not


claim to, and is not attempting to, supersede any
recommendations made by the OEM’s.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 5


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

 The Purpose of this presentation is to raise the awareness of non-


operating personnel involved in managing risk By working and
communicating together with owners, insurance companies, and
OEM’s, Utility Owners can greatly assist in obtaining the most favorable
insurance programs.
Owner/Insured

OEM Insurance Carrier


EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 6
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
What seems to be the issue?

GE Siemens Alstom Mitsubishi


The following concerns do not The following concerns do not The following concerns do not The following concerns do not
necessarily apply to all units necessarily apply to all units necessarily apply to all units necessarily apply to all units
manufactured by this OEM manufactured by this OEM manufactured by this OEM manufactured by this OEM

Compressor Compressor Compressor Compressor


Segmented Vane
R-0 Blades B2 Compressor
pack - Hook Fit
Mid Compressor V.xx – Tiles IGV Control

Power Turbine Power Turbine Power Turbine Power Turbine


Peened vs. Trans Pieces SEV Lance 1st stage turbine
UnPeened Row 3 Turbine blade lock-up
Blade

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 7


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
What type of exposure are we looking at ?
What’s it worth?

Issue Number of losses (10yrs) Actual Loss Potential Loss


R-0 Blades At least 10 losses 17 million 23 million

Mid compr 11 losses 10 million 21 million

Hook fit 10 + losses 6.5 million 17 million

Trans Pieces 20+ losses $7M $16M

Tiles 10+ $2M $7M

Compressor
IGV Control 3 losses 3 million 25+ million

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 8


Jim Mintel - Aegis
EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 9
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

 During this meeting, we will discuss some of the


carrier concerns regarding the GE (7) FA, particularly
the R0 P-Cut Blade.

 According to GE, there are approximately 1,000 operating units


(including 6F and 9F). 416 have P-Cut blades.

 Of these 416: 314 are 7F, 10 are 6F and 92 are 9F

 What is an R0 blade ? Why the concern? Why now ?

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 10


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
What is an R0 Blade ?

 As described by GE in GER3434D

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 11


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
Why the concern?

P-Cut Failure occurred in June 06

 The event occurred June 6, 2006 to a 7FA+e


flared compressor unit.

 The unit underwent a base-load trip for high


vibration and experienced significant
compressor damage.

 The unit’s P-Cut blades experienced 17.5 K


fired hours and 45 fired starts.

 This unit had one R-0 P-Cut blade liberate


and an additional 7 R-0 blades were found
distressed (with cracks).

 The blade failure was an “original” (Mark I)


design. (No enhancements such as the
larger fillet radius, dovetail relief cut for
fretting, etc)

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 12


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
Just One ??
 Only one loss occurred due to failure of this P-Cut blade. This is considered
to be a major event in the insurance industry.

 Working with GE, the owner and GE have concluded a Root Cause
Analysis.

 The analysis has revealed that the current blade is susceptible to failure due
to point of contact stresses. Additional stress modeling tools, taken from the
aero division, have indicated unacceptable levels of stress exist in the P-Cut
design.

 At this time there is no long term fix; a new design is currently in the works.

 Instruction has been published by GE as to what owners need to do.

 GE has indicated all current R-0 designs are acceptable for near-term
operation

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 13


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
Compressor Damage

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 14


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update
Cooling Passage debris

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 15


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

GE 7FA R-0 History

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - 16


LIU, Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

MS7001F Gas Turbine Evolution


(up to 7FA +e)

7F 7FA 7FA+ 7FA+e


PG7191 PG7221 PG7231 PG7241

Press. Ratio 13.5:1 15:1 15:1 15.5:1


Firing Temp. Class (F) 2300 2350 2400 2420
Compressor Stages 18
Turbine Stages 3
Combustion System Can-Annular
(14 chambers)
EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 17
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

From GER3950C

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 18


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

7FA+e R-0 evolution


•7191 “7 F” Standard R-0 Blade introduced in 1988 with un-flared compressor

•7241 “7 FA+e” introduced in 1996


•Standard R-0 Blade introduced into the flared or “Snowflake”
Compressor introduced in 2000

•R-0 P-Cut Blade Introduced in 2003 (both flared and un-flared compressors)

•R-0 Enhanced P-Cut Blade Introduced in 2005 (both flared and un-flared
compressors)

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 19


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Snowflake Compressor

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 20


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

“Standard” design R-0 blades started experiencing


problems which began to mount

 R-0 blade liberation in several units


 Blade liberation to R-0 on flared compressors
only. (Failures attributed to Corrosion, Erosion
& Impact Damage initiating a defect which
propagates to a crack and ultimately failure
due to HCF)

 R-0 and R-1 rubs led to blade tip liberation

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 21


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

GE Frame 7FA/9FA – Compressor problems (list not current)


Site/Customer Frame Date Comments

Not known 9FA April 2001 Compressor failure/R0


Far East 9FA June 2001 Cracks
UK 9FA June 2002 Cracks
Confidential 9FA+eFeb, 2 2005 Compressor failure/R0 – 4.261 FH
Confidential 9FA+eFeb, 6 2005 R0 cracks and rubbing – 1.384 FH
Confidential 9FA+eFeb, 19 2005 Compressor failure/R0 – 12.000FH
UK 9FA+eFeb/March 2005 Compressor failure/R0
Confidential 9FA+eMarch 19, 2005 Rubbing – 7.858 FH
UK 9FA+eMarch 2005 Compressor failure/Ops
Confidential 9FA+eMarch 2005 Compressor failure/FOD
Israel 9FA+eFeb/Mar 2005 R1 rubbing
Spain 9FA+eApril 29, 2005 R1 Rubbing – 20% blades damaged

Japan 7FA+e2001 Compressor failure


USA 7FA+eAug 2002 Cracks
USA 7FA+eJan 2003 Compressor failure/R0
USA 7FA+eFeb 2003 Cracks
USA 7FA+eFeb 2003 Cracks
USA 7FA HF Oct 2004 Compressor failure/R0 HF
USA 7FA+eFeb 1, 2005 Compressor failure/R0 FOD
USA 7FA+eMarch 2005 R1 Rubbing
USA 7FA+eMarch 2005 R1 Rubbing
Mexico 7FA+eApril 19, 2005 Compressor failure/R0

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 22


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

GE High Flow R-0 blades

 GE introduced Inconnel (IN 718) R-0 blades


as a High Flow R-0 model in 2004

 This design was short lived and has been


subsequently pulled from all machines

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 23


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Inconel High Flow R0 Distress RCA


Issue
• Unit with Inconel High Flow R0 blades discovered with
R0 liberation and collateral damage:
• Base load trip on 10/27/04 Status
• High Exhaust Temperature, High Vibration Trip • RCA Teams on site (GE CTS, Engineering)
• Inlet inspection shows extensive IGV/R0/S0 damage • 1 R0 blade discovered liberated at root
• R0 blades had approx. 3400 hours and 50 starts
•Inlet inspection of Sister Unit shows R0
indication at root
• Outage initiated to begin RCA investigation & Repair Work
• Engineering/MPE reviewing high flow R0 NPI
• Recommendations for units with blades
installed:
• Remove R0 blades and install Undercut
GTD 450 R0 blade set at BOP outage
• Remove upper half NUV S0/S1’s and
install original design
• Recommend units planning High Flow R0
installation to delay outage until RCA
complete or install Undercut GTD 450 R0
blade set

R0 Fracture Surface
EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 24
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut introduced

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 25


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut R-0 Overview


 The P-Cut R-0 compressor blade was introduced in
2003 and was installed on 416 units worldwide.
* Approx 285 units remain since inspections
began in JUN06.

 The P-Cut fleet leader had approximately 25,700


fired hours and 700 fired starts as of July 06

 The P-Cut R-0 blade was introduced to afford an


additional margin regarding erosion, corrosion and
impact damage as well as removing the need for
erosion inspections IAW TIL 1389.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 26


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

R0 Blade Erosion Upgrade Options

Hardware Description
1. P-cut Blade
• Inlet case removal for R0 blade change
out
• Erosion tolerant

P-Cut Blade Root


Baseline P-cut
P-cut was touted as a
blade that reduces root
stress from the LE
Root Stress Profiles enabling the blade to
tolerate erosion

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 27


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Enhanced R-0 Blade design

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 28


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Enhanced R-0 Blade design

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 29


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut Failure occurred in June 06


The event occurred June 6, 2006 to a
7FA+e flared compressor unit.

The unit underwent a base-load trip for high


vibration and experienced significant
compressor damage.

The unit’s P-Cut blades experienced 17.5 K


fired hours and 45 fired starts.

This unit had one R-0 P-Cut blade liberate


and an additional 7 R-0 blades were found
distressed (with cracks).

The blade failure was an “original” (Mark I)


design. (No enhancements such as the
larger fillet radius, dovetail relief cut for
fretting, etc) EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 30
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

R-0 Design History Summary


 The R(0) Compressor Row continues to
pose reliability problems for 7FA/9FA
operators.
 TIL 1303R1 in 2001 regarding
impact of erosion on leading
edge first alerted industry.
 Change in materials from
Custom 450 to IN 718 did not
work.
 Addition of P-Cut to blade root to
relieve stress in airfoil lead edge
did not work.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 31


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

What has been done ?


GE has been very proactive in their
communication to owners and carriers.

• RCA, evolution of findings


• WebEx’s with clients and carriers
• Carrier Meetings
• Unit inspections, etc

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 32


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

What is the status of the 7F fleet?

 The following is a summary of information


provided by GE:

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 33


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut R0 Inspection Findings


Frame Size 6FA 7FA 9FA
P-Cut fleet 10 314 92
# Inspected 2 185 15
Cracked 0 74 0
0% 40% 0%

Compressor Configuration

Unflared Flared Flared


Comp-IGV Config Cambered Cambered Uncambered
7FA P-Cut Fleet 67 17 230
# Inspected 56 12 117
Cracked 12 4 58
21% 33% 50%
EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 34
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut R0 UT Re-Inspections

 128 units passed the initial P-Cut R0 UT


Inspection
 35 of these units have been re-inspected in
accordance with GE reinspection intervals
 Of these 35 units, 9 units were found with
crack indications (27%)

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 35


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

What is GE recommending ?

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 36


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut R-0 blade Care


(Original & Enhanced Designs) Require Ongoing UT inspections
 Continue p-cut inspections and re-inspections… TIL forthcoming
 Fleet inspection experience and RCA supports distinguishing inspection
intervals between flared and unflared configurations for initial inspection
 Until further notice, 9FA p-cuts should follow inspection intervals previously
communicated

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 37


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Standard R-0 blade Care


(Non-P-Cut)
 Require existing inspections
and care for root leading edge
damage

 TIL 1509 F-Class Front End


Compressor Inspections

 TIL 1389 F Class Erosion


Inspections (non-p-cut units)
TIL 1509 Inspection
 TIL 1518 Maintenance &
Inspection Requirements for
GT Air Inlet Systems
EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 38
Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

What are the implications ?


 Operations
 Testing
 Maintenance
 Inspection
 Procedures
 Training

This is what Insurance companies will want to verify to


maintain their comfort level.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 39


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

P-Cut R0 Summary

 Continued inspections of P-Cuts at initial inspection


intervals for new or un-inspected blades, and re-
inspection intervals for previously cleared blades
 GE R0 production returned to original, standard non-
P-Cut. Plans include eliminating the P-Cut R0 from
the 7FA fleet
 On-going testing to characterize vibratory stress level
drivers to develop options for increasing R0
robustness
 Accompanying testing, GE is evaluating options to
enhance the non-p-cut design. Once developed and
validated, GE will provide further information

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 40


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update Summary
OEM Guidelines should be followed
 GE is making the recommendations, it’s their
technology. Insurance companies are
attempting to understand the relative risk and
how well the process is being
implemented/managed.

 The more insurance companies understand


about what you are doing, the more
comfortable we are in assuming risk

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 41


Jim Mintel - Aegis
Gas Turbine Technology Update

Summary
 Avoiding loss is all of our common goals.
 Recognizing the risk and mitigating the contributing
factors should minimize the probability of failure.
 GE has provided interim recommendations to avoid
reoccurrence.
 GE is now recommending their standard R-0 blade be
installed for the short term if R-0s require replacement.
 Awareness and compliance will minimize the
probability of similar failure
 Ultimately, GE will provide a long term solution.

EEI Loss Prevention Task Force : Bob Edel - LIU, 42


Jim Mintel - Aegis