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CRUDE OIL

Crude oil is a naturally-occurring substance


found in certain rock formations in the earth.
It is a dark, sticky liquid which, scientifically
speaking, is classified as a hydrocarbon. This
means, it is a compound containing carbon
and hydrogen, with or without non-metallic
elements such as oxygen and sulfur. Crude oil
is highly flammable and can be burned to
create energy. Along with its sister
hydrocarbon, natural gas, derivatives from
crude oil make an excellent fuel
Crude oil by products

• There are numerous products obtained from crude oil.


The list below shows some of the major components:
• LPG (liquid petroleum gas) or propane used in gas grills
• Butane - used in lighters
• Gasoline
• Kerosene - used in heaters and to make jet fuel
• Diesel
• Fuel oil - burned in boilers to generate electricity
• Asphalt - tar used to pave roads
• Lube oils - used to lubricate parts in engines, etc.
• Waxes
• Feedstocks for petro-chemical plants
Cargo planning prior to loading a cargo crude oil

Plan the status of the IG system and tank venting system


Refer to the vessel cargo operations manual for details of tank
grouping and suggested line up.
Ensure that the vessel stability and hull stresses are within safe
limits at all times during the operation.
Refer to the cargo operation manual for specific cargo handling
information and warning regarding the effects of fee
surface.
State in the plan how the following issues may be monitored;
• cargo planning rates
• starting procedure
• venting
• monitoring full and empty tanks
• location and readiness of pollution equipment
• shut down procedures both routine and emergency
• deballasting
• topping
• line up
Inert gas system
An oil tanker's inert gas system is one of the most
important parts of its design. Fuel oil itself is very
difficult to ignite, however its hydrocarbon vapors are
explosive when mixed with air in certain concentrations.
The purpose of the system is to create an atmosphere
inside tanks in which the hydrocarbon oil vapors cannot
burn Inert gas systems deliver air with an oxygen
concentration of less than 5% by volume. As a tank is
pumped out, it's filled with inert gas and kept in this safe
state until the next cargo is loaded. The exception is in
cases when the tank must be entered. Safely gas-freeing
a tank is accomplished by purging hydrocarbon vapors
with inert gas until the hydrocarbon concentration inside
the tank is under about 1%.
An oil tanker's inert gas system is one of the most
important parts of its design. Fuel oil itself is very
difficult to ignite, however its hydrocarbon vapors are
explosive when mixed with air in certain concentrations.
The purpose of the system is to create an atmosphere
inside tanks in which the hydrocarbon oil vapors cannot
burn Inert gas systems deliver air with an oxygen
concentration of less than 5% by volume. As a tank is
pumped out, it's filled with inert gas and kept in this safe
state until the next cargo is loaded. The exception is in
cases when the tank must be entered. Safely gas-freeing
a tank is accomplished by purging hydrocarbon vapors
with inert gas until the hydrocarbon concentration inside
the tank is under about 1%.
Loaded Passage
Competence requirements

1. Cargo tank ullages still need monitoring during the loaded passage
as well as ballast spaces for entry hydrocarbon leakage.

2. State which vessel stress and stability is to be monitored during the


exercise

3. Prior to arrival at the discharge port, a checklist needs to be


completed

4. State how the pressure and vacuum setting on the venting system
will be affected this issues.

5. Monitor the cargo tank pressure and the top up with inert gas if
necessary.

6. In the event of cargo leakage into a ballast space, activate


appropriate action plan and reporting procedure.
Commence discharging

Competence requirements
1. State and prepare the line set up prior commencing the discharge.

2. State and prepare the operational status of the IG plant.

3. Refer to the operations manual for specific cargo pump and cargo
discharge information.

4. Prepare the cargo pumps for operation.

5. Monitor the pump running with reference to:

• Suction and discharge pressures


• Cargo tank level
• Manifold flow
6. Balance pump speeds for common discharge when in
parallel.
7. Monitor and control suction and discharge pressures.
8. Commence the discharge in line with the best practice:
• fill the line and pump gradually.
• Ensure the pumproom is manned.
• Limit the number of tanks open at one time.
• Start the pump on slow speed and accepts hand over
from the engineer.
• Open the manifold terminal agreement.
• Direct the deck watch to carry out safety and counter
pollution monitoring.
• Monitor active and closed cargo tanks levels.

9. Continue to monitor longitudinal and transverse stability.


10. Continue to monitor draft, list and trim.
Pre-transfer preparation

• Prior to any transfer of cargo, the chief officer must


develop a transfer plan detailing specifics of the
operation such as how much cargo will be moved, which
tanks will be cleaned, and how the ship's ballasting will
change. The next step before a transfer is the pre
transfer conference. The pre transfer conference covers
issues such as what products will be moved, the order of
movement, names and titles of key people, particulars of
shipboard and shore equipment, critical states of the
transfer, regulations in effect, emergency and spill-
containment procedures, watch and shift arrangements,
and shutdown procedures.
• After the conference is complete, the person in charge
on the ship and the person in charge of the shore
installation go over a final inspection checklist. In the
United States, the checklist is called a Declaration of
Inspection or DOI. Outside of the U.S., the document is
called the "Ship/Shore Safety Checklist." Items on the
checklist include proper signals and signs are displayed,
secure mooring of the vessel, choice of language for
communication, securing of all connections, that
emergency equipment is in place, and that no repair
work is taking place.
Crude oil washing
• (COW) is washing out the residue from the tanks of an oil tanker
using the crude oil cargo itself, after the cargo tanks have been
emptied. Crude Oil is pumped back and preheated in the slop tanks,
then sprayed back via high pressure nozzles in the cargo tanks on to
the walls of the tank. Due to the sticky nature of the crude oil, the
oil clings to the tank walls, and such oil adds to the cargo 'remaining
on board (the ROB). By COWing the tanks, the amount of ROB is
significantly reduced, and with the current high cost of oil, the
financial savings are significant, both for the Charterer and the
Shipowner. If the cargo ROB is deemed as 'liquid and pumpable'
then the Charterers can claim from the owner for any cargo loss for
normally between 0.3% up to 0.5%. It replaced the load on top and
seawater washing systems, both of which involved discharging oil-
contaminated water into the sea. MARPOL 73/78 made this
mandatory equipment for oil tankers of 20,000 tons or greater
deadweight.
References:
www.wikepdia.com
www.intertanko.com
www.google.com

Prepared by:
MR. EGOS, JUNELO