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Cardiovascular

System
Hendra 03 Collection
Assistants of Physiology
Physiology Department
Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University
ANATOMY OF THE HEART
THE HEART WALL :
 Endocardium
 Myocardium
 Epicardium
 Pericardium
INTERNAL ANATOMY
OF THE HEART :
1. Right Atrium
2. Right Ventricle
3. Left Atrium
4. Left Ventricle
VALVES :
1. Semilunar valves : - aortic valve
- pulmonary valve
2. Atrioventricular valves : - bicuspid (mitral) valve
- tricuspid valve

POSITION OF THE HEART :


Left : linea medioclavicularis
sinistra
Right : linea parasternalis
dextra
Top : intercostal II
Bottom : intercostal V
The Conducting System

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node


2. Internodal pathways
3. Atrioventricular (AV) node
4. Bundle of His
5. Bundle branches
6. Purkinje fibers
Action Potential of the Heart
Heart Cycle
Heart Cycle :
1. Filling Phase
a. Rapid filling
b. Slow filling (diastasis)
c. Atrial contraction
2. Isovolumetric Contraction Phase
3. Ejection Phase
4. Isovolumetric Relaxation
Heart Sounds
There are four heart sounds :
S1 : the AV valves close
S2 : the semilunar valves close
S3 : blood flowing to the ventricles
S4 : atrial contraction
Regulation of heart
activities
1. Instrinsic regulation :
Heterometric :the ability of heart
to increase it’s pressure at different
heart volume
Homeometric : the ability of heart
to create different pressure at the
same volume
2.Extrinsic regulation
central nervous system
- autonomic nervous system
symphathetic (thoraco-lumbal)
parasymphathetic (cervico-sacral)
-baroreceptor reflex
-vasomotor area
hormonal
Cardiodynamics
CO = SV x HR
Cardiac Output (CO) : the amount of
blood pumped by each ventricle in 1
minute.
Stroke Volume (SV) : the amount of blood
pumped out of each ventricle during a
single beat.
Heart Rate : the frequency of heart beats
in 1 minute.
Cardiodynamics
End-Diastolic Volume (EDV) : the amount of
blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular
diastole (the start of ventricular systole)
End-Systolic Volume (ESV) : the amount of
blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of
ventricular systole (the start of ventricular
diastole)
Ejection Fraction : the percentage of the EDV
represented by the ESV.

EDV – ESV = SV
Factors Affecting Cardiac Output
Electrocardiography
(ECG/EKG)
Electrocardiography
(ECG/EKG)
1. P wave : atrial depolarization
2. QRS complex : ventricular depolarization
- Q : septum interventricular
- R : apex
- S : posterobasal
3. T wave : ventricular repolarization
4. U wave : late ventricular depolarization
DYSRHYTHMIA

1. Impulses Forming
2. Electrical Conduction
Impulses Forming

1. Bradycardia
2. Tachycardia
3. Premature contraction
Electrical Conduction

1. Sinoatrial block
2. Atrioventrikuler block
3. Reentry
4. Bundle branch block
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