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OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

OUTLINE OF LESSON

1. INTRODUCTION
2. TYPES OF OVERCURRENT RELAYS
3. RELAY CO-ORDINATION PROCEDURE
4. GRADING MARGIN
5. SETTING THE PARAMETERS OF TIME-
DELAY OVERCURRENT RELAY
OUTLINE OF THE LESSON

Relay coordination
(a) Discrimination by both time and
current
(b) Combined IDMT and HIGH SET
INSTANTANEOUS over current
relay
OUTLINE OF THE LESSON
1.Relay coordination
Combined IDMT and HIGH SET
INSTANTANEOUS over current relay
2. Earth fault protection
INTRODUCTION

• Protection against excess current was


naturally the earliest protection systems to
evolve
• From this basic principle has been evolved
the graded over current system, a
discriminate fault protection.
• “over current” protection is different from
“over load protection”.
• Overload protection makes use of relays
that operate in a time related in some
degree to the thermal capability of the
plant to be protected.
• Over current protection, on the other hand ,
is directly entirely to the clearance of the
faults, although with the settings usually
adopted some measure of overload
protection is obtained.
TYPES OF OVERCURRENT
RELAYS
• Based on the relay operating characteristics ,
overcurrent relays can be classified into three
groups
– Definite current or instantaneous
– Definite time
– Inverse time
DEFINITE-CURRENT RELAYS
• This type of relay operates instantaneously when
the current reaches a predetermined value.

time

Definite
current current
DEFINITE TIME CURRENT
RELAYS

• This type of relay operates after a definite time


when the current reaches a pre-determined
value.

time

Definite
time

Definite current
current
INVERSE TIME RELAYS

• The fundamental property of these relays is that


they operate in a time that is inversely
proportional to the fault current . Inverse time
relays are generally classified in accordance with
their characteristic curve that indicate the speed
of operation.
• These are defined as :
– Inverse-time relays
– Very inverse-time relays
– Extremely inverse-time relays
• Inverse-time relays are also referred as
inverse definite minimum time or IDMT
overcurrent relays
INVERSE DEFINITE MINIMUM
TIME(IDMT) OVERCURRENT
RELAY
• The operating characteristics of the inverse-
time relays are plotted on log-log paper
• The current is expressed in multiples of plug
setting
• Typical limits of accuracy set by IEC 255-4 for
IDMT overcurrent relay
At 2 times setting = 2.5 x declared error
At 5 times setting = 1.5 x declared error
At 10 times setting = 1 x declared error
At 20 times setting = 1 x declared error
•The relays have a facility of TMS

• A family of typical time-current


characteristics for different values of TMS
are shown below
VERY INVERSE OVERCURRENT
RELAY
• The very inverse overcurrent relay is particularly
suitable if there is a substantial reduction in fault
current as the distance from the power source
increases.

I=current (multiple of plug setting )

13.5
t 
I 1
EXTREMELY INVERSE
OVERCURRENT RELAY

80
t 2
I 1
• It is suitable for the protection of
distribution feeder circuits in which feeder
is subjected to peak currents on switching
in
PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT
GRADING

• Among the various possible methods used


to achieve correct relay coordination are
those using either time or over-current or a
Combination of both time and over-current.
• The common aim of all three methods is to
give correct discrimination.That is to say, each
one must select and isolate only the faulty
section of the power system network, leaving
the rest of the system undisturbed.
RELAY CO-ORDINATION
PROCEDURE
• Correct current relay application requires a
knowledge of the fault current that can flow
in each part of the network.
THE DATA REQUIRED FOR THE
RELAY
SETTING STUDY ARE
• A one-line diagram of the power system
involved, showing the type and rating of
the protective devices and their associated
current transforms
• The impedance in ohms, percent or per unit,
of all power transforms, rotating machines and
feeder circuits
• The maximum and minimum values of short
circuit currents that are expected to flow
through each protective device
• The starting current requirements of motors
and the starting and stalling times of
induction motors
• The maximum peak load current through
protective devices
• Decrement curves showing the rate of
decay of fault current supplied by the
generators
• Performance curves of the current
transformers.
• The relay settings are first determined so
as to give the shortest operating times at
maximum fault levels and then checked to
see if operation will also be satisfactory at
the minimum fault current expected
BASIC RULES FOR RELAY COORDINATION

1. Make sure that the relay farthest from the


source has current settings equal to less
than the relays behind it, that is, that the
primary current required to operate the relay
in front is always equal to or less than the
primary current required to operate the relay
behind it.
• Whenever possible use relays with the same
operating characteristic in series with each
other.
GRADING MARGIN

The time interval between the operation of two


adjacent relays depends upon a number of
factors:
1.The fault current interrupting time of the
circuit breaker
2.The overshoot time of the relay.
3.Errors.
4.Final margin on completion of operation.
Typical factors for standard
Inverse relays
Electromagnetic Static relays
relay

Relay type CDG MCGG


Typical basic timing 7.5 5.0
error(%)
Overshoot time(s) 0.05 0.03
Safety margin(s) 0.10 0.05
A suitable minimum grading time
interval, t , may be calculated as
follows:

2E E

t[ R C
T
]
t
t
CBt
ot
S
1
00
Where

ER = Relay timing error to IEC 255-4 or BS142(%)

ECT = Allowance for CT ratio error(%)

tCB = Circuit breaker interrupting time(s)

to= Relay overshoot time(s)


tS = Safety margin(s)
When the overcurrent relays have independent
definite time characteristics, it is not necessary
to include the allowance for CT error

So

2
E

t R
[ ]t
tC
t t
B o S
1
00
SETTING THE PARAMETERS OF
TIME DELAY OVERCURRENT
RELAY
Pick-up setting

• The pick-up setting, or plug setting, is


used to define the pick-up current of the
relay, and fault currents seen by the relay
are expressed as multiples of plug setting.
• Plug setting multiplier (PSM) is defined as
the ratio of the fault current in secondary
Amps to the relay plug setting.
• For phase relays the pick-up setting is
determined by allowing a margin for
overload above the nominal current, as in
the following expression
Pick-up setting = (OLF x Inom) / CTR
Where,
OLF = Overload factor that depends on the
element being protected.
Inom = Nominal circuit current rating
CTR = CT Ratio
•For earth fault relays , the pick-up setting is
determined taking into account of the maximum
unbalance that would exist in the system under
normal operating condition.

Pick-up setting = (maximum unbalance x Inom)


/CTR
TIME DIAL SETTING

•The time-dial setting adjusts the time –delay


before the relay operates whenever the fault
current reaches a value equal to, or greater
than the relay setting.
•The time-dial setting is also referred to as time
multiplier setting (TMS)
• The TMS of the inverse-time overcurrent
relays are selected following a systematic
relay coordination procedure.
• The TMS of the relay furthest away from the
source is set at lowest permissible value
DISCRIMINATION BY TIME

In this method an appropriate time interval is


given by each of the relays controlling the
CBs in a power system to ensure that the
breaker nearest the fault opens first.

A simple radial distribution system is


considered to illustrate this principle
DISCRIMINATION BY TIME

A radial distribution system with time-


discrimination
• Each protection unit comprises of a definite
time delay overcurrent relay in which the
operation of the current sensitive element
simply initiates the time delay element

• The setting of the current element is below


the fault current value
• This relay is sometimes described as an
“independent definite time delay relay”
since the operating time is for all practical
purposes independent of the level of
overcurrent.

• It is the time-delay element which provides


the means of DISCRIMINATION
DISADVANTAGE OF
DISCRIMINATION BY TIME

• The main disadvantage of this method of


discrimination is that the longest fault
clearance time occurs for faults in the
section closest to the power source, where
the fault level is highest.
DISCRIMINATION BY CURRENT

• Discrimination by current relies on the fact


that the fault current varies with the
position of the fault , because of the
difference in impedance values between
the source and the fault .
• The relays controlling CBs are set to
operate at suitably tapered values such
that only the relay nearest the fault trips its
circuit breaker.
ILLUSTRATION FOR
DISCRIMINATION BY CURRENT
There are two important practical points
which affect the method of coordination.

• It is not practical to distinguish between


a fault at F1 and a fault at F2, since the
difference in fault current at F1 and F2 is
insignificant.
• In practice, there would be variations in
the source fault level.
• Inverse time overcurrent relay
characteristic is evolved to overcome the
limitations imposed by the independent use
of either time or overcurrent coordination.
DISCRIMINATION BY BOTH
TIME AND CURRENT
• Discrimination by time alone has the
disadvantage due to the fact that more
severe faults are cleared in the longest
operating time.
• Discrimination by current can only be
applied where there is appreciable
impedance between the two CBs
concerned.
• Inverse time overcurrent relay characteristic
is evolved to overcome the limitations
imposed by the independent use of either
time or overcurrent coordination.
1. A further advantage can be gained on long
transmission lines or transformer feeders,
where the source impedance is small in
comparison with the protected circuit
impedance, by adding a high set
instantaneous over-current element to the
inverse time over-current element.
2. This makes possible a reduction in the
tripping time at the high fault levels

3. Improves overall system grading by allowing


the discriminating curves behind the high set
instantaneous elements to be lowered.
DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT
RELAYS

1. When fault current can flow in both


direction through the relay location, it is
necessary to make the response of the
relay directional by introduction of
directional control elements.
2. These are basically power measuring devices
in which the system voltage is used as a
reference for establishing the relative phase
of the fault current.
Although power measuring devices in principle,
they are not arranged to respond to the actual
system power for a number of reasons
1. The power system apart from loads, is
reactive, so that the fault power factor is
usually low. A relay responding to the purely
active component would not develop a high
torque and might be much slower and less
decisive then it could be.
2. The effect of the large unbalance in currents
and voltages during fault is to make the
torques developed by the different phase
elements vary widely and even differ in sign
if the quantities applied to the relays are not
chosen carefully.