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Chapter 16

Adaptive Filters
Learning Objectives
 Introduction to adaptive filtering.
 LMS update algorithm.
 Implementation of an adaptive filter
using the LMS algorithm.

Chapter 16, Slide 2 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
Introduction
 Adaptive filters differ from other filters
such as FIR and IIR in the sense that:
 The coefficients are not determined by a
set of desired specifications.
 The coefficients are not fixed.
 With adaptive filters the specifications
are not known and change with time.
 Applications include: process control,
medical instrumentation, speech
processing, echo and noise calculation
and channel equalisation.

Chapter 16, Slide 3 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
Introduction
 To construct an adaptive filter the
following selections have to be made:
 Which method to use to update the
coefficients of the selected filter.
 Whether to use an FIR or IIR filter.

y[n] (output signal)


Digital
x[n] (input signal)
Filter

-
+ d[n] (desired signal)
+

Adaptive e[n] (error signal)


Algorithm

Chapter 16, Slide 4 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
Introduction
 The real challenge for designing an
adaptive filter resides with the adaptive
algorithm.
 The algorithm needs to have the
following properties:
 Practical to implement.
 Adapt the coefficients quickly.
 Provide the desired performance.

Chapter 16, Slide 5 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
The LMS Update Algorithm
 The basic premise of the LMS algorithm is the
use of the instantaneous estimates of the
gradient in the steepest descent algorithm:
 = step size parameter
hn k   hn 1 k    n ,k . n,k = gradient vector that makes H(n)
approach the optimal value Hopt

 It has been shown that (Widrow and


Stearns, 1985):
 n,k  en xn  k . e(n) is the error signal,
where: e(n) = d(n) - y(n)

 Finally:
hn k   hn1 k   enxn  k .

Chapter 16, Slide 6 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
LMS algorithm Implementation
Initialisation 1
h[n] = 0

Initialisation 2
y=0

Acquisition
read the input samples: x[n],
d[n]

Computation 1
N 1
y  
i0
h[i] x[i]

Computation 2
e=d-x
 e   e

Computation 3
h n k  h n  1 k    e x n  k 

Update
x(i) = x(i-1)

Output y

Chapter 16, Slide 7 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
LMS algorithm Implementation

temp = MCBSP0_DRR; // Read new sample x(n)

X[0] = (short) temp;


D = X[0]; // Set desired equal to x(n) for this
// application
Y=0;

for(i=0;i<N;i++)
Y = Y + ((_mpy(h[i],X[i])) << 1) ; // Do the FIR filter

E = D -(short) (Y>>16); // Calculate the error


BETA_E =(short)((_mpy(beta,E)) >>15); // Multiply error by step size parameter

for(i=N-1;i>=0;i--)
{
h[i] = h[i] +((_mpy(BETA_E,X[i])) >> 15); // Update filter coefficients
X[i]=X[i-1];
}

MCBSP0_DXR = (temp &0xffff0000) | (((short)(Y>>16))&0x0000ffff); // Write output

Chapter 16, Slide 8 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
Adaptive Filter Code
 Code location:
 \Code\Chapter 16 - Adaptive Filter\
 Projects:
 Fixed Point in C: \Lms_C_Fixed\
 Floating Point in C: \Lms_C_Float\
 Fixed Point in Linear Asm: \Lms_Asm_Fixed\
 Further reading:
 Widrow and Stearns, 1985...

Chapter 16, Slide 9 Dr. Naim Dahnoun, Bristol University, (c) Texas Instruments 2002
Chapter 16
Adaptive Filters
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