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# Logic Families

## Topics to Discuss Here

• Integration, Moore’s law
• Early families (DL, RTL)
• TTL
• Evolution of TTL family
• ECL
• CMOS family and its evolution
• Overview
Moore’s Law
• A prediction made by Moore (a co-founder of Intel) in
1965: “… a number of transistors to double every 2
years.”
Different Levels of Integration
• Gate/transistor ratio is roughly 1/10
– SSI < 12 gates/chip
– MSI < 100 gates/chip
– LSI …1K gates/chip
– VLSI …10K gates/chip
– ULSI …100K gates/chip
– GSI …1Meg gates/chip
Diode Logic (DL)
• simplest; does not scale
• NOT not possible (need an active element)

=
Resistor- Transistor Logic (RTL)
• replace diode switch with a transistor switch
• large power draw

=
Diode Transistor Logic (DTL)
• essentially diode logic with transistor amplification
• reduced power consumption
• faster than RTL

=
Comparison Between RTL and DTL
• RTL:
Resistor TL
L: 0.2V, H: 1~3.6V
• DTL:
Diode TL
L: 0.2V, H: 4~5V
Typical NPN Transistor Parameters
npn or pnp
Si or Ge
Si is used mainly
npn is most popular
hFE
• hFE of a transistor is the current gain or amplification factor of a transistor.

• hFE (which is also referred to as β) is the factor by which the base current is
amplified which is fed into the transistor.

• A transistor works by feeding a base current into the base of the transistor. The base
current is then amplified by hFE to yield its amplified current. The formula is below:
IC= hFEIB=βIB

• So if 1mA is fed into the base of a transistor and it has a hFE of 100, the collector
current will be 100mA.

• Every transistor has its own unique hFE. The hFE is normally seen to be a constant
value, normally around 10 to 500, but it may change slightly with temperature and
with changes in collector-to-emitter voltage.
Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
• Bipolar Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)
• first introduced by in 1964 (Texas Instruments)
• TTL has shaped digital technology in many ways
• Standard TTL family (e.g. 7400) is obsolete
• Newer TTL families still used (e.g. 74ALS00)
TTL
• Distinct features
 Multi-emitter transistors
 Totem-pole transistor arrangement
• Schottky series (74LS00) TTL
• A major slowdown factor in BJTs is due to transistors going in/out of
saturation
• Shottky diode has a lower forward bias (0.25V)
• When BC junction would become forward biased, the Schottky diode
bypasses the current preventing the transistor from going into
saturation
• Three different types of output configurations:
 open-collector output
 Totem-pole output
 Three-state (or tristate) output
Multiple Emitter Transistor
• A multiple-emitter transistor is a specialized bipolar
transistor mostly used at the inputs of TTL NAND logic
gates.
• Input signals are applied to the emitters.
• Collector current stops flowing only if all emitters are driven by the
logical high voltage, thus performing an AND logical operation using a
single transistor.
• Multiple-emitter transistors replace diodes of DTL and allow
reduction of switching time and power dissipation.
Open Collector
• An open collector is a common type of output found on many
integrated circuits (IC).
• Instead of outputting a signal of a specific voltage or current, the
output signal is applied to the base of an internal NPN transistor
whose collector is externalized (open) on a pin of the IC. The emitter
of the transistor is connected internally to the ground pin.
• In the picture, the transistor base is labeled "IC output". This is a
signal from the internal IC logic to the transistor. This signal controls
the transistor switching. The external output is the transistor
collector; the transistor forms an interface between the internal IC
logic and parts external to the IC.
• The output forms either an open circuit or a connection to ground.
The output usually consists of an external pull-up resistor, which
raises the output voltage when the transistor is turned off. When the
transistor connected to this resistor is turned on, the output is forced
to nearly 0 volts. Open-collector outputs can be useful for analog
weighting, summing, limiting, etc.,
Pull-Up Resistor
• Pull-up resistors are resistors used in logic circuits to ensure a well-defined logical
level at a pin under all conditions. As a reminder, digital logic circuits have three logic
states: high, low and floating (or high impedance). The high-impedance state occurs
when the pin is not pulled to a high or low logic level, but is left “floating” instead. A
good illustration of this is an unconnected input pin of a microcontroller. It is neither
in a high or low logic state, and a microcontroller might unpredictably interpret the
input value as either a logical high or logical low. Pull-up resistors are used to solve
the dilemma for the microcontroller by pulling the value to a logical high state, as
seen in the figure. If there weren’t for the pull-up resistor, the MCU’s input would be
floating when the switch is open and brought down only when the switch is closed.
• Pull-up resistors are not a special kind of resistors;
they are simple fixed-value resistors connected
between the voltage supply (usually +5V) and the
appropriate pin, which results in defining the input
or output voltage in the absence of a driving
signal. A typical pull-up resistor value is 4.7kΩ,
but can vary depending on the application.
• In Bipolar Logic Families which operate at 5V, the
typical pull-up resistor value is 1-5 K Ω.
• In doubt, 4.7 K Ω is a good starting point.
• In CMOS, it can be raised up to 10 K Ω to 1M Ω.
Pull-Down Resistor
• Pull-down resistors work in the same manner as pull-up resistors, except
that they pull the pin to a logical low value. They are connected between
ground and the appropriate pin on a device. An example of a pull-down
resistor in a digital circuit can be seen in the figure. A pushbutton switch is
connected between the supply voltage and a microcontroller pin. In such a
circuit, when the switch is closed, the micro-controller input is at a logical
high value, but when the switch is open, the pull-down resistor pulls the
input voltage down to ground (logical zero value), preventing an undefined
state at the input. The pull-down resistor must have a larger resistance than
the impedance of the logic circuit, or else it might be able to pull the voltage
down by too much and the input voltage at the pin would remain at a
constant logical low value – regardless of the switch position.
The appropriate value for the pull-up resistor is
limited by two factors. The first factor is power
dissipation. If the resistance value is too low, a
high current will flow through the pull-up resistor,
heating the device and using up an unnecessary
amount of power when the switch is closed. This
condition is called a strong pull-up and is avoided
when low power consumption is a requirement.
The second factor is the pin voltage when the
switch is open. If the pull-up resistance value is
too high, combined with a large leakage current of
the input pin, the input voltage can become
insufficient when the switch is open. This
condition is called having a weak pull-up. The
actual value of the pull-up’s resistance depends on
the impedance of the input pin, which is closely
related to the pin’s leakage current.
Applications
• Because the pull-up resistor is external and need not be connected to
the chip supply voltage, a lower or higher voltage can be used
instead. Open collector circuits are therefore sometimes used to
interface different families of devices that have different operating
voltage levels. The open-collector transistor can be rated to withstand
a higher voltage than the chip supply voltage. Such devices are
commonly used to drive devices such as Nixie tubes, and vacuum
fluorescent displays, relays or motors which require higher operating
voltages than the usual 5-volt logic supply.
• Another advantage is that more than one open-collector output can
connect to a single line. If all outputs attached to the line are in the high-
impedance state, the pull-up resistor will hold the wire in a high voltage
(logic 1) state. If one or more device outputs are in the logic 0 (ground)
state, they will sink current and pull the line voltage toward ground. This
wired logic connection has several uses.

## • Open-collector devices are commonly used to connect multiple devices to

a bus (i.e., one carrying interrupt or write-enable signals). This enables one
device to drive the bus without interference from the other inactive
devices - if open-collector devices are not used, then the outputs of the
inactive devices would attempt to hold the bus voltage high, resulting in
unpredictable output.
Open Collector TTL Gate