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Predaceous Insects

Predators
 Strategy :
1. Hunt prey (carabid; hymenopterans) :
a. vespids(muddauber wasp)
b. eumenids
c. sphecids
2. Lie in wait and grasp prey if within reach
a. mantids
b. bugs
c. reduviids
d. phymatids
Strategy of predators
3. browse thru prey, when prey is relatively
sessile, they grasp –
 Coccinellids
 Lacewing larvae
 syrphid larvae
Kinds of predators

a. Chewing type- beetle, orthopterans


Inject toxins into the prey to immobilize
them & facilitate easy feeding
b. Sucking type – bugs, lacewing larvae, syrphid
larvae ; inject digestive enzymes facilitating
intake of fluid food
Predators maybe :
1. Polyphagous – Odonata, Mantodea, Chrysopidae,
Reduviidae
2. Oligophagous – coccinellids, syrphids on aphids,
mealybugs, scale insects
3. monophagous – Rodolia cardinalis against Icerya
purchasi

Successful biocon:
1. Rodolia cardinalis vs. I. purchasi
2. Tytthus (Cyrtorhinus ) mundulus against Perkinsiella
saccharicida (sugarcane leafhopper)
1. Mantids (Mantodea)

Heirodula patellifera
Prey:
Small larvae, small to medium sized
insects
2. Predatory Orthopterans
Gryllidae (Trogonidiinae)
oAnaxipha
oMetioche egg feeders

Prey:
1. Aphids
2. Eggs of rice insects
3. Scale insects
2. Predatory Orthopterans
Tettigoniidae (Katydid )
o Conocephalinae , Conocephalus on stemborer
eggs
o Listroscelinae -predaceous

Prey
1. aphids
2. eggs of rice insects
3. scale insects
3. Earwigs (Dermaptera)
Labidura riparia
Nala lividipennis
Euborellia sp.
Proceus simulans on hesperiids

Prey
1. aphids
2. eggs of rice insects
3. scale insects
4. small insects
4. Predatory Thrips

Thysanoptera
Prey:
1. thrips
2. aphids
3. mites
4. whiteflies
5. Predatory true bugs

Hemiptera
Prey:
1. Thrips
2. Lepidopteran eggs
3. Aphids
4. Small larvae
Predatory true bugs

a. Enicocephalidae -found under litter, rotting


wood, under stone
b. Miridae - specializes on eggs & larvae of
Helicoverpa & small flies

Cyrtopeltis tenuis feed on tobacco


Cyrtorhinus lividicornis feed on leafhopper &
planthoppers; not hindered by trichomes
Predatory true bugs
Miridae
Deraecoris on aphids
Campyloma on ipil-ipil psyllids and
Sternorrrhynchus grp.
Piloporus
Stethorus feed on Stephanitis
c. Pyrrhochoridae
Antilochus feeds on Dysdercus
Predatory true bugs
Miridae
oDeraecoris on aphids
oCampyloma on ipil-ipil psyllids and
Sternorrrhynchus grp.
Piloporus
Stethorus feed on Stephanitis
c. Pyrrhochoridae
oAntilochus feeds on Dysdercus
oDidymus feeds on weevils, some moth larvae
Predatory true bugs
Big-eyed bug; Orius
Prey:
1. thrips
2. lepidopteran eggs
3. aphids
4. small larvae
Predatory true bugs
Minute pirate bugs –
Orius spp. and Anthocoris spp.
Cyrtorhinus, Podisus;
Prey:
1. thrips
2. lepidopteran aggs
3. thrips
4. small larvae
6. Lacewings (Neuroptera)
Chrysopa carnea
Prey
1. Thrips
2. Lepidopteran eggs
3. Aphids
4. Small larvae
6. Antlions (Neuroptera)

 Prey:
1. ants
2. aphids
7. Predatory Diptera
Syrphidae (flower or hover flies)
Ischiodon scutellaris
Prey:
1. thrips
2. aphids
3. scale insects
4. whiteflies
5. mites
7. Predatory Diptera
Robberfly
Prey:
1. small larvae, small insects

Tipulids
Prey
1. small larvae
2. small insects
Predatory Diptera
Pipunculidae
Tachinidae
Bombyliidae
Cecidomyiidae
Aphidolestes
Prey:
1. Small larvae
2. Small insects
8. Predatory Coleoptera
a. Coccinellidae (lady bird beetles, lady bugs, coccinellids
 oval, brightly colored with adult & larvae predatory
 Ex. Menochilus sexmaculata
 Chilomenes sexmaculata
 Coelophora inequalis
 Harmonia arcuata (plain orange)
 H. octomaculata (11 spotted)
 Rodolia cardinalis (vedalia beetle)
 Scymnus sp. ; Telsimia;
 Stethorus feeds on red spider mites
Predatory Coleoptera

b. Carabidae (ground beetles)


Ophionia nigrofasciata dark, shiny, flat thorax,
striated elytra

c. Staphylinidae (rove beetles)


 body long & slender, wings cover only portion
of the body
Both larvae & adults predatory on insects & red
spidermites
Predatory Coleoptera

Lampyridae (fireflies)
d.
Larvae predaceous on small insects and snails

e. Cicindellidae (tiger beetles)


oBright colored, metallic insects; often , elytra
with definite color pattern
oBoth larvae & adult predaceous on small
insects
oCryptolaemus montrouzieri
9. Odonata (dragon and damselfy)
Exclusively predaceous on both immature
and adult stages
Family: Coenagrionidae
oAgriocnemis sp. pygmaea & femina feed
on leafhopper and planthopper
oIschnura senegalensis
oPseudagrion –found in irrigation canal
Odonata
 b. Libellulidae
o Diplacodes trivialis
o Crocothemis sabina –Most predaceous
o Pantala flavescens
o Potamarcha obscura (circumtropical)
o Brachydiplax chalybea
o Tholymis tillarga crepuscular
o Zyxoma obtusum
o Neurothemis
o Trithema aurora
10. Predatory Hymenoptera

Predatory wasp- Vespa


Prey:

Predatory ants
1. small larvae, small insects
Spider mite

Stethorus picipe

Pale, oblong air egg of spider mite


destroyer
Insect Parasite
 Hosts are usually vertebrates.
 Phthiraptera-parasitic on birds and mammals
 Siphonaptera
 Dermaptera
 Diptera - Blood suckers
1. Calliphoridae 5. Sarcophagidae
2. Gasterophilidae 6. Oestridae
3. Hippoboscidae 7. Streblidae
4. Nycteribiidae

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