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INDICATORS OF HEALTH

NAME: SARITA KUMARI


CLASS: MSc PART 1 (NFP)
ROLL NO. 12
SUBJECT:- PUBLIC HEALTH AND
NUTRITION
WHAT IS MENT BY INDICATORS OF HEALTH

INDICATORS the word indicates its only indication of a given solution or reflection of that
solution
In WHO guidelines for health programme evalution They are define as variables help to
measure changes

HEALTH “ a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeign,and not mearly an
absense of disease or infirmity” (WHO)
Health cannot be measured in exact measurable form
CHARACTERISTIC OF IDEAL INDICATORS

 Should be valid
 Should be reliable and objectives
 Should be sensitive
 Should be specific
 Should be feasible
 Should be relevant
INDICATORS OF HEALTH CASSIFIED AS
1. MORTILITY INDICATORS
2. MORBILITY INDICATORS
3. DISABILITY RATES
4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS INDICATORS
5. HEALTH CARE DELIVARY INDICATORS
6. UTILIZATION RATES
7. INDICATORS OF SOCIAL AND MENTAL HEALTH
8. ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS
9. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS
10. HEALTH POLICY INDICATORS
11. INDICATORS OF QUALITY O LIFE AND
12. OTHER INDICATORS
1.MORTALITY INDICATORS

 Crude death rate :- It is define as number of death per 1000


population per year in a given community It indicates the rate of
which people are dying
 Expectation of life:- the average number of years that will be lived by
those born alive into a population if the current age specific mortality
rates persist. It is estimated for both sexes separately.
 Infant mortality rate:- it is the ratio of death under 1 year of age in
a given year to the total number of live birth in the same year
usually expressed as the rate per 1000 live birth
 Child mortality rate : it is the overall health status is the early
childhood (1-4 years) mortality rate. It is defined as the number of
deaths in a given year, per 1000 children in that age group
Continuing……..
 Under-5 proportionate mortality rate:- it is the proportion of total deaths
occurring in the under 5 age group . This can be use to reflect both infant
and child mortality rates
 Maternal (puerperal) mortality rate:- maternal mortality accounts for the
greatest proportion of death among women of reproductive age
 Disease- specific mortality rate:- morality rate can be computated for
specific diseases. It include number of other indicator such as
-death from cancer
-cardiovascular disease
-accidents
etc have emerged as measure of specific disease problems
 Proportional mortality rate:- it is measure of estimating the burden of a
disease in a community is proportional mortality rate.
2. MORBIDITY INDICATORS

 Morbidity indicator are used as a supplement mortality data to


describe the heath status of a population .
 The following morbidity rates are used for assessing ill heath in the
community
A. Incidence and prevalence
B. Notification rates
C. Attendance rates at out patient departments, heath centres. Etc
D. Admission, readmission and discharge rates
E. Duration of stay in hospital, and
F. Spell of sickness or absence from work or school.
3. DISABILITY RATES

 The disability rates are based on the premise or notion that health implies a
full range of daily activities
 There are two group
A. Event-type indictors
1. Number of days of restricted activity
2. Bed disability days
3. Work-loss days within a specific period
B. Person- type indicators
1. Limitation of
2. Limitation of activity
SULLIVAN’S INDEX
-it refers to the “expectation of life free of disability
-Sullivan’s index= life expectancy of the country – probable duration of
bed disability and inability to perform major activities
-It is considered one of the most advanced indicators currently available

HALE (Health-adjusted life expectancy)


-it is the equivalent number of years in full health that a new born can
expect to live based on current of ill health and mortality
-HALE is based on life expectancy at birth but include an adjustment for
time spent in poor health
DALY (Disability adjusted life year)
- It is define as the number of years of healthy life los due to all causes whether from
premature or disability
References
 K.Park,Concept of health and disease.In:Park’s textbook of preventive and
social medicine21ѕt:Banarsidas Bhanot publishers ,India; 2011.p. 24-26
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