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ASSIGNMENT – CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

Joints in concrete building construction are construction joints,


expansion joints, contraction joints and isolation joints. They prevent
cracking of concrete.

Construction Joints:

 Surface where two successive placement of concrete meet

 They are typically placed at the end of days work but may be
required when concrete placement is stopped for longer than the initial
setting time of concrete .

 Construction joints are placed in a concrete slab and columns to


define the extent of the individual placements, generally in conformity
with a predetermined joint layout.

Construction joints are used in slabs-on-grade to allow slab movement


at transitional load bearing points from one concrete slab to the next.

 Concrete slabs-on-grade are subject to different internal and external


forces and pressures.

 They must be designed in order to allow displacements between both


sides of the slab

Concrete floor slabs Section through concrete floor slab & joint detail
 But at the same time, they have to transfer flexural stresses produced in
the slab by external loads.

 Joint deterioration occurs through load bearing weight transferring from


one side of the joint to the other causing micro-shocks at the point of load
cycle.

Construction joints must allow horizontal displacement right-angled to the


joint surface that is normally caused by thermal and shrinkage movement.

 At the same time they must not allow vertical or rotational displacements.

The absence or improper use of a construction joint will lead to slab


failure with continual defects and joint deterioration due to the relative
horizontal, vertical and rotational strains and pressures.

 Continual vehicular traffic transferring over a badly placed construction


joint will cause fracturing and spelling (Figures 2 & 3).

 Rectifying these problems afterwards can be very costly and in some


cases the entire concrete slab may need to be destroyed and replaced.

 Using the patented Ideal Joint systems will offer long term benefits and
cost savings for every slab-on-grade project.
TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR A CONSTRUCTION JOINT

DOWEL JOINT SYSTEM

 It is constructed with steel rods approximately 400mm long and


20mm in diameter; they are placed through the concrete form work
every 600mm perpendicular to the plane of the slab.

 Often, through the lack of care and placing the steel dowels unevenly
in spacing or at the incorrect angle, joint failure is inevitable causing
long term damage to the joint and slab-on-grade (Figure 5).

 Even if the dowel joint is positioned correctly they are usual knocked
out of place and moved during the concrete placement (Figure 4).

 The dowel bars that are misplaced or out of line now increase the risk
of cracking the actual concrete (Figure 6).

 An irregular surface between the two sides of the construction joint


will produce uneven load transfer and slab movement, which in turn
produces weak points allowing cracks to appear in the slab (Figure 7).
BEAMS AND SLABS

 Desirable locations for joints placed perpendicular to the main


reinforcement are at points of minimum shear or points of contra
flexure.

 Joints are usually located at midspan or in the middle third of the


span, but locations should be verified by the engineer before placement
is shown on the drawings.

 The main concern in joint placement is to provide adequate shear


transfer and flexural continuity through the joint.

 Flexural continuity is achieved by continuing the reinforcement


through the joint with sufficient length past the joint to ensure an
adequate splice length for the reinforcement.

 Shear transfer is provided by shear friction between the old and new
concrete, or dowel action in the reinforcement through the joint.
COLUMNS AND WALLS

 Although placements with a depth of 30 ft (10 m) have been made


with conventional formwork, it is general practice to limit concrete
placements to a height of one story.

 Construction joints in columns and bearing walls should be located at


the undersides of floor slabs and beams.

 Construction joints are provided at the top of floor slabs for columns
continuing to the next floor; column capitals, haunches, drop panels,
and brackets should be placed monolithically with the slab.

 Depending on the architecture of the structure, the construction joint


may be used as an architectural detail, or located to blend in without
being noticeable.

 Quality form construction is of the highest importance in providing


the visual detail required
CONSTRUCTION JOINT IN COLUMN

Following figure shows correct method of


providing construction joint in column.
Construction joint in column shall not be
provided with smooth surface or inclined
surface. The top surface of the column should
be rough with parts of coarse aggregates being
seen.
Fig: Typical Construction Joint in RCC
Column
CONSTRUCTION JOINT IN BEAMS AND BEAM-COLUMN JOINT:

Following figure shows the


typical construction joint to be
provided in beams and beam
column joints.

Fig: Typical Construction


Joint in Beams and Beam-
Column Joint

SUMMARY
Construction joints are necessary in most reinforced concrete
construction. Due to their critical nature, they should be located by the
designer, and indicated on the design drawings to insure adequate force
transfer and aesthetic acceptability at the joint. If concrete placement is
stopped involuntarily for a time longer than the initial setting time of the
concrete, the joint should be treated as a construction joint, with advance
input from the designer as to any additional requirements needed to
insure the structural integrity of the element being placed.