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Unit 9 Process 2 Actions in Sequence

Section 1 Presentation
a.Look and read:
Assembly sequence of a prefabricated building.
The sequence is divided into four stages or phases:
Phase 1

Ground is excavated.
Concrete foundations are constructed.
Column base plates are fixed.

Steel Columns are erected.

Event 1 Initially, the ground is excavated.


Event 2 Then, the concrete foundations are constructed.

Event 3 Later, the column base plates are fixed.


Event 4 Finally, the steel columns are erected.

Now look at the drawings of the next three stages and make statements about the sequence of events in phases 2,3 and 4.
Phase 2

Roof decking is put in


Upper floor steel columns

are erected.
Concrete floor slabs are put
in place.
Beams and bracing are fixed

Phase 3

Weatherproof roof
membrane is laid.
Balustrade fixing plates are
Corner units are erected.
Horizontal cladding panels
are fixed.

Vertical cladding panels are


Phase 4
Section 2 Development
a.Look and read:
8. Read this:
During building construction, several things went wrong so there are several changes
to be made to the bar chart in exercise 5. Here is a description of what happened:
Excavation was delayed for two weeks because the excavator broke down. Therefore
the machine driver could not start work until week 3. As the steel erectors had to wait
until the machine driver had completed their work, they were also delayed by two
weeks. Consequently, the cladding fixers could not start until week 17. Bricks were in
short supply during week 15 to 20 and this resulted in the bricklayer working three
weeks longer than expected. So the plumbers and the roofing contractor started three
weeks later. In week 30 the joiners went on strike which was settled after one week.
However, this meant both the carpenters and the glaziers started one week late. The
wrong paint was delivered to the decorators, which delayed them by one week, but by
putting on extra men the building was completed on schedule.

Now draw a new bar chart using the information in the passage.

9. Make a list of other things that could go wrong on a building site. Say when they might
occur and how they could affect the time schedule:
Section 3 Reading
10 Read this:
When an architect receives a commission for a building, he meets the client and discusses his
requirements. After visiting the site, the architect draws up preliminary plans and, together with a
rough estimate of the cost, submit them to the client for his approval. If the client suggests changes,
the architect incorporates them into the final design which shows the exact dimension of every part
of the building. At this stage, several building contractors are invited to bid for the job of constructing
the building. When they submit their tenders or prices, the architect assists his client in selecting the
best one and helps him to draw up a contract between the client and the contractor.
Work now starts on the building. As construction proceeds, the architect makes periodic inspections
to make sure that the building is being constructed according to his plans and that the materials
specified in the contract are being used. During the building period, the client pays the bills from the
contractor. Subsequently, the contractor completes the building and the client occupies it. For six
months after completion there is a period known as the ‘defects liability period’. During this period,
the contractor must correct any defects that appear in the fabric of the building. Finally, when all the
defects have been corrected, the client takes full possession of the building.
Now find a word or an expression in the passage which means:
1.to be given the job of designing a building
2.to offer to a client for his consideration
3.to combine into a whole
4.to offer to do some work at a certain price.
5.to look at the building work in detail at regular intervals.
6.named or described exactly.
7.an interval of time after the building has been finished during which the contractor is responsible.
8.to have complete ownership of the building.
a.Complete this flow diagram:

appoints an architect a). … for a building

gives architect his b). ……. visits c). ………..

approves e). ………. draws up d). ………

f). ………. them into the final


chooses a contractor submits tender assists his client in selecting a

g). _____

signs a contract with the j). signs a contract with the i).
helps clients h). ....
______ ____

start work on
k). ……..….

pay m). …… from submits l). …….. to client makes n). ……..

p). …..the building o). ….... the building make sure that the building is
completed according to the
r). …………… of the building corrects defect in the building
during the q). …..
Section 4 Revision
a.Look at this diagram of a prefabricated building:

Ask and answer question like this:

Example: Why is the steel frame erected before the wall planks have been fixed?
Because the wall planks are supported by the steel frame.
a.Look at these drawings of the same building:

Make sentences saying what the dimensions marked on the drawings are:
Example : The floor to ceiling height is 2.700 mm.
14. Read this:
The external walls are made up of brick cladding, wall planks, windows, doors, heads and sills,
stanchion casings and inner lining panels. While the steel frame is being erected, the wall planks
and floor units are fixed. At the same time, the stanchions are enclosed in casings which serve
the function of resisting fire. The precast concrete floor units are capable of carrying load of up
to 5 kN/sq m. The wall planks are design to be weather proof and to support the outer cladding.
The aluminium heads, sills and windows are then fixed from inside the building. After this, the
900 mm and 1.800 mm wide external doors are installed. These doors are either aluminium
framed and pre-glazed or hard wood framed and glazing is done on site. Finally, the internal sills
and lining panels are installed. These form a cavity for the heating and electrical services. A grill
underneath the sill, together with an air intake at skirting level, enables air to circulate up past
the finned heating element. The lining panels are capable of being removed to give access to
the services.
Now label this drawing:

Section through the external wall

15. Write a short passage giving the sequence of events in constructing the external walls only.
16. Now complete the following sentences to match the idea in the brackets:
1.The external walls …………………(structure)
2.The wall planks and floor units ……………..(time)
3.The stanchion casings …………………(function)
4.The precast concrete floor units ………….(ability)
5.The wall planks …………………..(function)
6.The external doors …….(measurement)
7.The glazing of the hardwood framed doors ……(location)
8.The internal sills and lining panels ………….(function)
9.The grill …….. (location)
10.The grill and air intake ……………….(function)
11.The lining panels ………………..(ability)
Answer these questions:

• Why do you think the aluminium heads, sills and windows are designed to be fixed from
inside the building?
• What is the function of the fins on the heating element?
• Are the aluminium framed windows glazed on site?
• What are the advantages of using aluminium instead of steel to make the windows?
• What other types of cladding could be used instead of brick?
• What could this type of building be used for?