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What is Qualitative
Qualitative research begins with assumption, a
worldview, the possible use of a theoretical lens, and
the study of research problems inquiring into the
meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or
human problem.

“Qualitative research is a situated activity

that locates the observer in the world.”
Characteristics of a Qualitative Research
 Nature Setting- qualitative researchers tend to collect data in
the field at the site where participants’ experience the issue or
problem under study.

 Researcher as Key Instrument- qualitative researchers collect

data through themselves through examining documents,
observing behavior, and interviewing participants.

 Multiple Sources of Data- researchers typically gather multiple

forms of data, such as interviews, observations, and documents,
rather than rely on a single data source.

 Inductive Data Analysis- researchers build their patterns,

involves researchers working back and forth between the themes
and the database until they establish a comprehensive set of
 Participant's Meanings- researchers keep a focus on learning the
meaning that the participants hold about the problem or issue, not the
meaning that the researchers bring to the research or writers from the

 Emergent Design- means that the initial plan for research cannot be
tightly prescribed, and that all phases of the process may change or

 Theoretical Lens- researchers often use s lens to view their studies,

such as the concept of culture. Sometimes, the study may be organized
around identifying the social, political, or historical context of the
problem under study.

 Interpretive Inquiry- a form of inquiry in which researchers make an

interpretation of what they see, hear, and understand.

 Holistic Account- this involves reporting multiple perspectives,

identifying the many factors involved in a situation, and generally
sketching the larger picture that emerges.
Purpose of the Study

Research Question

Theoretical Lens

Significance of the Study

Definition of Terms

Limitations and Delimitations

Organization of the Study


Research Design
Role of the Researcher
Research Participants
Data Collection
Data Analysis

Trustworthiness and Credibility

Ethical Consideration

Chapter 4 RESULTS


Implication for Practice

Implication for Further Research

Concluding Remarks
 Should be two to three pages
 Discussing problems and researches done by various
authorities around the world related to the present study .
 The last paragraph, should contain a personal account on
how the study will benefit he discipline.
 The last paragraph should also contain the “Research Gap”
– a personal statement that would signify that the research
has not come across any study dealing with the present
research topic.
“The researcher has not come across a study that
specifically discuss the _________________. Furthermore,
this study will provide relevant concepts that would possibly
create_____________ in the academic community.”
There were several books published which tackles Homosexuality. Stories,

anecdotes, and other printed materials have commemorated the regard on the said topic.

However, specific references that features gay lingo is still of limited number. Due to being

divided geographically, gay lingos in the country have different linguistic features. The Gay

lingo used in many provinces in Luzon would not necessarily dictate the same nature in the

provinces of the Visayas. Thus, emphasizes that Gay Lingo is area specific and therefore

should be studied in a specific area or group.

The shift is already apparent in the 20th Century studies entirely devoted to gay

language, Gayspeak, published in 1981. Although the introduction to Gayspeak observes that

‘homosexuals permeate all dimensions of society as males and females, blacks and whites,

rich and poor, rural and urban’ (Chesebro, 1981), none of the books’ contributions actually

examines racial, class or geographical difference.

Purpose of the Study
 Identify the approach applied in qualitative research
 Phenomenology
 Ethnographic
 Case Study
 Biographical Narrative
 Grounded Theory
 establish the purpose why study should be conducted
 Who were the Informants and Participants
 State your qualification why should you conduct the
qualitative study
Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the perception of gays in

their reasons of using gay lingo in communication in schools how it evolves and what are the

linguistic features of this specialized language.

As a homosexual, I am adept in using gay lingo in various speaking situations with my fellow gay

friends. Our identity of being a homosexual is always associated with how we differ from the other sex

(heterosexuals). Language has been one of our ways to be different: to have self identity as how we perceive

it. This specialized language became our tool to have an identity.

In general, the aim of this phenomenological study is really to dig more on the function of

language in homosexual conversations which consequently establish the identity of sexuality of being a

Research Questions
 General questions
 What and How questions….
 Minimum of Two maximum of Three

1. What are the experiences of students engaged in

child labor?
2. How did students cope with the situation of being
engaged in child labor?
3. What are the insights of students engaged in child
Theoretical Lens
 Theory, Proposition, Concept, Result of a Study….that
served as the basis in conducting the qualitative study.
 Note: it is only a working theory, this may change as
results of the study will come in and deviates with the
course of the research
 Give your justification why the theory was chosen
 Should be two to three pages
 The older the year the better…
Significance of the Study
 Introductory statement should be on “how relevant is
the study to the discipline”

 In paragraph format, should be personalized

 Macro to micro in presentation

Definition of Terms
 Define the important terms used in the study
 Base the terms on the title
 May be conceptually or operationally defined
 May be one to two pages
Limitations and Delimitations
 Half of the Page
 Identify the setting of the Study
 Establish why the study is limited to a certain point
 Discuss the perceived weakness of the study
 Establish that the data to be gathered doesn’t
represent the general view (Generalizability)
The scope of the study is only among gay students in schools in

Tagum City, since it has been observed that Gay Lingo is area specific which

isolates its distinctive features from other forms of gay lingo in other places.

This was supported by Roque (2008) in his blog article; where he pointed out

that gay lingos in the Philippines have distinct features. He attributed the

individuality of the features on how gays formulate the vocabularies in

reference from their first language, second language and other languages they

associated. To lighten up the point, the gay lingo used in Manila would not

necessarily be the same of that in Davao or even in the locale (Tagum City).

Therefore a specific area is considered in this study.

Organization of the Study
 An overview of the contents of each chapter

 Chapter 1
 Chapter2
 Chapter 3
 Chapter 4
 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 presents the very nature of gay lingo that is unique in the Philippines and
particularly in schools in Tagum City. It also presents the factor of gay lingo conversations. It is here
were some simple questions on its origin was answered and will be the basis for a more elaborate
discussion in the outcome of the qualitative research. Moreover, bringing about all these essential
facts on gay lingo would give way to why such study is necessary.

Chapter 2 discusses varied studies and readings on gay lingo, sexuality, factors of gender,
sexuality indexing and the findings of other related studies specifically on how indexing contributes
on the linguistic features of gay lingo.

Chapter 3 deals with the design of the study, the role of the researcher and the participants
involved. Data Collection and analysis is included. Trustworthiness and Credibility of the study is
explained together with its ethical consideration.

Chapter 4 discusses the results of the study based from research questions conducted to the
participants, which would shed light on reasons underlying the phenomenological aspects of views.
These are the views gathered from the participants involved.

Chapter 5 shows the basis of findings and its divergence of the theories presented by
sociolinguistic authors. It also discusses the explanation of its implication in the practice,
sociolinguistics and further research to be conducted together with its concluding remarks.
Review of Related Literature
Review of Related Literature
 Cluster the readings base on the important keywords and
concepts of the study
 Paraphrase the readings presented
 Use transition markers
 Avoid one sentence paragraphs
 Inset citation “….Robins (2013)…” should be at the last part
of the paragraph “…(Robins, 2013).”
 Use inventory “….(Chakraborty and Daz, 2005; Doepke,
2006; Lopez-Calva, 2001; Zimmerman, 2007)..” Note:
should be alphabetical
 Provide synthesis
Sample Synthesis
The above-mentioned articles discuss the provisions
of the government in its program to reduce the risk of
drop-out if not, to eliminate the problem. It also presents
readings on the relevance of the topics concerning drop-
outs since they have become the bases of the researcher in
the formulation of the support to the problem presented,
conclusions and recommendations.
The readings also elaborated the importance of the
programs initiated by the school in order reduce the drop-
out rate of the enrolment. This, has become the
springboard in the formulation of the enhancement
Research Design
 Identify the Approach applied in qualitative research
 Phenomenology
 Ethnographic
 Case Study
 Biographical Narrative
 Grounded Theory
 Should be with authors (preferably the works of
 Give justification why the approach was used
 Three pages minimum
Qualitative Approaches
 Biographical Narrative- Exploring the life of an
 Phenomenology- Understanding the essence of the
 Grounded Theory- Developing a theory grounded in
data from the field
 Ethnography- Describing and interpreting a culture-
sharing group
 Case Study- Developing an in-depth description and
analysis of a case or multiple cases
Role of the Researcher
 Establish the roles played in the research
 Give statements with authority
 Should be personalized
 One page
Role of the Researcher

In this study, I took the role of the moderator and a chronicler in the discussion.

According to Dornyei (2007) in focus group interviews the interviewer is usually referred to as

the 'moderator', and this special name reflects the fact that the researcher's role differs from

that in one-to-one interviews. He added that although they still need to ask questions, during

the session they need to function more as facilitators of the discussion than as interviewers in

the traditional sense. Because the dynamic of the focus group is one of the unique features of

this method, the researcher’s role inevitably involves some group leadership functions,

including making sure that nobody dominates the floor and that even the shyer participants

have a chance to express their views.

Research Participants
 Identify the informants and participants of the study
 Give supporting statements with author
 Informants are for in-depth interview while
participants are for focus group discussion
 Purposive sampling will be used as techniques to get
the sample
 Establish the inclusion and exclusion criteria
 One page
 Biographical Narrative- One
 Phenomenology- 10 to 25 participants/informants
 Grounded Theory- 20-60 participants/informants
 Ethnography- 20-60 participants/informants
 Case Study- 5-10 cases
Research Participants

In this phenomenological study, the participants were taken from representations of gays in the

academic community. According to Dornyei (2007), the size of a focus group ranges between 6-10

(sometimes I2) people. Fewer than six people would limit the potential of the 'collective wisdom' whereas too

large a size makes it difficult for everyone to participate. When designing a focus group study, the two key

technical questions to decide are (a) whether to have homogeneous or heterogeneous people in a group; and

(b) how many groups to have.

There were representations of young gays who were between 18 to 21 years old. They

comprised the homosexuals who served as the participants of the study. The said division was base on the

particular college school age group in which gay lingo gain its popularity over the years.

Raagas (2010) suggested that a purposive sampling of five to twenty five individuals will be used

in the phenomenological study. The number of participants in the study will be 28 in 4 groups. Each group

shall have 7 gay friends. In this study, it is within the suggested range number of participants.
Data Collection
 Personalized the discussion for the data collection
 Use authors to support some statements
 Identify the steps done using transition markers
 Establish the statement how “Triangulation of data”
was done
 One and a half page
Data Collection

The following steps were employed in gathering the data:

First, through purposive sampling technique, the participants were identified. They were

requested to sign a consent form and agree to the condition stipulated that their participation is

voluntary and that they were willing to impart their knowledge as needed in the study.

Second, the participants were given an orientation about the study and were asked to

participate through a focus group interview as a means of data collection. The process started with an

introductory phase, in which the moderator welcomes the participants, outlines the purpose of the

discussion and sets the parameters of the interview in terms of length and confidentiality. Researcher

also spent some time explaining why they recorded the interview and what sort of technical issues this

raises in a group discussion (particularly talking one at a time). Finally, it is important to emphasize that

the discussion is about personal views and experiences and therefore there are no right or wrong

answers (Dornyei, 2007).

Data Analysis
 Personalized the discussion for the data analysis
 Use authors to support some statements
 Identify the steps done using transition markers
 highlight how transcribing was done
 One and a half page
Data Analysis

After transcribing the focus group interview, statements that relate to the topic were

separated into core ideas that reflect into specific thought. The responses of the participants

were grouped into major themes that reflect the various aspects of the phenomenon. The data

on the focus group interview were analyzed based on their perception on query number one on

the evolution of specialized language of homosexuality in the academic community in Tagum.

The transcribed data that were taken from the simulated conversation for query

number two (2) what are the linguistic features of the specialized language?, this data in the

simulated conversation in gay lingo and the listed vocabulary and expressions used during

conversations was analyzed in there linguistic features (morphology, phonology, semantics and

syntax) when used during conversations in school.

Trustworthiness and Credibility
 Personalize discussion
 Divide sections of discussion using the four elements
 Credibility
 Dependability
 Conformability
 Transferability
 After discussing how each element was addressed
(personalized statements) cite authors to support the
Trustworthiness and Credibility

When I conducted the qualitative research, I put into account the responses of
my informants. I also meticulously consider all the details of the data. I checked and
rechecked all the transcriptions and the importance of the data that relate to each other
on their themes.

To establish trustworthiness and credibility in the study, Creswell and Miller

(2000) suggested the choice of legitimacy of the procedures. The discussions about
trustworthiness are governed by the research lens and its paradigm assumptions that can
help the procedures in the study. I contend that in this study, the plausibility was
determined by the response of the informants. Silverman (2007) posed the questions on
“Does it matter?” and “How is the credibility be sustained and recognized?”

Credibility is an evaluation of whether or not the research findings represent a

“credible” conceptual interpretation of the data drawn from the participants’ original
data according to Lincoln & Guba (1985). To address credibility, I used three techniques.
First, I presented the credibility of the experiences as an intent of truthfully illustrating
and knowing the facts which are phenomenon in which my participants are included.
Second, in designing the research procedure, I conducted a focus group discussion which
extracted ideas on the evolution of gay lingo in schools and also its process and systems
how it is being used. Third, I deliberately asked the informants to lists gay words they
used during conversations and compared them with the gay words used in the
simulation. My intention here was to create layers of data from each participant.
Transferability is the degree to which the findings of this inquiry
can apply or transfer beyond the bounds of the project according to
Lincoln & Guba, (1985). To address transferability in this study, I have
included in the Appendix about several of the data analysis documents
used to give answer to the research question in order to gain access to the
possible inquiry. This will give other researchers the facility to transfer the
conclusions or recommendation as bases for further study.

Dependability is an assessment of the quality of the integrated

processes of data collection, data analysis, and phenomenal explanation.
Confirmability is a measure of how well the inquiry’s findings are
supported by the data collected according to Lincoln & Guba (1985) To
address the issues of dependability and confirmability in this study, I
banked on an audit trail of the participants responses wherein their
identity were treated with confidentially. After the video and audion tape
was transcribed, the text were given back to the respondents for
authentication and were asked to sign a verification form. For
confirmability, I asked the audit of a competent peer who is a language
teacher and a Master in Applied Linguistics in Australia. After the
completion of my data analysis, the results in Chapter Four, and the
discussions in Chapter Five, my auditor had assessed carefully my audit
trail with original transcripts from the interview, data analysis documents.
The auditor had assessed the dependability and confirmability of the study
by signing the verification letter.
Ethical Consideration
 Personalized statements with authors to support in
addressing ethical consideration in the conduct of the
 Establish the use of the “Informed Consent”
 Discuss the how “Confidentiality” was addressed
 Emphasize how benefits outweigh the risks
Ethical Considerations

Homosexuality is a sensitive issue in some culture in the country. Some considered

the preference as an act of promiscuity and not confirming from moral values. In this study, I

made it a point that gay lingo is discussed academically and a legitimate and essential topic of

sociolinguistics. This foremost became my aim to put gay lingo in the pages of books in

different branches of linguistics.

Graciano and Raulin (2010) considered ethical consideration as the integral part of

the research design process. Silverman, 2007 added that ethical considerations can be

clarified by consulting the ethical guidelines of one’s professional association.

 Present the results base on the arrangements of the
research questions.
 First part, preliminary discussions on how the data was
gathered, the sample of the study, process
 Present results by themes
 Provide sample quotations of the theme with the file
 Note: Purely presentation of results no discussion
 Should be comprehensive
 Provide Table for themes generated
Sex Talk. The reasons why gays use gay lingo would identify not only the evolution

of gay lingo in schools but also the frequency of its influence. Its influence and addictive

qualities made a mark not only among the gay community but also in pop culture. Gays use

gay lingo to have a sense of confidentiality when they discuss topics about sex. The informants

mentioned that:

Gay 1: Yes…we talk about people…or when we talk about

Gay 5: Specially that…
Gay 6: Agree….binayot jud na…(FGD4)
Gay 1: To make it confidential…
Interviewer: To make it confidential…What was the thing that make it
Gay 1: Kanang kuan…sex affair…kanang all about boys…yeah
Interviewer: Sex?
Gay 4: Most of the time…(FGD1)
Sample Table
Experiences of Students Engaged in Child Labor

Essential Themes Thematic Statements

Pressing Need for Labor Have to work to help parents
Have to work to buy personal needs and
school projects
Underpayment of Services Receiving small salary
Aware of being underpaid
Delayed salary
Unhealthy Physical Condition Vulnerability to accidents and injuries
Feeling week no energy
 Personal account on the result being presented
 Discuss also the observations during the conduct of
the study
The responses of the participants through in-depth interview and
Focused Group Discussion have provided a clearer picture of the
experiences, coping mechanisms and their insights as they engaged in
child labor.
The students shared that their experiences regarding child labor are
triggered by the reasons of engaging in the child labor particularly in
the mining area which include the pressing need for labor.
The participants also disclosed their strategies in coping with the
problems they met. These include self-denial of hardships, medication
when ill and upholding ambitions. Moreover, they also gave insights to
their peers like considering the importance of schooling and
importance of work.
Generally, the voices of toil from the indigenous youth learners have
defined their diverse but beautiful experiences, in different situations,
and settings, yet with similar struggles to survive the challenges of child
Discussion and Conclusion
Discussions of the Results
 Introductory paragraphs should give an overview of
the approach used
 Personal statements
 Present discussion based on the declarative form of
the research questions.
 Discussions should be supported with authors
 Themes generated should be highlighted within the
Sample for the introductory paragraph
This chapter deals with the discussions and conclusion of the major themes and analysis, which

were drawn from the research questions.

The goal of this phenomenological study was to underscore and expound the findings on the

evolution of the specialized language of homosexuality in the academic community in Tagum and the linguistic

features (phonology, morphology, semantics and syntax) of the specialized language. Gay lingo in the

Philippines is widely used. You can hear people using it in streets, establishments and even in schools. Gay

lingo is considered to be a language of one’s sexuality. Kulick (2003) stated that the study of language and

sexuality encompasses not only questions about how people enact sexuality and perform sexual identity in

their talk, but also questions about how sexuality and sexual identity are represented linguistically in a variety

of discourse genres. Homosexuals consider using gay lingo as an expression of one’s sexual preference.
Sample on the discussion with themes
Evolution of gay lingo in the academic community. The findings were classified into major

themes which generated ideas on the phenomenon. These ideas concretized the evolution of gay lingo in the

informants’ respective schools. The first theme revealed how gays learn to use gay lingo. I found out that

gays learn to use gay lingo most likely from gay friends who knows how to speak gay lingo. It traces back to

environmental influences which is related to theories of language being behavioristic. Gay lingo is acquired

just like language through experience.

The more gays are exposed to gay lingo speakers the more likely they will be able to acquire

through practice the specialized language. Gaudio (2003) expounded this claim when he discussed in his

article that mutual understanding of the structures expressed in a language or any form of communication

would result to reciprocation of ideas, thoughts and feelings. In the case of “Gayspeak”, it became popular

due to the shared understanding that all individuals posses which made it widely used. In the findings, it was

also revealed that they were also using gay lingo not only to homosexuals but also to some who can

understand what they are saying in some cases the straight people.
 Discuss how the study would benefit the discipline
 It should be based on the following elements:
 Implication for Practice
 Implication for Future Research
 Personal account should be discussed
Implications in Language Teaching

The result of the analyses in the linguistic features (phonology, morphology,

semantics and syntax) could be used for teaching on the influence of language in social

context. It could also be helpful in explaining how subgroups in society could develop their

own language to communicate with each other. This will also be helpful on explaining how

language is affected by situations and how words could be associated to form new words.

The results would also concretize the structure of gay lingo. This will also motivate

other learning institutions in the country to study the gay lingo that developed in their

locality. They could use the classifications made on each linguistic feature as reference in

conducting their own study.

Implication for Further Research

The result in the focus group discussion gave an overview on how gay lingo evolves in the academic

community. Its evolution was traced back on the stream of influence it has to the community where it is being used.

Gay lingo defines being gay. It gives a sense of identity for a homosexual who longs for respect from a society

where he belongs. The evolution of gay lingo is much deeper and should be given credit by conducting further


A larger community as the setting for further research would be relevant to give wider perspective as to

how it evolves in the society. The informants could be upgraded to gays belonging to the working class. Finding out

the difference of how gays used gay lingo from those who were working in salons, establishments, companies and

high esteemed professions. It would also be beneficial to find out how gays are treated in communities to find

whether this affected on their usage of gay lingo. Another study could be attributed on the linguistic features of gay

lingo in different areas whether they are distinctive or similar.

Concluding Remarks
 Final Statement
 Personalized
 Discuss the experience as you conducted the research
Concluding Remarks

When I first conceptualized my qualitative research, I hesitated. I contemplated that this research would

raise controversy and would do me harm than good. I originally considered of having a simple dissertation title so

that I could finish early. I spent countless hours and sleepless nights just to come up with a simple title for my

dissertation. But a segment in a television show made me change my perception. The segment featured gays, their

lives, their passion for beauty pageants and their sparkling personalities. I was not actually satisfied watching the

segment. I felt sad that the only topic they could discuss is on how desperate gays wanted to be like women.

Beyond every woman’s dress they wear, beyond every makeup they put on, beyond every sway of the

hips when they walk is a story. A story that was screaming so loud in a voiceless tone. A story that was breaking

boundaries yet no one cared to pay attention. This story can be told on their own tongue, on their own words, on

their own language. And this remarkable story is what I want to share in my study. I felt so passionate in doing this

scholarly work. It became my calling.

Gay lingo has always been an expression of a gay’s blissful feelings, erotic emotions, and even his

poignant defeat. It is a specialize language that truly defined a gays culture: A culture full of color and life. In

sociolinguistics, language is culture and I could say that gay lingo is definitely gay culture. It is unique and

Making the Title
Be Creative….
No holds bar…..

Sample Titles:

Morpho-Semantic Analysis of Gay Lingo: A PHENOMENOLOGY

Voices of Students in Child Labor

“I Am Not Afraid”: A phenomenological Study Krashen’s Affective

Filter Hypothesis

Broken But Not Shattered: Voices of Single Mothers

“I Want To be Heard”: A Phenomenological Study on Rights of Gays