Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

TOPIC 2:

1. The Characteristics of Islamic


Institution
Main Characteristics of Islam based on al-
2.1.3.
Quran and as-Sunnah. Ciri-ciri Keistimewaan Islam

1. Rabbaniyyah / Godliness (‫)ربانية‬


2. ‘Alamiyyah / Universal in diversity (‫)عالمية‬
3. Syumuliyyah / Complete/Comprehensive (‫)شمولية‬
4. Thabat wa Murunah / Fixed yet Flexible (‫)ثبات ومرونة‬
5. Waqi’iyyah / Realistic (‫)واقعية‬
6. Inqilabiyyah / To Replace/Revolutionist (‫)انقالبية‬
7. Tawazun / Balanced between material & spiritual
(‫)توازن‬
8. Wasatiyyah / Moderate (‫)وسطية‬

2
1. Rabbaniyyah
Definition:
Islam as a whole is a divine revelation.
Therefore, one of the distinguishing
features of the syariah is the fact that it
comes only from Allah and it has
religious elements.
Example of revelation
 1. Verses related to spiritual matters
 2.Verses related to family affairs
 3. Verses related to contract and financial
matters
 4. Verses related to criminal matters
 5. Verses related to political system
Category of Rabbaniah :
1. Rabbani in terms of goals and intentions
 One’s intentions has to be specifically for
Allah
 One’s ultimate goal in life is to get Allah’s
pleasure.

2. Rabbani in terms approach and resources


 One’s approach and resources should be
based on the divine revelations to Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH)

1.Rabbani dari sudut matlamat dan tujuan.


 Meletakkan setiap tujuan pekerjaan kerana Allah
 Matlamat terakhir kehidupan adalah mendapat keredhaan Allah
2. Rabbani dari sudut manhaj dan sumber
 bersumberkan kepada wahyu Ilahi kepada Nabi Muhammad SAW.
2. Alamiyyah (Universal)
Definition:
The teaching of Islam is not for a
certain race or community but it is for
all ummah from all layers of society.

Risalah Islam ditujukan untuk semua umat dan bangsa serta untuk
semua lapisan masyarakat. Ia bukan risalah untuk bangsa tertentu.
 Alamiyyah also means:

- Universal/ Suitable in the sense that the


teachings of Islam transcend across time, space
and geographical boundaries.
- Applicable anywhere and anytime from past to
the present and the future.

 Sesuai di semua tempat sama ada di Kutub Selatan, Khatulistiwa dan


sebagainya.
 Ia juga sesuai untuk semua zaman sama ada zaman Rasulullah SAW atau
zaman teknologi moden yang canggih ini. Sesuai sampai ke hari qiamat.

Ciri umum inilah maka terbukalah ruang kepada manusia untuk membina tamadun
yang sejagat.
Universal Principles
 1. The principle of mutual consultation
 2. The principle of equality
 3.The principle of justice
 4. The principle of no harm shall be
inflicted. (la darar wa la dirar)
3. Syumuliyyah
Definition:

The teaching of Islam is complete and


comprehensive.
The scope of Islam is all-encompassing with
guidance for all aspects of human life not
excluding the smallest to the biggest of human
conduct.

Ajaran Islam lengkap dan menyeluruh. Ruang lingkup ajaran Islam adalah
mencakupi seluruh aspek kehidupan manusia tanpa kecuali dari sekecil-
kecil urusan sampailah ke sebesar-besar perkara.
The completeness of the
Syariah
 Covers all aspects of life and fulfill all
needs of mankind.
 1.Sanctions related to beliefs(al-ahkam al-
I’tiqadiyyah)
 2. Sanctions relating to moral and
ethics(al-ahkam al-akhlaqiyyah)
 2.Sanctions relating to the saying and
doing of the individuals and his relations
with others. (Amaliyyah)
4. Thabat dan Murunah
Definition:

Fixed in principles and flexible in practice

Tetap dari segi prinsip dan hukum tetapi anjal atau fleksibel dari segi
perlaksanaannya.

 Sebagai contohnya: Solat adalah wajib dan perlaksanaannya boleh dibuat


secara jama’ dan qasar bagi mereka yang bermusafir. Begitu juga ketika
seseorang Muslim itu sedang sakit maka dia boleh melaksanakannya
dalam keadaan duduk atau baring mengikut kemampuannya.
 Syariah revealed by Allah is suitable to be
implemented at all time because of
flexibility.
 1. The injunctions related to belief,which is
the fundamental matter in Islam.
 2.The injunctions related to ibadah such
as the order for prayers and times of
prayers.
 3. The injunctions related to ethics
including the good and bad. For instance,
the Quran ordered Muslim to respect their
parents and refrain from using abusive
word towards them.
 4.The injunctions of Syariah which change
 With changes in circumstances, custom,
time and place. This includes the rulings
related to muamalah.
5. Waqi’iyyah
Definition:
Islam is realistic.

Islam adalah mengikut realiti.

 Contohnya: Manusia dari segi fitrahnya ingin hidup


berpasangan, maka Islam mensyariatkan perkahwinan.
6. Inqilabiyyah
Definition:
Islam should be strictly practiced in all
situations. It is clearly distinguished
and should not be intermingled with
any jahiliyyah practice or system.

Menegakkan Islam atas keruntuhan jahiliyyah. Islam tidak boleh


bercampur dengan jahiliyyah. Islam juga tidak boleh ditempel-
tempelkan pada sistem jahiliyyah.
 This is proven during the time of the
prophet, when the rulings of Islamic law
were revealed by Allah.
 The companions of the prophets would
immediately implement them without
hesitation. Example: Muslims ceased from
consuming liquor, even though it was their
habit and part of their life to consume such
drink.
 With regard to hijab (covering the required
parts of the body). When the
commandment of Allah regarding hijab
was revealed they immediately abided by
this directive from Allah.
SCL ACTIVITIES:
:

Produce one example of Islamic Institution.


How does this institution use all of these
Islamic character in it?

Berikan satu contoh institusi Islam.


Terangkan bagaimana karakter ini diamalkan di dalamnya.
Continue…
Sources in Islam
 Primary Sources
1. Al-Qur’ān (‫)القرآن‬
2. As-Sunah (‫)السنة‬
3. Ijma/ consensus of opinion (‫)اإلجماع‬
4. Qiyas / analogical deductions (‫)القياس‬
Secondary sources of
Syariah

 Secondary Sources
1. Istihsan/ Juristic Preference (‫)االستحسان‬
2. Maslahah Mursalah/ consideration of public
interest (‫)المصالح المرسلة‬
3. Sadd al-Zarai’e/ blocking the means to an
evil (‫)سد الذرائع‬
4. Urf/ customary practice of society (‫)العرف‬
5. Istishab/ Presumption of continuity (‫)استصحاب‬
6. Amal ahl Madinah/ The practice of the
Medinian people (‫)عمل أهل المدينة‬
SCL ACTIVITIES:

What do you know about the


primary sources?
The answer..
AL-QURAN
 Al-Qura'n is an Arabic word, literally meaning 'reading' and
'recitation'.
Al-Quran is the word of Allah, the one and only GOD.
Quran is The Book of Islam and is the final divine
guidance in the line of Holy Scriptures.

 Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in a


period of 23 years starting 13 Before-Hijrah (610 AD).

 The Quran is a guide and beacon for humanity till the end
of time. It is not bound by time, not bound by race or
nationality. The Quran is for all humanity, for the past, the
present, and for all times to come.
The Quran is best defined in its own verses, in the words of Allah, as:
“This is the Book, no doubt in it, guidance from the God fearing.” (2:2)
Thematic classifications of the
verses of the Quran
1. Related to Islamic belief system
2. Worship
3. Family
4. Related to the stories of the earlier
prophets of Allah.
5. Related to the saying and doings of
the individuals and his relations with
others which are also called ayat
AS-SUNNAH @ HADITH
 Arabic:‫الحديث‬
 Sunnah:Refers to all that is narrated from
the prophet saw including his action,
saying and whatever he has tacitly
approved.
 Hadis: Narration of the sayings of the
prophet saw.
In Quran, Allah mentions:
“So take what the Apostle assigns to you,
and deny yourselves that which he
withholds from you.”

Firman Allah SWT :


“Apa yang diberikan Rasul kepadamu maka terimalah ia, dan apa yang
ditegahnya maka tinggalkan ia.”
(Al-Hasyr: 7)
As-Sunnah completes Al-Quran
How….
1. Menegaskan hukum yang terdapat di
dalamnya.
2. Menjelaskan dengan terperinci
3. Menetapkan hukum yang terdapat di
dalam al-Quran.
Classification of Sunnah
 Verbal (Qauli)

 Actual (fi’li)
 solat , “Solatlah kamu sebagaimana kau lihat
aku solat.”

Tacit (taqriri)
Rasulullah hanya mendiamkan diri apabila
sahabat ingin memakan dhab.
IJMA’

 "Consensus" of legal scholars (consenses


of opinion)representing all Muslims

Persetujuan di antara ulama-ulama Islam selepas


kewafatan Nabi Muhammad mengenai sesuatu hukum
syarak.
Contoh Ijma’

 Haramnyalemak khinzir disamakan


haramnya daging khinzir.
QIYAS
 is the process of analogical reasoning
from a known injunction (nass) to a new
injunction

Menerangkan hukum sesuatu yang tidak ada nasnya dalam al-Quran


dan Hadis dengan cara membandingkannya dengan sesuatu yang
ditetapkan hukumnya berdasarkan nas.

Bermaksud menyamakan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya


dengan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya kerana adanya illat
hukum.
Contoh Qiyas

Arak haram kerana merosakkan akal (illah)


Maka dadah juga diharamkan kerana
merosakkan akal.
MASOLIH MURSALAH

 Pertimbangan kemaslahatan manusia /


kepentingan manusia
 Manfaat atau kepentingan yang tidak
dinyatakan halal atau haramnya oleh
syariah
Islam meraikan kehendak dan keperluan
manusia dalam beberapa perkara seperti:
1. Dharuriyyat
 Iaitu kehidupan manusia tidak akan wujud dengan
ketiadaannya. Perkara-perkara dharuriyyat ini perlu
untuk menjaga aqal, agama, jiwa, keturunan, dan harta.

2. Hajiyyat
 Iaitu perkara yang diperlukan oleh manusia untuk hidup.
Namun manusia hidup tanpa kewujudannya.

3. Tahsiniyyat
 Iaitu perkara yang diperlukan oleh manusia untuk hidup
dengan lebih mulia. Di mana ketiadaannya tidak
menjejaskan kehidupan manusia. Ia lebih mirip kepada
unsur kesempurnaan dan kemewahan.
Contoh Masolih Mursalah
 Pengumpulan Al-Quran dalam bentuk
mushaf
 Undang-undang Jalanraya diamalkan
untuk kemudahan pengguna jalanraya.
SADD AL-ZARAI’E
 Menghalang sesuatu perantara ke arah
perbuatan yang dihalang

 Penutupan semua jalan yang membawa


kerosakan
Contoh SADD AL-ZARAI’E

 Mengharamkan pergaulan bebas bagi


mencegah dari berlakunya perbuatan zina
URUF
 Bentuk-bentukmuamalah (hubungan
kepentingan) yang telah menjadi adat
kebiasaan dan telah berlangsung di
tengah masyarakat.

 Adat
resam yang tidak bercanggah
dengan Islam
Contoh Uruf

 Barang
hantaran di dalam perkahwinan
masyarakat Melayu.
THE END