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Biomass Power

Plant challenges in
India
Presented by,
Ashish Garg
Ashish Kumar
Ashwary Sharma
Ashwini Palo
Balaji Raparthi
Introduction
 Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living
organisms.
 Biomass is a Renewable Energy source which can be
converted to Energy using Thermal , Chemical and
Biochemical conversion.
 Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to
derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other
hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include
corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn
stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops,
and woody plants.
Global Importance
 Biomass materials are used since millennia.
 Until the middle of 19th century, biomass dominated the
global energy supply(70% share).
 With rapid increase in fossil fuel use, the share of biomass in
total energy declined steadily but global consumption of
wood energy has continued to grow.
 Globally, the energy content of biomass residues in agriculture
based industries annually is estimated nearly a quarter of
global primary energy use.
 About 32% of the total primary energy use in the country is
still derived from biomass and more than 70% of the country's
population depends upon it for its energy needs.
Biomass Power in India
 Installed capacity of Biomass is as follows: up to 28.02.2013
Source: MNRE
Bio Mass Power Bagasse Co-Gen Biomass Non bagasse
Co-Gen
Grid connected(MW) 1263.60 2300.93 ---
Off grid(MWeq) 146.892 --- 443.10
Family
 plant(Lakhs) --- --- 46.11

 India’s Biomass Potential is about 18000MW covering agricultural


and forestry residues and about 5000 MW additional power could
be generated through bagasse based cogeneration
 The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about
500 millions metric tones per year.
Government Initiatives
 Fiscal incentives such as 80% accelerated depreciation,
concessional import duty, excise duty, tax holiday for 10 years
etc., are available for Biomass power projects.

 State Electricity Regulatory Commissions have determined


preferential tariffs and Renewable Purchase Standards (RPS).

 Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency


(IREDA) provides loan for setting up biomass power and
bagasse cogeneration projects.
Biomass Technology in India
1. Combustion:
 The thermo chemical processes for conversion of biomass to
useful products involve combustion, gasification or pyrolysis.
 The cycle used is the conventional ranking cycle with biomass
being burnt in high pressure boiler to generate steam.
 The net power cycle efficiencies that can be achieved are
about 23-25%.
2. Cogeneration In Sugar Mills:
 Sugar industry has been traditionally practicing cogeneration
by using bagasse as a fuel.
Supply Chain Management- Fundamentals
 With regards to Food Products, the logistics activities are carried out by different
operators such as manufacturers, distributors, service suppliers, consumers,
and could be grouped in 7 categories-
 Order Management (Order receipt, elaboration, transmission, implementation
and invoicing)
 Management & Stock Control (Definition of supply timing and quantity,
inventory upload and download, products and packaging codification)
 Warehousing (Conservation of goods, qualitative and quantitative controls
before shipment)
 Shipment (Activities related to product movement and shipment receipt)
 Packaging (Pallets)
 Delivery (Products delivery from the starting point, to the destination)
 Sales Returns Management and Waste Disposal
Biomass-to-Bioenergy supply
chain
 BIOMASS POWER UPSTREAM PROCESSES:
1. Feed stock supply
2. Biomass conversion

 BIOMASS POWER DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES:


1. Bioenergy Distribution
2. Bioenergy End Use
Market Map of Biomass use in Power Plant
Biomass Logistics
Energy from biomass is reliable as it is free of fluctuation unlike
wind power and does not need storage to be used in times of
non-availability as is the case with solar. Still it is not the
preferred renewable energy source till now, the primary reason
that may be cited is the biomass supply chain.
Key challenges in Biomass PP
 Biomass availability is not certain for whole year.

 States having agricultural-based economy have not properly been


able to utilize the opportunity and figure low on biomass energy
utilization.

 Biomass price increases very fast after commissioning of power


project and therefore government tariff policy needs an annual
revision --- Operations become unviable with time

 Lack of mechanization in Indian Agriculture Sector

 Defragmented land holdings


Challenges Contd..
 Most of the farmers are small or marginal

 Government policy is the biggest factor behind lack of investment in


biopower sector in states with high biomass potential.

 Transportation cost

 Not all the biomass which is regarded as agri-waste is usually a


waste

 Lack of efficient technologies


Feed stock supply is the essential first link in the
biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain
The Biomass Procurement
Model
The biomass procurement model that is typically followed in
India are :

 Route #1 – Biomass Producer –>Transport Contractor –>


Biomass Collection Centres (BCC’s) –> Power Producers

 Route #2 – Biomass Producers –> Waste Processing Mills


–>Biomass Power Producers
Key Strategies for Effective Biomass
Feedstock Procurement
 Obtaining a written formal supply agreement with a
reputable, local supplier.
 A bioenergy project that is totally reliant on only one source
of feedstock will be at risk, so two supply contracts are even
better.
 Hire an independent professional to verify one’s biomass
supply projections.
 Own captive biomass source ( Ex: Orient Green Power)
 Transition from a residues-based approach to an integrated,
dedicated feedstock supply system using energy crops, plus
residues.
Other Recommendations
 Decentralization of biomass supply mechanism.

 Biomass power plant operators may explore the possibility of


using energy crops as a substitute for crop wastes, in case of
crop failure. Bamboo and napier grass can be grown on
marginal and degraded lands.

 Technology improvement
Thank You