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Reza Triarda

+6281233236244
rezatriarda@ub.ac.id/
rezatriarda@gmail.com
The policy process is influenced by a range of interest
groups that exert power and authority over policy-making.
These influences affect each stage of the process from
agenda setting, to the identification of alternatives,
weighing up the options, choosing the most favourable
policy and implementing it.

SO,
the crucial aspect of all policy practice is actually and
specifically what and who is included.
Interest Groups

Epistemic Community

Political Parties
SOCIETY STATE
CENTERED CENTERED

PRESCRIPTION POLICY MAKER POLICY CHOICE

IMPLEMENTATION POLICY OUTCOME


CLASS ANALYTIC MODELS

Based in the Marxist approach, these argue that the


policy process is influenced by opinions that divide along
class lines, with the interests of the bourgeoisie
dominating the process and acting against those of other
classes.

PLURALIST MODELS

This approach presents policy as primarily reflecting the


interests of groups within society. In this model, policy
change simply reflects changes in the balance of power
between interest groups in society.
GROUP 1  THE BUREAUCRATIC POLITICS MODELS

that focus on conflict and negotiation between actors


within the state machinery. The contests are driven by
individual career incentives, and ‘turf wars’ between
Ministries trying to maintain control over policy arenas.
A further important area of conflict is between the
bureaucracy and the executive.

GROUP 2  THE STATE-INTERESTS APPROACH

This focuses on the specific interests the state has in policy


outcomes, such as the interests of regime authorities to
remain in power and the maintenance of its own
hegemony vis-à-vis societal actors.
________ is a network of professionals with recognized
expertise and competence in a particular domain and an
authoritative claim to policy-relevant knowledge within
that domain or issue-area.

 LoA  TRANSNATIONAL (state administrators and


international institution)
 Factor that influence policy change  KNOWLEDGE
 Mechanism and effects on change  DIFFUSION OF
INFORMATION AND LEARNING (shift in the patterns of
decision making)
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EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES TOOLS


1. A Shared Set Of Normative And Principled Beliefs, which
provide a value-based rationale for the social action of community
members
2. Shared Causal Beliefs, which are derived from their analysis of
practices leading or contributing to a central set of problems in their
domain and which then serve as the basis for elucidating the multiple
linkages between possible policy actions and desired outcomes
3. Shared Notion Of Validity – that is intersubjective , internally
defined criteria for weighing and validating knowledge in the domain of
their practices
4. A Common Policy Enterprise – a set of common practices
associated with a set of problems to which their professional
competence is directed, presumably out of the conviction that human
welfare will be enhanced as a consequence
Epistemic Communities

Experts, Knowledge, Policy


Profesionals Expertise Making
• USA:
the Brookings Institution, the Heritage
Foundation and the American Enterprise
Institute for Public Policy research

• INDONESIA:
LIPI-Freedom Institute-FNS-etc.
Political Political Policy
Participation Goals Making

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