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Discuss potential effects of

deprivation or trauma in childhood


on later development
What makes up a healthy
development?
• Loving Caregivers
• Good Nutrition
• Cognitive Stimulation
• Linguistic input (talking
to them)

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


What could happen if a child is reared in
an environment without these factors?

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Deprivation and Trauma

Trauma
Deprivation • experiencing a powerful
• living in a state of various shock (e.g. divorce, death of
forms of neglect to provide a parent, physical or sexual
basic needs abuse, natural disasters, or
war.
• Deprivation is often related
to institutionalization, • Such experiences may have
growing up in poverty, and long-lasting effects on
parental problems (e.g. development.
alcoholism or mental illness.
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.
It is not possible to make a clear-cut
distinction between effects of
deprivation or trauma: they are
much the same

Experiences of deprivation can also


be traumatizing for the child.
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.
First let's look at Trauma
• Potential effect of
trauma: PTSD
• Children who have
experienced severe and
repeated trauma may
develop post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD),
which could interfere with
normal development.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


PTSD in Childhood

• If left untreated
children may exhibit
impulsivity, agitation,
hyper-vigilance,
avoidance behavior, and
emotional numbness.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Carrion et al. (2009)
• performed fMRI scans and
found that children
suffering from PTSD after
experiencing extreme
stressors such as abuse or
witnessing violence
performed worse on a
simple verbal memory test
and showed less
hippocampal activity
compared to a control
group.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Carrion et al. (2009)
• The participants who
performed worst on the
test were those who also
showed specific PTSD
symptoms such as
withdrawal from those who
wanted to help them.
• They also had difficulties
remembering the trauma,
felt cut off from others, and
showed lack of emotion.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Now let's look at Deprivation
Potential effects of
deprivation:
• cognitive impairment
• attachment disorder

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The Romanian Orphans
• In 1989 Nicolae
Ceaușescu regime was
overthrown in Romania.
• the world became
aware of thousands of
children who were
warehoused in
Romanian orphanages.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The Romanian Orphans
• between 100,000 and
300,000 children lived in
these baby homes or
orphanages for the school-
aged or in institutions for
persons considered to be
"irrecuperable"
(unrecoverable).
• Most children experienced
severe emotional and
physical deprivation.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The Romanian Orphans
• When Westerners saw
television documentaries of
the appalling conditions,
many were eager to adopt
and rushed to take action.
• thousands of adoptive
parents from the United
States, Canada and other
countries ultimately
succeeded in adopting
children.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The Romanian Orphans
• The simultaneous
adoptions of so many
Romanian orphans
provided researchers with
a unique opportunity to
view the impact of
adoption on primarily
institutionalized babies
and young children.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The English and Romanian adoptees
study
• This is a longitudinal
study of 324 Romanian
adoptees that entered
the UK between
February 1990 and
September 1992.
• The aim was to
investigate potential
long-term effects of
severe deprivation in
childhood.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


The English and Romanian adoptees
study
• All the children had
been reared from
infancy in very deprived
institutions in Romania
and adopted into UK
families at various ages
up to 42 months.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Michael Rutter
• Michael Rutter was one
of the lead researchers
with the English and
Romanian adoptees
study
• Side note… he criticized
Bowlby

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
• investigated a sample of
144 children who were,
at that time, six years of
age.
• The parents were
interviewed at home and
answered questionnaires
on the family and the
child’s behavior.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
• Three months later the
child was assessed using
observations and
standard cognitive and
developmental measures
including tests on general
cognitive functioning and
attachment behavior.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
• The focus was on
cognitive impairment and
attachment disturbance
in children who had spent
more than six months in
the institutions.
• The study found no major
deficits in children who
had spent less than six
months there.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
Cognitive impairment
• Cognitive impairment was found
in 15.4% of the adoptees from
Romania but in only 2.3% of the
adoptees from the UK.
• There was a persistent cognitive
deficit at age six in the children
who remained longest in the
deprived Romanian institutions
before being adopted.
• This was particularly the case for
those children who had also
suffered from severe
malnutrition.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
• These children also had
a much smaller head
circumference at the
time they entered the
UK and this could also
be observed at age six.
• This could suggest
neural damage.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
Attachment disorder
• Data was collected in
semi-structured
interviews with parents
to assess the child’s
behavior toward the
parent and other adults
in both novel and
familiar situations.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Rutter et al. (2004)
• There was a
relationship between
length of institutional
deprivation and
attachment disorders.
• No significant deficits
were found in the
children who entered
the UK below the age of
six months.
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.
Rutter et al. (2004)
• A number of children
showed an insecure
attachment pattern
called disinhibited
attachment disorder/
reactive attachment
disorder

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Reactive Attachment Disorder
Characterized by
• lack of preference for
contact with caregivers
versus relative strangers
• definite lack of checking
back with the parent in
anxiety provoking
situations

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Reactive Attachment Disorder
• Reactive attachment
disorder develops because
the child's basic needs for
comfort, affection and
nurturing aren't met and
loving, caring attachments
with others are never
established.
• This may permanently
change the child's growing
brain, hurting the ability to
establish future
relationships.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Reactive Attachment Disorder

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.


Conclusion
according Rutter et al (2004)
• lack of personalized care
giving may well be the key
factor that puts children’s
social development at
risk.
• Generally the data
revealed a major degree
of recovery in children
suffering from profound
institutional deprivation:
the effects were not fixed
and irreversible.

Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.