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The Hybrid World

Bryon Stremler, P.Eng

Manager, Government & Regulatory Affairs
Toyota Canada Inc.

• About Toyota
• The Environmental Issues and Toyota’s Commitments
• Identifying and responding to customers’ needs
• What is a Hybrid? Different types, benefits, features.
• Hybrid efficiency
• Myths about Hybrids
• Toyota’s Hybrid Line-up
• Toyota Hybrids in Fleets
• The Future of Hybrid Technology
About Toyota

• World’s 8th largest company

• World’s 2nd largest motor vehicle
– 264,000 employees
– Sales in 140 countries
– Manufacturing operations in 27
countries (including Canada)
– 7.974 million units Sold last
– ¥21.03 trillion net revenues*
(~$US 180 billion)
*(2005/06 Fiscal Year ending March 31, 2006)
Mobility on a grand scale
Challenges, also on a grand scale
The Call to Action

“There is no future for the automotive industry without the

promotion of environmental technology. Toyota is
convinced that only companies that succeed in this area
will be acceptable to society.”

Fujio Cho
Chairman, Toyota Motor Corporation
The Reality

• “The new social priorities of the emerging era will call

for radically new approaches to vehicles …
• … automakers have to address the issue of co-
existence with society, particularly in relation to
environmental preservation and safety…”

• Hiroshi Okuda
Toyota Motor Corp., Japan, 2004
Toyota’s Environmental Commitment

• Toyota is a world leader in producing advanced technology

vehicles that are environmentally friendly.
• Toyota vehicles are consistently among the winners of
EnerGuide’s most fuel efficient vehicle in class awards.
• All Toyota Canada facilities will be ISO 14001 registered by the
end of 2007.
• Landfill Diversion & Recycling
– Reduced landfill waste by 85% at TCI headquarters
– Recycle 95% of packaging and parts at vehicle processing
and parts distribution centres
• Environmental and Community Partnerships
– Toyota Earth Day Scholarship
– Toyota Evergreen Learning Grounds
What Does the Market Want?

A significant and growing percentage of customers

indicate a willingness to buy an environmentally
friendly vehicle

If, and only if, all other attributes are EQUAL

or Better
Technology Design Objectives

• Significant fuel economy improvement.

• Major reduction in exhaust emissions.

• No new infrastructure needs (e.g. fuelling stations).

• No perceived difference by customer in vehicle

performance, handling, etc.

• A competitive price to encourage adoption.

What is a Hybrid?

“A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle with two or more

energy storage systems, both of which must
provide propulsion power.”

Paraphrasing of the definitions developed by IEC, SAE and ARB which all require
propulsion power from the secondary energy storage system. Note: Many other
definitions exist!

IEC – International Engineering Consortium

Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)
Hybrid Synergy Drive Benefits

 CLEAN: Reduced Exhaust Emissions

• Better air quality, minimizes adverse health effects

 EFFICIENT: Reduced Fuel Consumption

• Lower operating cost, less CO2, less oil consumption

 POWERFUL: More Fun to drive

• Quicker 0-100 km/h, immediate response, increased torque

 Combinations of the Above

Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)

With 4 decades of related research, Toyota has more hybrid experience than any
other automaker.
HSD Features

• Idle Stop/Start
• Regenerative Braking
• Electric-only mode (Engine off)
• Power boost
• Self-charging battery
• Low Emissions
• Low Fuel Consumption
Prius History

Model Years 1998-2000 * 2001-2003 2004

City Label FC 5.5 4.5 4.0

Highway Label FC 5.7 4.7 4.2

0-100 km/h Accel 14.5 12.5 10.1

Size Class Subcompact Compact Midsize

•Japan only
•LEV – Low Emission Vehicle
•SULEV – Super Low Emission Vehicle
•AT-PZEV – Practically Zero Emission Vehicle
Midsize Vehicle Fuel Consumption
Prius: Δ 620 L/yr Camry: Δ 300 L/yr
(Best 2005 (Best 2005
Midsize Diesel) Midsize Diesel)
Δ 900 L/yr Δ 580 L/yr
(Midsize 4 cyl Avg (Midsize 4 cyl Avg
Gas) Gas)

CO2 Emissions (kg/yr)

8.6 L/100 km

7.2 L/100 km

2500 5.7 L/100 km

4.1 L/100 km





Prius Camry Best 2005 Midsize Midsize Ave (Gas)
Special Purpose Vehicle Fuel Consumption
RX 400h / Highlander Hybrid
Δ 820 L/yr V6 Avg (Gas)
Δ 1400 L/yr V8 Avg (Gas)



14.8 L/100 km
11.9 L/100 km
CO2 Emissions

7.8 L/100 km

7.8 L/100 km




RX400H Highlander Hybrid V6 Average (Gas) V8 Average (Gas)

Well-to-Wheel Efficiency

Electric cars are NOT “zero emissions” vehicles…

… because power generation creates emissions!

Mining coal Transporting coal Burning coal

Hybrids have the best Well-to-Wheel efficiency today

Well-to-Wheel Efficiency
Value vs. Price

You wouldn’t choose a

university based on cost

… why choose a car that way?

The Hybrid Advantage

GS 450h: 3.5L V6 +
electric motor
339 hp

GS 430: 4.3L V8
300 hp

GS 300: 3.5L V6
245 hp
Hybrid Myths

• Hybrids pose a threat to first responders

 The brightly-colored orange wires are heavily protected and run underneath the floor in
the center of the vehicle. Rescue workers can cut through any door or even a window-
area without any fear of coming in contact with them.
• Hybrid vehicles need to be plugged-in
 Never! You never plug in the battery-pack. The engine and regenerative braking provide
the necessary electricity.
• Hybrid Batteries need to be replaced
 There have been no failures in service to date and there is an 8 year / 160,000 km
warrantee on all hybrid components.
• Hybrids are small and underpowered
 As explained in the last couple of slides, this is simply not the case. Hybrids out-perform
their conventional counterparts and often come equipped with features not found on other
• Electromagnetic Fields in hybrids are harmful to human health
 EMFs inside and outside of Toyota hybrids are at the same low levels as conventional
gasoline vehicles. Therefore there are no additional health risks to drivers, passengers or
• Hybrids are only about improving fuel economy
 In addition to improved fuel efficiency, hybrid vehicles produce less smog forming
emissions, and offer improved performance.
Toyota’s Hybrid Fleet

Lexus Camry
GS 450h Hybrid

Toyota Toyota Prius


RX 400h
Future Hybrid Models

Lexus LS 600h

FTX Hybrid Pickup

Front Wheel Drive
World Firsts

4 Wheel Drive
Hybrids in Fleets

• Federal Government is using many Toyota Hybrids in

their vehicle fleets.

• Several Municipalities & Government agencies have

Toyota Hybrid vehicles in their fleets.

• Taxi & Fire Department Fleets

BC’s Commitment to Hybrids

• The Government of British Columbia currently operates

the largest fleet of Toyota Prius hybrids in Canada.
• Recent announcement to purchase/lease only hybrid
vehicles for government fleets.
The Highlander Hybrid in the
Toronto Fire Services Fleet

The Highlander
Hybrid was chosen
after an intensely
competitive bid

It won because of its

high performance,
its low operating
cost, and its low fuel
The Prius in Taxi Fleets

The Toyota Prius continues to be the vehicle choice of

several Taxi fleets across the country.

“Hybrid taxis are the

North America's Highest Mileage Hybrid
way of the future.”
410,000 Km
Test Drive Comparison
Future Hybrid Applications

Hybrids can be integrated into all powertrain configurations,

regardless of the power source.
The Road Ahead

“I have dreams of producing cars that can go across the

North American continent on just one tank of gas, and cars
that make the atmosphere cleaner the more you use them.”

Katsuaki Watanabe
Toyota Motor Corp., Japan
Thank You
Bryon Stremler, P.Eng
Manager, Government & Regulatory Affairs