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Chapter 3: PR Tools
PR Tools
Writing and Publications
– Writers must remember that they are writing for the “eye
and the ear”. While a reader is able to take time scanning
through a material, a listener may only be able to listen
– Therefore public relations practitioners must be able to
differentiate between writing, for example, a speech and
writing a news release.
– PR publication includes newsletters or bulletins, annual
reports, organisational literatures such corporate
handbook and special publications, brochures, news
releases, speeches, scripts, advertorials and websites.

News Conference
– News conference is an event often used to
acquire publicity for a certain individual or an
– However, it should only be held if the
message that the organisation intends to
deliver during the conference is newsworthy.
– If there is a controversy, set up a news
conference in a way the organisation does not
appear to be hiding something.

– It involves special activities or events designed to
create and stimulate public’s interest in a person, a
product, an organisation or a cause.
– According to Edward L. Bernays, the idea of
promotion is to make [create] news.
– As promotion is also an element in marketing, it is
said to be PR’s closest ties to marketing.
– One way to attract the public’s attention is to hire a

– It is a function of public relations that involves
disseminating purposefully planned and
executed messages through selected media,
without payment to the media, to further the
particular interest of an organisation or
– Two benefits that publicity provides:
• Publicity is financially free. It only costs time and effort
in conceiving, creating and attempting to place the
effort in the media.
• It carries third-party endorsement.

– It is a deliberate and systematic attempt to
shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions,
and direct behavior to achieve a response
that furthers the desired intent of the
propagandist – Jowett & O’Donnell.
– Most of the time, propaganda connotes
practices that opposing groups accuse each
other of doing.
– Among the common techniques used – name-
calling, testimonials, bandwagon, glittering

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
– It is a built-in, self-regulating mechanism
whereby business monitors and ensures its
active compliance with the spirit of the law,
ethical standards, and international norms. Its
goal is to embrace responsibility for the
company's actions and encourage a positive
impact through its activities on the
environment, stakeholders.

Corporate Philanthropy
– It is a manifestation of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR). This is when a company
provides donations of funds, products and
services to various causes.
Special Event
– It refers to any newsmaking situation which
are meant to gather publicity for the
organisation. Special event usually provides
many opportunities for organisation to
communicate with its publics through various
Fundraising / donor relations
– PR organises events or fund to raise money
or any other form of contribution from the
publics for certain charitable causes.
– The difference between fundraising and
corporate philanthropy is that the organisation
does not provide any allocation from its
budget but the contribution comes solely from
the publics.
– Campaigns are coordinated, purposeful,
extended efforts designed to achieve a
specific goal or a set of interrelated goals that
will move the organisation toward a longer-
range objective expressed as its mission
According to Patrick Jackson, there are 6 types
of campaigns:

1. Public awareness campaign (e.g. the danger of

2. Public information campaign (e.g. GST)
3. Public education campaign (e.g. how to keep
away Aedes mosquito)
4. Reinforcement of attitudes(e.g. wearing
helmet/safety belt)
5. Changing or attempting to change attitudes of
those who do not agree (e.g. election campaigns)
6. Behavior modification campaign (e.g. get people
to wear helmet)
Examples of campaigns:

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtJDVPHRcIA
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j2O32A3Iy0g
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0SL79olDvM