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 A deep foundation can be described as one where ;

There are mainly two types of deep foundations namely;
 Deep piers
 Pile foundation

 Pile foundations can be categorized according to ;

• Load transfer mechanism
• Material used
• Construction method
Why Pile

 The soil near the surface has insufficient bearing capacity to support the
structural loads
 Excessive settlement beyond tolerable limits
 Differential settlement due to soil variability or non-uniform structural loads
is excessive
 The structural loads consist of lateral loads, moments, and uplift forces,
singly or in combination.
 Excavations to construct a shallow foundation on a firm soil layer are difficult
or expensive
Load Transfer Mechanism

 consider a pile of length L as shown. As the load Q on the ground surface is

gradually increased, part of it will be resisted by the side friction developed
along the shaft.(Qs) and part by the soil below the tip of the pile.(Qp).
 The maximum frictional resistance along the pile shaft will be fully mobilized
when the relative displacement between the soil and the pile is about 5-
10mm irrespective of the pile size. However maximum Qp will not be
mobilized until the tip of the pile has moved about 10-25% of the pile width
or diameter.
 (diagram)
Load transfer mechanism

 Qu=Qs + Qp from the above diagram.

 NOTE: Pile foundations fail mostly in a punching mode. The active zone is
developed at the pile tip*
 (Diagram)
Determining point bearing capacity Qp

 According to Terzaghi’s equation for ultimate bearing capacity for shallow

foundation (equation) .
 Similarly for pile foundations, the above equation holds but the values of
Nc,Nq and N(gamma) change. Taking the width of the foundation as D.
 (equation)
 However for piles, the width is relatively small and therefore the last term in
the above equation maybe neglected.
 (equation without the last term)
 Qp=Ap x qp where Ap=Area of the pile tip
Other studies were conducted by other scientists for example
Meyerhof(1976),Janbu (1976),Vesic (1977), Coyle and Castello (1981)
Meyerhof’s method of estimating Qp

The point bearing resistance of the pile increases with the length of embedment to a
point when Lb/D= (Lb/D)cri beyond this, qp remains constant.
In a homogeneous soil, the length of embedment, Lb is equal to the length of the pile
L. If the pile has penetrated into a bearing stratum, then Lb<L.
(Figure 11.12)
Since in sand c’=0 , *Terzaghi’s equation becomes ;
Qp=Ap x qp=Ap x q’ x N*q
However Qp should not exceed the limiting value Ap x ql whereby;
ql= 0.5 x pa x N*q x tanФ’ where pa= atmospheric pressure, Ф is the effective soil
fiction angle of the bearing stratum.
Meyerhof’s method of estimating Qp

 Undrained conditions (Фu=0)
 Qp= Ap x qp = Ap x N*c x Cu

 Drained conditions
 Qp= Ap x qp = Ap((N*c x C’) + (N*q x q’))
 (Insert figure showing the bearing capacity factors Nc and Nq)
Coyle and Castello’s Method for
Estimating Qp
 From their field load test of driven piles in sand and basing on the results they
suggested that
 Qp = q’N*qAp where q’ is the effective vertical stress at the vertical tip, N*q
is the bearing capacity factor
 N*q varies the embedment ratio L/D and the effective fiction angle Ф as
shown (fig 11.15,braja)
Frictional Resistance Qs in Sand

 The factors put in mind while estimating unit frictional resistance f;

 The nature of the pile installation. The soil around the pile is densified
around a given pile by vibration.
 The unit friction resistance increases linearly to a certain depth L’ and
remains constant afterwards. So L’is estimated to be 15D.
Fricitional Resistance Qs in Sand

 The following approximate relations is given for f using the above figure;
 For Z= 0 to L’

 For Z= L’ to L

 Where K = effective earth pressure coefficient

 σ0’= effective vertical stress at depth under consideration
 δ’= soil-pile friction angle
 In reality, the magnitude of K varies with depth; it is approximately equal to
the Rankine passive earth pressure coefficient, Kp, at the top of the pile and
may be less than at-rest pressure coefficient K0, at a greater depth.
 The following average values of K are recommended for use

 The values of δ’ ranges from 0.5Ф’ to 0.8Ф’.

 Also Mansur and Hunter (1970) had the following values of K.
 Coyle and Castello proposed that

 Where

 Giving
Frictional Resistance in Clay

 Since many variables are difficult to quantify , estimating frictional or skin resistance of piles
in clay is as difficult as in Sand.
 Several methods of obtaining unit frictional resistance have been drawn up;

 α Method
 Unit skin resistance in clayey soils can be represented by the equation

 Where α = empirical adhesion factor.

 Α varies since it’s a function of vertical effective stress and the undrained cohesion.

 β
 Sladen (1992) has shown that

 Where

 The Ultimate side resistance can be given as

 Variation of α based on Terzaghi, Peck and Mesri, (1996)
β Method

 When piles are driven into saturated clays, the pore water pressure increases
which in normally consolidated clays maybe 4-6 times Cu . Pressure dissipates
within a month or so hence the unit frictional resistance for the pile can be
determined on basis of the effective stress parameters of clay in remolded
stae ( c’ = 0). At any depth,

 Where
 Conservatively the magnitude of K is the earth pressure coefficient at rest,

 Where OCR = over consolidation ratio.

 Combining the equations yields
 For normally consolidated clays

 For over consolidated clays

 Therefore the total frictional resistance may be evaluated as