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Radial Pump Impeller Design

(Example)

1
• Design a rotor(impeller) of a radial water
pump for the following given values

Q = 300 m3/h (0.0833 m3/s)


H = 50 m
n = 1450 rpm

2
• The Specific speed for the pump is calculated from the
following formula for the given values

n Q 1450 0.0833
ns  3 4  34
 22.3
H 50
• After finding the specific speed the shape of the impeller can
be decided using the following table.

Shape No. Range Shape of the Impeller


10<ns<50 Radial Type
50<ns<150 Mixed Type
150<Ns<400 Axial Type

 The specific speed is in the radial type pump range


3
• The shaft Power is given as:

QgH
P
o
• The overall efficiency, ηo, for a single stage, single entry,
radial pump can be read from the figure below to be ηo = 0.85.

• The pump power becomes,

103  0.0833  9.81  50


P  51.1 kW  55 kW
0.85

4
(Source: Centrifugal Pumps, Johann Friedrich Gülich, 2nd ed)
5
• Shaft diameter can be found using the following formula
16 T
ds  3
 t
• The torque can be calculated as it follows:

P P 55000
T     362 Nm
 2n 2  1450 60

• The allowable shear stress for most of the shafts is in the range
between 40 -60 N/mm2. Thus the shaft diameter becomes:

d s  32.13  35.64 mm, say d s  40 mm

• The hub diameter, dh = 1.1 to 1.3 ds

d h  1.2 d s  50 mm
6
• The eye diameter (D1) can be calculated by assuming inlet
number . The radial velocity at the inlet is given by:

Com   2Y
• The volume flow rate at the suction end is given by:

Q '  Com
4
D2
1  d , Where Q ' 
2
h
Q
V
• Calculating for the eye diameter,

4Q
D1   d h2
  Com V
• The volumetric efficiency is given by:

1 0.287 0.287
 1 ,  1  ,  1.0362, or ,V  0.965
V 2 3
ns 22.32 3
7
• The inlet number can be found from the following table.

Guidelines to choose ε
8
• From the table,   0.08  0.13, for ns  22.3

• Thus, Com  2.5  7.52 m / s  4 m / s

• Another option to estimate the value of inlet number is to use


the formula by Pfleiderer,
2
  (1.5  3).102 ns 3

• Thus, D1 becomes,

4  0.0833
D1   0.052  0.173m  0.175m
  4  0.965

9
The outer diameter D2 can be calculated using:
1) The head coefficient (ψ)
gH
 
U 22 2
D2n 2 gH
U2  
60 
60 2 gH
D2 
n 
The head coefficient for different type of pumps is given below.

ψ Pump Type
0.7-1.3 Radial Impeller
0.25-0.7 Mixed-flow impeller
0.1-0.4 Axial Impeller
10
• Choosing ψ = 1, U 2  31.32 m / s, and
D2  0.412m

1 4
2) The specific diameter (δ)   12

2 gH 2Y
   2 2 2
U22
 n D
Cm Q Q 4Q
   
U AU D 2  2 D 3n
Dn
4
The specific diameter becomes,

 1 4  2Y 
1/ 4 1/ 2
 4Q  1.05D2Y 1 / 4
  12   2 2 2   2 3  
  n D   D n  Q1 / 2
11

• D2 becomes, D2 
1.05gH / Q 
2 1/ 4

• The specific diameter is plotted in the following diagram for


various specific speeds,

• From the table, δ = 6.5.

6.5
D2   0.397m
1.059.81  50 / 0.0833 
2 1/ 4

• Thus the outer diameter can be taken to be

D2 = 0.4m
12
Cordier Diagram 13
• Blade width b1
Q' Q
b1  
D1Com V D1Com
0.0833
  0.039m  40mm
0.965    0.175  4

• The Blade width at the outlet b2


Q' Q
b2  
D2C2 m V D2C2 m
• C2m can be found from figure below.

C2 m  km 2 2 gH , km 2  0.11 , from the figure


C2 m  3.45m / s

0.0833
b2   0.0199m  20mm
0.965    0.4  3.45
14
15
• Blade angle β0
 Com   C 
 0  tan 1    tan 1  om 
 U1   D1n 
 4 
 tan 1    16.75
o

   0.175 1450 / 60 

• Blade angle β2 can be estimated from the previous figure.

tan  2  0.4  0.43


 2  21.8o to 23.3o

• Number of blades
2
Z  7, Stepanoff approach
3
D1  D2    2 
Z k sin  1 , taking the value of k  7
D2  D1  2 
Z 6
16