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# Rock Slope Engineering

EAG 442

## By: Dr Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail

Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Structurally controlled instability
Role of rock discontinuities in Rock
slope failure

##  Discontinuities: Joints, Faults, Bedding

Planes, Fractures, etc.
 Discontinuities reduce the rock mass
strength.
 Discontinuities control Planes of Weakness.

##  Orientation (Strike and Dip) influence the

failure modes and potency of sliding.
Cohesion and friction angle of rock joint

 = c +.tan
)
Friction angle (
Shear Stress (

Normal Stress 

Shear Stress 

Cohesion (c)

## Normal Stress ()

Self-weight sliding of rock block

R
W.Sin 

W.Cos 
 W

## Limiting Equilibrium: W.Sin  = R = c.A + W.Cos .tan 

Effect of water in tension crack

Water-filledtensioncrack
R
V
U
W.Sin

W.Cos 

W
LimitingEquilibrium:
W.Sin+V=R=c.A+(W.Cos - U).tan
Effect of water in tension crack

## (a) Tension crack at head; (b) tension crack on slope face

Forces acting on slope

Forces acting on a
planar slide surface

Forces exerted by a
resistant external
element (anchor)
applied to the slope
Types of failure in rock slope

Strength curve for the rock mass and relationship between slope height and angle
(modified from Hoek and Bray, 1981)
Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Typical rock slope failure
(a) Planar Rock slope failure

## (c) Toppling failure

Planar Rock slope failure

Plane Sliding

##  Occurs when a geological discontinuity such as bedding

plane, strikes parallel to the slope face and dips into the
excavation at an angle greater than the angle of friction.
Kinematic analysis - Planar failure
Planar Rock slope failure

##  Occurs when a geological discontinuity such as bedding

plane, strikes parallel to the slope face and dips into the
excavation at an angle greater than the angle of friction.
Rock slope wedge failure

Wedge Sliding

##  When two discontinuity strike obliquely across the slope face

and their line of intersections daylights in the slope face, the
wedge of rock resting on these discontinuities will slide down
the line of intersection.
Kinematic analysis - wedge failure
Kinematic analysis - wedge failure
Daylight
Toppling failure

Toppling Failure

##  When a block of rock resting on an inclined planes moving

downward from the face of the slope.
Toppling failure

Strata toppling,
block toppling
and flexural
toppling

Buckling of vertical
strata with bending
and fracturing of
strata
Rotational type failure

##  When a block of rock resting on an inclined planes moving

downward from the face of the slope.
Complex mechanism

## Combine discontinuity movements with failure

of intact rock
 Step-path
 Toppling, flexural bending or buckling
 Rotational (circular, non-circular)
Complex mechanism

## Open pit mine slopes

Controlled by geological
structures at top and
possibly shearing through
intact rock at bottom
Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Discontinuity mapping – remote sensing
Stereonet – pole plots
Pole plots and modes of rock slope failure
Planar Rock slope failure
Rock slope wedge failure

Wedge A and
B will not slide

Wedge C and
D will slide
Planar Rock slope failure
Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Rock slope wedge failure
Continuum model

## Diagram of a curved failure surface

in heavily jointed rock
Rock fall program (Rocscience)
Swedge program (Rocscience)
Rock plane program (Rocscience)
Numerical modeling in rock slope

Planar wedge
sliding

Sliding along
discontinuities
Numerical modeling in rock slope

## Rotational type of failure

Numerical modeling in rock slope

Step-path

Combined step-path
and rotational
Numerical modeling in rock slope
Factors of safety – ranged from 0.95 to 2.1
Numerical modeling in rock slope

## Mine open pit in jointed rock mass

Numerical modeling in rock slope

## Close up of rock mass jointing

Numerical modeling in rock slope
3-D discrete fracture network
Rock Slope Engineering

##  Basic mechanics of rock slope failure

 Typical type of rock slope failure
 Graphical presentation of rock slope
failure
 Numerical modeling in rock slope
 Example(s)
Example (1)

## Dip Dip direction Friction angle, ϕ

Plane A 450 1150 34.50
Plane B 750 2250 370

## Factor of Safety for wedge failure:

F = a tan  A + B tan B
Example (1)
The procedure for finding the FoS is as follows:

##  The value of the difference in dip between two planes is calculated: 75 0-

450=300
 From the different charts available, the two chart that correspond to the
value of 300 are selected.
 The value of the difference in dip direction between the two planes is
calculated: 2250-1150=1100
 On the abscissa axis of Chart a) a line is projected from this value of 1100 to
intersect the line corresponding to the dip of plane A, giving a reading of the
value of parameter A on the ordinate axis of 1.10
 The same procedure is applied to plane B on chart b) to obtain 0.45, the value
of parameter B.
 Once the values of A and B have been found, the FoS can be calculated with
the friction angle values of the two planes.

Example (1)

## Charts for dip difference between planes forming the wedge of 30 0

Example (2)

Determine the factor of safety against sliding of the block DBC. Assume
block ABD is table