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EE-480

Wireless Communications

Week 9

Dr. Sajjad Shami


EED SST
UMT Lahore
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House Rules
Please place your mobiles on silent

Please note that Lecturers cannot focus


and concentrate on the topic if there is
noise and disruption during the lecture

Anyone who disrupts the lecture will be marked


absent or asked to leave and will be awarded
minus five mark in the next quiz.
INDISCIPLINE OF ANY KIND WILL RECEIVE
A MINUS FIVE MARK PENALTY.
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Cellular Wireless Networks
Ref: Stallings Ch 5
Mid Term
 Tuesday 23rd Nov
 1:20 pm

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Cellular Technologies
• There are a number of different digital cellular
technologies, including:
• Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM),
• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS),
• Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA),
• Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO),
• Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE),
• 3GSM,
• Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications
(DECT),
• Digital AMPS (IS-136/TDMA), and
• Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN).
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GSM
 is the most popular standard for mobile telephony
systems in the world.
 The GSM Association, its promoting industry trade
organization of mobile phone carriers and
manufacturers, estimates that 80% of the global
mobile market uses the standard.
 GSM is used by over 1.5 billion people across more
than 212 countries and territories.
 This ubiquity means that subscribers can use their
phones throughout the world, enabled by
international roaming arrangements between mobile
network operators.
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GSM …
 GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in
that both signaling and speech channels are digital,
and thus GSM is considered a second generation
(2G) mobile phone system.
 This also facilitates the wide-spread
implementation of data communication
applications into the system.

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GPRS
 General packet radio service is a packet
oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G
cellular communication systems GSM.
 The service is available to users in over 200
countries worldwide.
 GPRS was originally standardized by European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in
response to the earlier CDPD [Cellular Digital
Packet Data] and i-mode packet switched cellular
technologies.
 It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP).
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GPRS …
 It is a best-effort service,
 as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain
quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the
connection.
 In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of
 56-114 kbit/second.
 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is
sometimes described as 2.5G,
 that is, a technology between the second (2G) and
third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.

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QoS in Telephony
 In the field of telephony, quality of service was
defined in the ITU standard X.902 as
 "A set of quality requirements on the
collective behavior of one or more objects".
 Quality of service comprises requirements on all
the aspects of a connection, such as
 service response time, loss, signal-to-noise
ratio, cross-talk, echo, interrupts, frequency
response, loudness levels, and so on.

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QoS in Packet Comms
 In computer networking and other packet-switched
telecommunication networks, the traffic engineering
term quality of service (QoS) refers to
 resource reservation control mechanisms
 rather than the achieved service quality.
 Quality of service is the ability to provide different
priority to different applications, users, or data flows,
or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a
data flow.
 For example, a required bit rate, delay, jitter, packet
dropping probability and/or bit error rate may be
guaranteed.
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QoS…
 A best-effort network or service does not support
quality of service.
 An alternative to complex QoS control mechanisms
 is to provide high quality communication over a
best-effort network
 by over-provisioning the capacity so that it is
sufficient for the expected peak traffic load.
 The resulting absence of network congestion
eliminates the need for QoS mechanisms.

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GPRS…
 It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using
unused time division multiple access (TDMA)
channels in, for example, the GSM system.
 GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and
newer releases.
 GPRS usage charging is based on volume of data,
either as part of a bundle or on a pay as you use
basis.
 An example of a bundle is up to 5 GB per month
for a fixed fee

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CDMA
 Code division multiple access is a channel access
method used by various radio comm technologies.
 It should not be confused with the mobile phone
standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which
are often referred to as simply CDMA), which use
CDMA as an underlying channel access method.
 One of the basic concepts in data communication is
the idea of allowing several transmitters to send
information simultaneously over a single
communication channel.
 This allows several users to share a band of
frequencies. This concept is called multiplexing.
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CDMA ..
 CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and
 a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is
assigned a code)
 to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the
same physical channel.
 By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA)
divides access by time, while frequency-division
multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency.
 CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling, since
the modulated coded signal has a much higher data
bandwidth than the data being communicated.

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CDMA …
 An analogy to the problem of multiple access
 is a room (channel) in which people wish to talk to
each other simultaneously.
 To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking
(time division), speak at different pitches (frequency
division), or speak in different languages (code
division).

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CDMA …
 CDMA is analogous to the last example where
people speaking the same language can
understand each other,
 but other languages are perceived as noise and
rejected.
 Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users
is given a shared code.
 Many codes occupy the same channel, but only
users associated with a particular code can
communicate.

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EV-DO
 Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data
only (EV-DO, EV, etc.)
 is a 3G telecommunications standard for the
wireless transmission of data through radio signals,
typically for broadband Internet access.
 It uses multiplexing techniques including code
division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time
division multiple access (TDMA) to maximize both
individual users' throughput and the overall system
throughput.

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EV-DO ..
 It is standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership
Project 2 (3GPP2) as part of the CDMA2000
family of standards
 and has been adopted by many mobile phone
service providers around the world –
 particularly those previously employing CDMA
networks.
 It is also used on the Globalstar satellite phone
network.

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EDGE
 Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
(EDGE)
 (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or
IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced
Data rates for Global Evolution)
 is a digital mobile phone technology that allows
improved data transmission rates as a backward-
compatible extension of GSM.
 EDGE is considered a 3G radio technology and is
part of ITU's 3G definition.

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EDGE …
 EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in
2003 — initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the US.
 EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM
family.
 Through the introduction of sophisticated methods
of coding and transmitting data,
 EDGE delivers higher bit-rates per radio channel,
resulting in a threefold increase in capacity and
performance compared with an ordinary GSM/GPRS
connection.
 EDGE can be used for any packet switched
application, such as an Internet connection.
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DECT
 Digital Enhanced Cordless
Telecommunications,
 is a digital communication standard, which is
primarily used for creating cordless phone systems.
 It originated in Europe, where it is the universal
standard,
 replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as
900 MHz CT1 and CT2

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DECT …
 DECT is used primarily in home and small office
systems, but is also available in many PBX systems for
medium and large businesses.
 DECT can also be used for purposes other than
cordless phones.
 Voice applications, such as baby monitors, are
becoming common.
 Data applications also exist, but have been eclipsed
by Wi-Fi.
 3G cellular also competes with both DECT and Wi-
Fi for both voice and data.
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D-AMPS
 IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G)
mobile phone systems,
 known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS).
 It was once prevalent throughout the Americas,
particularly in the United States and Canada.
 D-AMPS is considered end-of-life, and existing
networks have mostly been replaced by GSM/GPRS
or CDMA2000 technologies.
 This system is most often referred to as TDMA.

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i-DEN
 Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN)
is a mobile telecommunications technology,
 developed by Motorola, which provides its users the
benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone.
 iDEN places more users in a given spectral space,
compared to analog cellular and two-way radio
systems,
 by using speech compression and time division
multiple access (TDMA).

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